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THE     THREE     LAST     BOOKS    OF     VULGAR     ERRORS, 



7X)ND0?r : 



-;^  Ijp  ^  SANTA  BARliAKA 


I  988      CONTENTS  OF  VOL.  II. 


The  Fifth  Book  )  the  particular  part  continued.     Of  many  tilings  questionabU  a$ 
they  are  commonly  described  in  pictures.     Of  many  popular  customs,  Sfc. 

Chap.  1 .    Of  the  picture  of  the  pelican Pagt     1 

Chap.  2.    Of  the  picture  of  dolphins      ..         ..         ..         ..         ..         ,.         .,       4 

Chap.  3.    Of  the  picture  of  a  (grasshopper       6 

Chap.  4.    Of  the  picture  of  the  serpent  tempting  Eve         ..         ..         ..         ..       9 

Chap.  5.    Of  the  picture  of  Atlani  and  Eve  with  navels       ..         ..         ..         ..14 

Chap.  6.    Of  the  pictures  of  the  Jews   and   Eastern  nations,   at  their  feasts, 

especially  our  Saviour  at  the  Passover    ..         ..         ..         ..         ..17 

Chap.  7.    Of  the  picture  of  our  Saniour  with  long  hair      . .         . .         . .         . .     26 

Chap.  8.    Of  the  picture  of  Abraham  sacrificmg- Isaac        ..         .,         ..         ..28 

Chap.  9.    Of  the  picture  of  Moses  with  horns  ..         ..         ..         ..         ..29 

Chap.  10.  Of  the  scutcheons  of  the  twelve  tribes  of  Israel  32 

Chap.  11.  Of  the  pictures  of  the  sibyls 38 

Chap.  12.  Of  the  picture  describing  the  death  of  Cleopatra  39 

Chap.  13.  Of  the  pictures  of  the  nhie  worthies  ..         ..         ..         ..         ..42 

Chap.  14.  Of  the  picture  of  Jephthah  sacrificing  his  daughter      ..         ..         ..47 

Chap.  15.  Of  the  picture  of  John  the  Baptist  in  a  camel's  skin     ..         ..         ..50 

Chap.  16.  Of  the  picture  of  St.  Christopher     ..         ..         ..         ..         ..         ..52 

Chap.  17.  Of  the  picture  of  St.  George  ..         ..         ..         ..         ..         ..54 

Chap.  18.  Of  the  picture  of  St.  Jerome  ..         ..         ..         ..         ..         .,56 

Chap.  19.  Of  the  pictures  of  mermaids,  unicorns,  and  some  others        ..         ..     59 

Chap.  20.  Of  the  hieroglyphical  pictures  of  the  Egyptians  65 

Chap.  21.  Of  the  picture  of  Haman  hanged 69 

Chap.  22.  Of  the  picture  of  God  the  Father;  of  the  sun,  moon,  and  winds, 

with  others      . .         . .         . .  . .         . .         . .         . .         . .  . .      72 

Chap.  23.  Compendiously  of  many  popular  customs,  opinions,  &c.  :  viz.  of  an 
hare  crossing  the  high-way  ;  of  the  ominous  appearing  of  owls  and 
ravens  ;  of  the  fsilling  of  salt ;  of  breaking  the  egg-shell ;  of  the 
true  lovers'  knot ;  of  the  cheek  bumuig  or  ear  tingling ;  of  speaking 
under  the  rose ;  of  smoke  follovnjig  the  fair ;  of  sitting  cross- 
legged  ;  of  hair  upon  moles  ;  of  the  set  time  of  paring  of  nails ;  oi 
lions'  heads  upon  spouts  and  cisterns;  of  the  saying,  ungirt, 
unblest ;  of  the  sun  dancing  on  Easter-day ;  of  the  siUy-how  ;  of 
being  drunk  once  a  month ;  of  the  appearing  of  the  devil  with  a 

cloven  hoof. . .         . .         . .         . .         . .         •  •     79 

Chap.  24.  Of  popular  customs,  opinions,  &c.;  of  the  prediction  of  the  year  en- 
suing from  the  insects  in  oak  apples  ;  that  children  would  naturally 
speak  Hebrew ;  of  refraining  to  kill  swallows  ;  of  lights  burning  dim 
at  the  apparition  of  spirits  ;  of  the  wearing  of  coral ;  of  Moses'  rod 
in  the  discovery  of  mines ;  of  discovering  doubtful  matters  by  book 
or  staff 91 

The  Sixth  Book  ;  the  particular  part  continued.     Of  popular  and  received  tenets, 
cosmographical,  geographical,  and  historical. 

Chap.  1.    Concerning  the  beginning  of  the  world,  that  the  time  thereof  is  not 

precisely  known,  as  commonly  it  is  presumed  . .         . .         . .    103 

Chap.  2.  Of  men's  enquiries  in  what  season  or  point  of  the  Zodiack  it  began, 
that,  as  they  are  generally  made,  they  are  in  vain,  and  as 
particularly,  uncertaui         ..         ..         ..         ..         ..         ..         ..    II9 

Chap.  3.  Of  the  divisions  of  the  seasons  and  four  quarters  of  the  jear, 
according  unto  astronomers  and  physicians ;  that  the  conrnon 
compute  of  the  ancients,  and  which  is  stiU  retained  by  some,  is  r ery 
qncstionable 123 


Chap.  i.    Of  some  computation  of  days,  and  deductions  of  one  part  of  tlie  year 

unto  another   . .         . .        . .         . .         . .        . .         . .         . .   Page  1 27 

Chap.  5.    A  digression  of  the  wisdom  of  God  in  the  site  and  motion  of  the  sun  130 
Chap.  6.    Conceimng  the  vulgar  opinion,  that  the  earth  was  slenderly  peopled 

before  the  flood  . .         . .         . .         . ,         . .         . .         . .         . .    138 

Chap.  7.    Of  east  and  west  ..         ..         ..         ..         ..         ..         .,         ..    153 

Chap.  8.    Of  the  river  Nilus         163 

Chap.  9-    Of  the  Red  Sea 176 

Chap.  10.  Of  the  blackness  of  negroes  ..         ..         ..    180 

Chap.  11.  Of  the  same       192 

Chap.  12.  A  digression  concerning  blackness  197 

Chap.  13.  Of  gypsies  204 

Chap.  14.  Of  some  others  207 

The  Seventh   Book  ;  the  partimdnr  part   concluded.     Of  popular  and    received 

tenets,  chiefly  historical  and  some  deduced  from  the  Holy  Scriptures, 
Chap.  1.    That  the  forbidden  fruit  was  an  apple       ..         ..         ..         ..         ..    210 

Chap.  2.    That  a  man  hath  one  rib  less  than  a  woman       ..         ..         ..         ..   214 

Chap.  3.    Of  Methuselah 216 

Chap.  4.    That  there  was  no  rainbow  before  the  flood        219 

Chap.  5.    Of  Shem,  Ham,  and  Japheth  222 

Chap.  6.    Th&t  the  tower  of  Babel  was  erected  against  a  second  deluge         . .  225 
Chap.  7.    Of  the  mandrakes  of  Leah    ..         ..         ..         ..         ..         ..         ..    227 

Chap.  8.    Of  the  tlu-ee  kings  of  CoUein  232 

Chap.  9.    Of  the  food  of  John  Baptist,  locusts  and  wild  honey  . .         . .   234 

Chap.  10.  Tliat  Jolm  the  Evangelist  should  not  die  . .   23.5 

Chap.  1 1 .  Of  some  others  more  briefly  . .         ..         ..         ..         ..         ..         ..241 

Chap.  12.  Of  the  cessation  of  oracles ..   243 

Chap.  n.  Of  the  death  of  Aristotle 246 

Chap.  14.  Of  the  wish  of  Philoxenus  to  have  the  neck  of  a  crane        ..         . .    252 

Chap.  15.  Of  thelake  Asphaltites  255 

Chap.  16.  Of  divers  other  relations:  viz.  of  the  woman  that  conceived  in  a 
bath ;  of  Crassus  that  never  laughed  but  once ;  that  oiu:  Saviour 
never  laughed ;  of  Sergius  the  Second,  or  Bocca  di  Porco ;  that 
Tamerlane  was  a  Scythian  shepherd  . .         ....         . .         . .   259 

Chap.  17.  Of  some  others :  viz.  of  the  poverty  of  Belisarius  ;  of  fluctus  decu- 
manus,  or  the  tenth  wave;  of  Parisatis  that  poisoned  Statira  by 
one  side  of  a  knife ;  of  the  woman  fed  with  poison,  that  should 
have  poisoned  Alexander ;  of  the  wandering  Jew ;  of  pope  Joan  ; 
of  friar  Bacon's  brazen  head  that  spoke  ;  of  Epicurus        . .         . .   267 

Chap.  18.  More  briefly  of  some  others  :  viz.  that  the  army  of   Xerxes  drank 
whole  rivers  dry ;  that  Hannibal  eat  throvigh  the  Alps  viith  vinegar ; 
of  Archimedes  his  burning  the   ships  of  MarceUus  ;  of  the  Fabii 
that  were  all  slain ;    of  the  death  of  ^scliylus ;  of  the  cities  of 
Tarsus  and  Anchiale  built  in  one  day ;  of  the  great  ship  Syracusia 
or  Alexandria ;  of  the  Spartan  boys       ..         ..         ..         .,         ..   276 

Chap,  19.  Of  some  relations  whose  truth  we  fear 284 


Editor's  pi  eface       293 

The  annotator  to  the  leader        ..         308 

Correspondence  between  Dr.  Browne  and  Sir  Kenelm  Digby .311 

To  the  reader  ..         ..         ., ..         ..   315 

Obser\ations  on  Religio  Medici  . .         ..         ,         ..   453 


Editor's  preface 491 

The  epistle  dedicatory       ..         493 

The  stationer  to  the  reader 5(34 






Of  the  Picture  of  the  Pelicom. 

And  first,  in  every  place  we  meet  with  the  picture  of  the 
pelican,  opening  her  breast  ^ith  her  bill,  and  feeding  her 
young  ones  with  the  blood  distilled  from  her.  Thus  is  it  set 
forth  not  only  in  common  signs,  but  in  the  crest  and 
scutcheon  of  many  noble  families ;  hath  been  asserted  by 
many  holy  writers,  and  was  an  hieroglyphick  of  piety  and 
pity  among  the  Egyptians ;  on  which  consideration  they 
spared  them  at  their  tables. ^ 

'  And  first,  <tc.]  These  singular  birds  are  said  to  fish  in  companies  ; 
they  form  a  circle  on  the  water,  and  having  by  the  flapping  of  their  huge 
wings,  driven  the  terrified  fish  towards  the  centre,  they  suddenly  dive 
all  at  once  as  by  consent,  and  soon  fill  their  immense  pouches  with 
their  prey.  In  order  subsequently  to  disgorge  the  contents,  in  feeding 
their  young,  they  have  only  to  press  the  pouch  on  their  breast.  This 
operation  may  very  probably  have  given  rise  to  the  fable,  that  the 
pelican  opens  her  breast  to  nourish  her  young. 

As  to  its  hieroglyphical  import,  Horapollo  says  that  it  was  used 
among  the  Egyptians  as  an  emblem  of  folly ;  on  account  of  the  little 
care  it  takes  to  deposit  its  eggs  in  a  safe  place.  He  relates  that  it  buries 
them  in  a  hole  ;  that  the  natives,  observing  the  place,  cover  it  with  dry 
cow's  dung,  to  which  they  sot  fire.  The  old  birds  immediately  endea- 
vouring to  extinguish  the  fire  with  their  wings,  get  them  burnt,  and  so 
are  easily  caught. —  Hovaf.  Hierogl.  cura  Pauw,  ito.  Traj.  ad  Rh.  1727, 
pp.  67,  68. 

VOL.  II.  B 

2  OP   THE   PICTUEE   OF   THE   PELICAN.         [BOOK  V 

Notwithstanding,  upon  enquiry  we  find  no  mention  hereof 
in  ancient  zoographers,  and  such  as  have  particularly  dis- 
coursed upon  animals,  as  Aristotle,  -lEHan,  PMny,  Solinus, 
and  many  more ;  who  seldom  forget  proprieties  of  such  a 
nature,  and  have  been  very  punctual  in  less  considerable 
records.  Some  ground  hereof  I  confess  we  may  allow,  nor 
need  we  deny  a  remarkable  affection  in  pehcans  toward  their 
young  ;  for  ^lian,  discoursing  of  storks,  and  their  affection 
toward  their  brood,  whom  they  instruct  to  fly,  and  unto 
whom  they  redeliver  up  the  provision  of  their  beUies,  con- 
cludeth  at  last,  that  herons  and  pelicans  do  the  like. 

As  for  the  testimonies  of  ancient  fathers,  and  ecclesiastical 
wi'iters,  we  may  more  safely  conceive  therein  some  emble- 
matical, than  any  real  story :  so  doth  Eucherius  confess  it 
to  be  the  emblem  of  Christ.  And  we  are  unwilling  literally 
to  receive  that  account  of  Jerom,  that  perceiving  her  young 
ones  destroyed  by  serpents,  she  openeth  her  side  with  her 
bill,  by  the  blood  whereof  they  revive  and  return  unto  life 
again.  By  which  relation  they  might  indeed  illustrate  the 
destruction  of  man  by  the  old  serpent,  and  his  restorement 
by  the  blood  of  Christ :  and  in  this  sense  we  shall  not  dis- 
pute the  like  relations  of  Austin,  Isidore,  Albertus,  and 
many  more  ;  and  under  an  emblematical  intention,  we  accept 
it  in  coat-armour. 

As  for  the  hieroglyphick  of  the  Egyptians,  they  erected 
the  same  upon  another  consideration,  which  was  parental 
aftection  ;  manifested  in  the  protection  of  her  young  ones, 
when  her  nest  was  set  on  fixe.  For  as  for  letting  out  her 
blood,  it  was  not  the  assertion  of  the  Egyptians,  but  seems 
translated  unto  the  pelican  from  the  vulture,  as  Pierius  hath 
plainly  delivered.  Sed  qiibd  pelicanum  {iit  etiam  aliis  ple- 
7nsque  2^ersuasiim  est)  rostro  pectus  dissecantem  pingunt,  ita 
ut  suo  sanguine  filios  alat,  ah  jSSgyptiorum  historia  valde 
alienuvi  est,  illi  enim  vulturem  tantlim  id  facere  tradiderunt. 

And  lastly,  as  concerning  the  picture,  if  natm-ally  examined, 
and  not  hieroglyphically  conceived,  it  eontaineth  many  im- 
proprieties, disagreeing  almost  in  all  things  from  the  true 
aud  proper  description.  For,  whereas  it  is  commonly  set 
forth  green  or  yellow,  in  its  proper  colo\ir  it  is  inclining  to 
white,  excepting  the  extremities  or  tops  of  the  wing  feathers, 
irhich  are  brown.     It  is  described  in  the  bigness  of  a  hen, 

CHAP.  I.]  OF   THE    PICTUEE    OF   THE    PELICAN.  8 

whereas  it  approacheth  and  sometimes  exeeedeth  the  magni- 
tude of  a  swan.2  It  is  commonly  painted  with  a  short  bill ; 
whereas  that  of  tlie  pelican^  attaineth  sometimes  the  length 
of  two  spans.  The  bill  is  made  acute  or  pointed  at  the 
end,  whereas  it  is  flat  and  broad,'*  though  somewhat  inverted 
at  the  extreme.  It  is  described  like  Jtssipedes,  or  birds 
which  have  their  feet  or  claws  divided :  whereas  it  is  palmi- 
pedous,  or  fin-footed,  like  swans  and  geese,  according  to  the 
method  of  nature  in  latirostrous  or  flat-billed  birds,  which 
being  generally  swimmers,  the  organ  is  wisely  contrived  unto 
the  action,  and  they  are  framed  with  fins  or  oars  upon  their 
feet,  and  therefore  they  neither  light,  nor  build  on  trees,  if 
we  except  cormorants,  who  make  their  nests  like  herons. 
Lastly,  there  is  one  part  omitted  more  remarkable  than  any 
other ;  that  is,  the  chowle  or  crop  adhering  unto  the  lower 
side  of  the  bill,  and  so  descending  by  the  throat ;  a  bag  or 
sachel  very  observable,  and  of  a  capacity  almost  beyond 
credit ;  which,  notwithstanding,  this  animal  could  not  want ; 
for  therein  it  receiveth  oysters,  cockles,  scollops,  and  other 
testaceous  animals,  which  being  not  able  to  break,  it  retains 
them  imtil  they  open,  and  vomiting  them  up,  takes  out  the 
meat  contained.  This  is  that  part  preserved  for  a  rarity, 
and  wherein  (as  Sanctius  delivers)  in  one  dissected,  a  negro 
child  was  found. 

A  possibility  there  may  be  of  opening  and  bleeding  their 
breast,  for  this  may  be  done  by  the  uncous  and  pointed 
extremity  of  their  bill ;  and  some  probability  also  that  they 
sometimes  do  it  for  their  own  relief,  though  not  for  their 

*  whereas  it  approachetJi,  tfcc]  This  bird,  says  Buffon,  would  be  the 
largest  of  watei'-birds,  were  not  the  body  of  the  albatross  more  thick, 
and  the  legs  of  the  flamingo  so  much  longer.  It  is  sometimes  six  feet 
long  from  point  of  bill  to  end  of  tail,  and  twelve  feet  from  wing-tip  to 

^  that  of  the  pelican.']  This  description  of  the  authors  agrees  {per 
omnia)  with  that  live  pelhcan,  which  was  to  bee  seen  in  King-street, 
Westminster,  1647,  from  whence  (doubtles)  the  author  maketh  this  re- 
lation i$  iivroipiif. —  Wr. 

*  flat  and  lyroad.']  From  hence  itt  is  that  many  ancients  call  this  bird 
the  shoveller :  and  the  Greeks  derive  TreXeKdv  from  ntXtK^v,  to  wound 
as  with  an  axe,  which  suites  with  the  shape  of  his  beake  in  length  and 
breadthe  like  a  rooting  axe,  per  omnia. —  Wr. 

But  the  term  shoveller  is  now  applied  to  a  species  of  duck  ;  Anas 


4  OF    THE    PICTURE    OF    DOLPHTKS.  [bOOK  V. 

young  ones  ;  that  is,  by  nibbling  and  biting  themselves  on 
the  itching  part  of  their  breast,  upon  fulness  or  acrimony 
of  blood.  And  the  same  may  be  better  made  out,  if  (as 
some  relate)  their  feathers  on  that  part  are  sometimes 
observed  to  be  red  and  tinctured  with  blood.^ 


Of  the.  Picture  of  Dolphins. 

That  dolphins  are  crooked,  is  not  only  affirmed  by  the 
hand  of  the  painter,  but  commonly  conceived  their  natural 
and  proper  figure,  which  is  not  only  the  opinion  of  our  times, 
but  seems  the  belief  of  elder  times  before  us.  For,  beside 
the  expressions  of  Ovid  and  Pliny,  the  portraits  in  some 
ancient  coins  are  framed  in  this  figure,  as  will  appear  in 
some  thereof  in  Gesner,  others  in  Groltsius,  and  Lsevinus 
Hulsius  in  his  description  of  coins  from  Julius  Csesar  unto 
Rodolphus  the  second. 

Notwithstanding,  to  speak  strictly,  in  their  natural  figure 
they  are  straight,  nor  have  their  spine  convexed,  or  more 
considerably  embowed,  than  sharks,  porpoises,^  whales,  and 

^  A  possibility,  etc.]     This  paragraph  was  first  added  in  6th  edition. 

^  por2Mises.'\  Reade  porkpisces.  The  porkpisce  (that  is  the  dolphin 
hatli  his  name  from  the  hog  hee  resembles  in  convexity  and  curvitye  of 
his  backe,  from  the  head  to  the  tayle  :  nor  is  hee  otherwise  cnrbe,  then 
as  a  hog  is  :  except  that  before  a  stomie,  hee  tumbles  just  as  a  hog  runs. 
That  which  I  once  saw,  cutt  up  in  Fish-street,  was  of  this  forme  and 
above  five  foote  longe  :  his  skin  not  skaly,  but  smoothe  and  black,  like 
bacon  in  the  chimney ;  and  his  bowels  in  all  points  like  a  hog :  and  yf 
instead  of  his  four  fins  you  imagine  four  feete,  hee  would  represent  a 
black  hcg  (as  it  were)  sweal'd  aUve. —  Wr. 

This  creature,  so  graphically  described  by  the  dean,  is  probably  the 
common  dolphin, — Delphinus  Delphis  ;  but  the  porpoise  is  a  difierent 
animal,  Delphis  pihoccena,  now  constituted  a  distinct  genus.  Ray,  how- 
ever, says  that  the  porpoise  is  the  dolphin  of  the  ancients.  The  follow- 
ing passage  from  his  PhilosopMcal  Letters,  p.  46,  corroborates  the  dean's 
proposed  etymology.  It  occurs  in  a  letter  to  Dr.  Martin  Lister, 
May  7,  1669.  "  Totum  corpus  copiosa  etdensa  pinguedine  (piscatores 
blubber  vocant),  duorum  plus  minus  digitorum  crassitie  undique  intege- 
batur,  immediate  sub  cute,  et  supra  carnem  musculosam  sita,  ut  in 
porcis ;  ob  quam  rationem,  et  quod  porcorum  grunnitum  quadantimus 
imitetur,  porpcsse, — i.  e.  porcum  piscem,  dictum  eum  existimo.'* 


other  cetaceous  animals,  as  Scaliger  plainly  affirmeth  ;  Cor- 
pus  hahet  non  magls  curvum  quam  reliqui  pisces.  As  ocular 
enquiry  informeth ;  and  as,  unto  such  as  liave  not  had  the 
opportunity  to  behold  them,  their  proper  portraits  will  dis- 
cover iu  llondeletius,  Gresner,  and  •  Aldrovandus.  And  as 
indeed  is  deducible  from  pictures  themselves ;  for  though 
they  be  drawn  repandous,  or  convexedly  crooked  in  one  piece, 
yet  the  dolphin  that  carrieth  Arion''  is  concavously  inverted, 
and  hath  its  spine  depressed  in  another.  And  answerably 
hereunto  may  we  behold  them  differently  bowed  in  medals, 
and  the  dolpliins  of  Tarus  and  Fidius  do  make  another 
flexure  from  that  of  Commodus  and  Agrippa.^ 

And  therefore  what  is  delivered  of  their  incurvity,  must 
either  be  taken  emphatically,  that  is,  not  really,  but  in 
appearance ;  which  happeneth  when  they  leap  above  water 
and  suddenly  shoot  down  again :  which  is  a  fallacy  in  vision, 
wliereby  straight  bodies  in  a  sudden  motion  protruded 
obliquely  downward  appear  to  the  eye  crooked ;  and  this  is 
the  construction  of  Bellonius :  or,  if  it  be  taken  really,  it 
must  not  universally  and  perpetually  ;  that  is,  not  when  they 
swim  and  remain  in  their  proper  figures,  but  only  when  they 
.eap,  or  impetuously  whirl  their  bodies  any  way  ;  and  this  is 
the  opinion  of  Gesnerus.  Or  lastly,  it  may  be  taken  neither 
really  nor  emphatically,  but  only  emblematically  ;  for  being 
the  hieroglyphick  of  celerity,^  and  svdfter  than  other  animals, 

'  yet  the  dolphin  that  carrieth  Arion.]  "  The  Persian  authors  of  high 
antiquity  say,  that  the  delfin  will  take  on  his  back  persons  in  danger  of 
being  drowned,  from  whence  comes  the  fable  of  Arion.  The  word  is 
derived  from  n'^n  stillare,  Jluere,  delf;  because  tlie  dolphin  was  con- 
sidered as  the  king  of  the  sea,  and  Neptune  a  monarch  represented 
under  the  image  of  this  fish.  Dolphins  were  the  symbols  of  maritime 
towns  and  cities.  See  Spanheim,  4to.  141,  ed.  1671." — Dr.  S.  Weston's 
Specimen  of  the  Conformity  of  the  European  with  the  Oriental  Languages, 
d:c.  8vo.  1803,  pp.  75,  76.     See  also  Alciati  Emhlem.  xc. 

®  Andanstverably,  <i;c.]     First  added  in  3rd  edition. 

^  the  hiero'jlyphick  of  celerity.']  Sylvanus  Morgan  in  his  Sphere  of 
Gentry  (fol.  1661),  p.  69,  says  that  the  dolphin  is  the  hieroglyphick  of 
society  !   "  there  being  no  fish  else  that  loves  the  company  of  men." 

"  Some  authors,  more  especially  the  ancients,  have  asserted  that 
dolphins  have  a  lively  and  natural  affection  towards  the  human  species, 
with  which  they  are  easily  led  to  familiarize.  They  have  recounted 
many  marvellous  stories  on  this  subject.  AU  that  is  known  with  cer- 
tainty is,  that  when  they  perceive  a  ship  at  sea,  they  rush  in  a  crowd 


men  best  expressed  their  veloc7'!y  by  iucurvity,  and  under 
some  figure  of  a  bow  ;  and  in  this  sense  probably  do  heralds 
also  receive  it,  when,  from  a  dolphin  extended,  they  dis- 
tinguish a  dolphin  embowed. 

And  thus  also  must  that  picture  be  taken  of  a  dolphin 
clasping  an  anchor;^  that  is,  not  really,  as  is  by  most  con- 
ceived out  of  aftection  unto  man,  conveying  the  anchor  unto 
the  ground  ;  but  emblematically,  according  as  Pierius  hath 
expressed  it,  the  swiftest  animal  conjoined  with  that  heavy 
body,  implying  that  common  moral,  festina  lente  :  and  that 
celerity  should  always  be  contempered  with  cimctation. 


Of  the  Picture  of  a  Grasshopper. 

Theee  is  also  among  us  a  common  description  and  picture 
of  a  grasshopper,  as  may  be  observed  in  the  pictures  of 
emblematists,  in  the  coats  of  several  families,  and  as  the 
word  cicada  is  usually  translated  in  dictionaries.  Wherein 
to  speak  strictly,  if  by  this  word  grasshopper,  we  imderstand 
that  animal  which  is  implied  by  tettiI,  with  the  Greeks,  and 
by  cicada  with  the  Latins,  we  may  with  safety  affirm  the 
picture  is  widely  mistaken,  and  that  for  aught  enquiry  can 
inform,  there  is  no  such  insect  in  England.^     Which  how 

before  it,  surround  it,  and  express  their  confidence  by  rapid,  varied,  and 
repeated  evolutions,  sometimes  bounding,  leaping,  and  manoeuvering  in 
all  manner  of  ways  ;  sometimes  performing  complicated  circumvolutions, 
and  exhibiting  a  degree  of  grace,  agility,  dexterity,  and  strength,  •which 
is  perfectly  astonishing.  Perhaps  however  they  foUow  the  track  of 
vessels  with  no  other  view  than  the  hopes  of  preying  on  something  that 
may  fall  from  them." — Cuvier,  by  Griffith. 

'  a  dolphin  clasping  an  anchor.]  The  device  of  the  family  of  Manutins, 
celebrated  as  learned  prJrters  at  Venice  and  Rome.  See  Alciati  Emr 
hlem.  cxliv. 

^  no  such  insect  in  England.']  It  is  perfectly  true  that,  till  recently, 
no  species  of  the  true  Linnasan  Cicadae  {Tdtigonia,  Fab.)  had  been  dis- 
covered in  Great  Britain.  About  twenty  years  since,  I  had  the  plea- 
sure of  adding  this  classical  and  most  interesting  genus  to  the  British 
Fauna.  Having,  about  that  time,  engaged  Mr.  Daniel  Bydder  (a 
weaver  in  Spitalfields,  and  a  very  enthusiastic  entomologist)  to  collect 
for  me  in  the  New  Forest,  Hampshire,  I  received  from  him  thence 

CUAP.  III.]        OF    THE    PICTUUE    OF    A    GEASSHOPPER.  7 

paradoxical  soever,  upon  a  strict  enquiry,  will  prove  unde- 
niable truth. 

For  first,  that  animal  which  the  French  term  sauterelle, 
we  a  grasshopper,  and  which  under  this  name  is  commonly 
described  by  us,  is  named  "A/cpic  by  the  Greeks,  by  the  Latins 
locusta,  and  by  ourselves  in  proper  speech  a  locust ;  as  in 
the  diet  of  John  Baptist,  and  in  our  translation,  "  the  locusts 
have  no  king,  yet  go  they  forth  all  of  them  by  bands."* 
Again,  between  the  cicada  and  that  we  call  a  grasshopper 
the  differences  are  very  many,  as  may  be  observed  in  them- 
selves, or  their  descriptions  in  Matthiolus,  Aldrovaudus, 
and  Muffetus.  For  first,  they  are  differently  cucuUated  or 
eapuched  upon  the  head  and  back,  and  in  the  cicadae  the 
eyes  are  more  prominent :  the  locusts  have  antennae  or  long 
horns  before,  with  a  long  falcation  or  forcipated  tail  behind  : 
and  being  ordained  for  saltation,  their  hinder  legs  do  iar 
exceed  the  other.  The  locust  or  our  grasshopper  hath  teeth, 
the  cicada  none  at  all ;  nor  any  mouth,  according  unto 
Aristotle.^     The  cicada  is  most  upon  trees ;  and  lastly,  the 

*  Proverbs  xxx. 

many  valuable  insects  from  time  to  time,  and  at  length,  to  my  surprise 
and  great  satisfaction,  a  pair  of  cicada  '  Mr.  John  Curtis  (since 
deservedly  well  known  as  the  author  of  Brithh  Entomology)  was  then 
residing  with  me  as  draughtsman  ;  and  no  doubt  our  united  examina- 
tions were  diligently  bestowed  to  find  the  little  stranger  among  the 
described  species  of  the  continent ;  but  in  vain.  I  quite  forget  whether 
we  bestowed  a  MS.  name  ;  probably  not ;  as  scarcely  hoping  that  the 
first  species  discovered  to  be  indigenous,  would  also  prove  to  be  pecu- 
liar to  our  country,  and  be  distinguished  by  the  national  appellation  of 
Cicada  anglica.  Yet  so  it  has  proved:  Mr.' Samouelle,  I  beUeve,  first 
gave  it  that  name  ;  and  Mr.  Curtis  has  given  an  exquisite  figure,  and 
full  description  of  it,  in  the  9th  vol.  of  his  Britusli  Entomology,  No.  392. 
I  cannot  however  speak  in  so  high  terms  of  his  account  of  its  original 
discovery.  I  cannot  understand  why  he  has  thus  drily  noticed  it  : 
"  C.  Anglica  was  first  discovered  in  the  New  Forest  about  twenty  years 
ago."  1  should  have  supposed  that  it  might  have  given  him  some  plea- 
sure to  attach  to  his  narrative  the  name  of  an  old  friend,  from  whom  he 
had  received  early  and  valuable  assistance,  and  to  whom  he  was  indebted 
for  his  acquaintance  with  the  art  he  has  so  long  and  so  successfully  pur- 
sued. At  all  events  he  ought  to  have  recorded  the  name  of  the  poor 
man  by  whose  industry  and  perseverance  the  discovery  was  effected. 

^  The  locust,  cfcc]  Both  the  locustce  and  cicada  are  furnished  with 
teeth — if  by  that  term  we  are  to  understand  mandibulce  and  maxillce. 
But  in  cicadcB  they  are  not  so  obvious  ;  being  enclosed  in  the  labium. 
This  conformation  probably  led  Aristotle  to  say  they  had  no  mouth. 

8  OF    THE    PICTUEE    OF    A    GEASSHOPPEE.        [bOOK  V. 

frittinnitiis,  or  proper  note  thereof,  is  far  more  shrill  than 
that  of  the  locust,  and  its  life  so  short  in  summer,  that  for 
provision  it  needs  not  have  recourse  imto  the  providence  of 
the  pismire  in  winter. 

And  therefor 3  where  the  cicada  must  be  understood,  the 
pictures  of  heralds  and  emblematists  are  not  exact,  nor  is  it 
safe  to  adhere  imto  the  interpretation  of  dictionaries,  and 
we  must  with  candour  make  out  oiir  own  translations  ;  for 
in  the  plague  of  Egypt,  Exodus  x.,  the  word  " Ak^lq  is  trans- 
lated a  locust,  but  in  the  same  sense  and  subject.  Wisdom 
xvi.,  it  is  translated  a  grasshopper  ;  "  for  them  the  bitings  of 
grasshoppers  and  flies  kdled;"  whereas  we  have  declared 
before  the  cicada  hath  no  teeth,  but  is  conceived  to  Uve  upon 
dew ;  and  the  possibility  of  its  subsistence  is  disputed  by 
Licetus.  Hereof  I  perceive  Muffetus  hath  taken  notice, 
dissenting  from  Langius  and  Lycosthenes,  whUe  they 
deliver  the  cicadce  destroyed  the  fruits  in  Germany,  where 
that  insect  is  not  found,  and  therefore  concludeth,  Tarn  ipsos 
quam  alios  deceptos  fuisse  autumo,  dum  locustas  cicadas  esse 
vulgari  errore  crederent. 

And  hereby  there  may  be  some  mistake  in  the  due  dispen- 
sation of  medicines  desumed  from  this  animal,  particularly  of 
diatettigon,  commended  by  ^Etius,  in  the  affections  of  the 
kidneys.  It  must  be  likewise  understood  with  some  restric- 
tion what  hath  been  affirmed  by  Isidore,  and  yet  delivered 
by  many,  that  cicades  are  bred  out  of  cuckoo-spittle  or  wood- 
sear,  that  is,  that  spumous  frothy  dew  or  exudation,  or  both, 
found  upon  plants,  especially  about  the  jouits  of  lavender 
and  rosemary,  observable  with  us  about  the  latter  end  of 
May.  Eor  here  the  true  cicada  is  not  bred  ;  but  certain  it 
is,  that  out  of  this,  some  kind  of  locust  doth  proceed,  for 
herein  may  be  discovered  a  little  insect  of  a  festucine  or  pale 
green,  resembling  ia  aU  parts  a  locust,  or  what  we  call  a 

■*  cicades  are  hred,  <fcc.]  Here  is  another  error.  The  froth  spoken 
of  is  always  found  to  contain  the  larva  of  a  little  skipping  insect,  fre- 
quently mis-called  a  cicada,  but  properly  cercopis ;  allied  in  form  to 
cicada,  and  of  the  same  order,  viz.,  homoptera,  but  very  distinct  in 
generic  character,  and  especially  without  the  power  of  sound.  It  baa 
uo  great  resemblan'  .-e  to  locintce,  which  belong  to  a  distinct  order,  viz., 

CHAP,  n   ]  THE    SEIU'KNT    TEMPTING    EVE.  9 

Lastly,  the  word  itself  is  improper,  and  the  term  grass- 
hopper not  appliable  unto  the  cicada ;  for  therein  the  organs 
of  motion  are  not  contrived  for  saltation,  nor  have  the  hinder 
legs  of  such  extension,  as  is  observable  in  salient  animals, 
and  such  as  move  by  leaping.  AVhereto  the  locust  is  very 
well  conformed,  for  therein  the  legs  behind  are  longer  than 
all  the  body,  and  make  at  the  second  joint  acute  angles,  at 
a  considerable  advancement  above  their  backs. 

The  mistake  therefore  with  us  might  have  its  original 
from  a  defect  in  our  language,  for  having  not  the  insect  Anth 
us,  we  have  not  fallen  upon  its  proper  name,  and  so  make 
use  of  a  term  common  unto  it  and  the  locust ;  whereas  other 
countries  have  proper  expressions  for  it.  So  the  Italian 
calls  it  cicada,  the  Spaniard  cigarra,  and  the  French  cigale  ; 
all  which  appellations  conform  unto  the  original,  and  properly 
express  this  animal.  Whereas  our  word  is  borrowed  from 
the  Saxon  gaersthoop,  which  our  forefathers,  who  never 
beheld  the  cicada,  used  for  that  insect  which  we  yet  call  a 


Of  the  Picture  of  tlie  Serpent  tempting  Eve. 

In  the  picture  of  paradise,  and  delusion  of  our  first  parents, 
the  serpent  is  often  described  with  human  visage,^  not  unlike 
unto  Cadmus  or  his  wife  in  the  act  of  their  metamorphosis. 
Which  is  not  a  mere  pictorial  contrivance  or  invention  of  the 
picturer,  but  an  ancient  tradition  and  conceived  reality,  as 
it  stands  delivered  by  Beda  and  authors  of  some  antiquity,'' 

*  Whereas  our  word,  <tc.]  This  sentence  was  first  added  in  6th 
edition . 

®  visage."]  See  Munster's  Hebrew  Bible,  where  in  the  letter  which 
begins  the  first  ^  the  serpent  is  made  with  a  "Virgin's  face. —  Wr. 

In  Munster's  Hebrew  and  Latin  Bible  (Basil,  1535,  ex  Off.  Bebeliana), 
at  the  commencement  of  the  Psalms,  is  the  initial  letter  B,  which  is  a 
wood-cut  of  Adam,  Eve,  and  the  sei-pent  between  them,  with  the  face 
of  a  virgin. 

^  antiquity.']  See  vol.  i.  p.  57,  where  he  quotes  Basil  saytng,  that 
the  serpent  went  upright  and  spake.  'Tis  probable  (and  thwarteth  noe 
truth)  that  the  sei-pent  spake  to  Eve.  Does  not  the  text  expressly  saye 
soe  ?  The  devil  had  as  mucli  power  then  as  now,  and  yf  now  he  can 
take  upon  him  the  forme  of  an  angel  of  light,  why  not  then  the  face  of  a 
humane  creature  as  well  as  the  voice  of  man  ? —  Wr. 


that  is,  tliat  Satan  appeared  not  unto  Eve  in  the  naked  form 
of  a  serpent,  but  with  a  virgin's  head,  that  thereby  he  might 
become  more  acceptable,  and  his  temptation  find  the  easier 
entertainment.  AVhich  nevertheless  is  a  conceit  not  to  be 
admitted,  and  the  plain  and  received  figure  is  with  better 
reason  embraced. 

For  first,  as  Pierius  observeth  from  Barcephas,  the  assump- 
tion of  human  shape  had  proved  a  disadvantage  unto  Satan, 
afibrding  not  only  a  suspicious  amazement  in  Eve,^  before 
the  fact,  in  beholding  a  third  humanity  beside  herself  and 
Adam,  but  leaving  some  excuse  unto  the  woman,  which  after- 
ward the  man  took  up  with  lesser  reason,  that  is,  to  have 
been  deceived  by  another  like  herself. 

Again,  there  is  no  inconvenience  in  the  shape  assumed,  or 
any  considerable  impediment  that  it  might  disturb  that  per- 
formance in  the  common  form  of  a  serpent.  For  whereas  it 
is  conceived  the  woman  must  needs  be  afraid  thereof,  and 
rather  fly  than  approach  it,  it  was  not  agreeable  unto  the 
condition  of  paradise  and  state  of  innocency  therein ;  if  in 
that  place,  as  most  determine,  no  creature  was  hurtful  or 
terrible  unto  man,  and  those  destructive  effects  they  now  dis- 
cover succeeded  the  curse,  and  came  in  with  thorns  and 
briars  ;  and  therefore  Eugubinus  (who  aflfirmeth  this  serpent 
was  a  basilisk)  incurreth  no  absurdity,  nor  need  we  infer 
that  Eve  should  be  destroyed  immediately  upon  that  vision. 
For  noxious  animals  could  offend  them  no  more  in  the 
garden  than  Noah  in  the  ark ;  as  they  peaceably  received 
their  names,  so  they  friendly  possessed  their  natures,  and 
were  their  conditions  destructive  unto  each  other,  they  were 
not  so  unto  man,  whose  constitutions  then  were  antidotes, 
and  needed  not  fear  poisons ;  and  if  (as  most  conceive)  there 

^  Eve.^  Eve  might  easier  entertaine  a  suspiuious  amazement  to  heare 
a  serpent  speake  in  a  humane  voyce,  than  to  heare  a  humane  voyce  in  a 
humane  shape  ;  nor  was  itt  more  wonder  for  Sathan  to  assume  one  than 
both.  It  8uited  better  with  his  crafte  to  deliver  his  wile  by  a  face  suit- 
able to  the  voice  of  man,  and  since  we  believe  the  one,  we  may  without 
error  beUeve  the  other.  But  itt  is  safest  to  believe  what  we  findo 
recorded  of  the  human  voj'ce,  and  leave  the  other  to  Him  who  thought 
not  fit  to  reveale  any  more.  Wee  see  the  fathers  differ  in  opinion, 
and  there  is  enough  on  either  side  to  refute  the  scorne  of  Julian,  who 
payd  deare  inoughe  for  his  atheistical,  or  rather  anti-theisticall  bias- 
phemye. —  Wr. 


were  but  two  created  of  every  kind,  they  could  not  at  that 
time  destroy  either  man  or  themselves,  for  this  had  frustrated 
the  command  of  multiplication,  destroyed  a  species,  and 
imperfected  the  creation ;  and  therefore  also  if  Cain  were 
the  first  man  born,  with  him  entered,  not  only  the  act,  but 
the  first  power  of  murder,  for  before  that  time  neither  could 
the  serpent  nor  Adam  destroy  Eve,  nor  Adam  and  Eve  each 
other,  for  that  had  overthrown  the  intention  of  the  world, 
and  put  its  creator  to  act  the  sixth  day  over  again. 

Moreover,  whereas  in  regard  of  speech,  and  vocal  con- 
ference with  Eve,  it  may  be  thought  he  would  rather  assume 
an  human  shape  and  organs,  than  the  improper  form  of  a 
serpent,  it  implies  no  material  impediment.  Not  need  we 
to  wonder  how  he  contrived  a  voice  out  of  the  mouth  of 
a  serpent,  who  hath  done  the  like  out  of  the  belly  of  a 
Pythonissa,  and  the  trunk  of  an  oak,  as  he  did  for  many 
years  at  Dodona. 

Lastly,  whereas  it  might  be  conceived^  that  an  human 

^  conceired.]  Itt  might  wel  bee  conceived  (and  soe  it  seemes  itt  was) 
oy  St.  Basil,  that  a  virgin's  head  (hee  does  not  saye  a  humane  shape) 
was  fittest  for  this  intention  of  speakinge,  itt  being  most  probable  Eve 
would  be  more  amazed  to  heure  such  a  creature  as  a  serpent  speake  with 
a  humane  voyce,  then  to  heare  a  human  voyce  passe  through  the  mouth 
of  a  virgin  face.  To  hear  a  voice  without  a  head  must  needs  (as  the 
Bubtile  serpent  knew  full  well)  have  started  in  Eve  either  the  suppo- 
sition of  a  causeles  miracle,  or  the  suspition  of  an  imposture  ;  there- 
fore to  cut  off  those  scruples,  which  might  have  prevented  and  frustrated 
his  ayme,  'tis  most  probable  the  subtile  tempter  assumed  the  face  as  well 
as  the  voice  of  a  virgin  to  conveigh  that  temptation  which  he  supposed 
Eve  would  greedily  entertain. 

Julius  Scaliger,  that  magazin  of  all  various  learninge,  in  his  183rd 
exercitation  and  4th  section,  speaking  of  certaine  strange  kinds  of  ser- 
pents, reports  that  in  Malabar,  there  are  serpents  8  foote  long,  of  a 
horrible  aspect,  but  harmless  unless  they  bee  provoked.  These  he  cals 
boy-lovers  (psederotas)  for  that  they  will  for  manye  houres  together  stand 
bolt  upright  gazing  on  the  boyes  at  their  sportes,  never  offring  to  hurte 
any  of  them. 

These,  saithe  he,  while  they  glide  on  the  ground  are  like  other  ser- 
pents or  eeles  (like  conger  eeles),  but  raising  themselves  upright  they 
spread  themselves  into  such  a  corpulent  breadthe,  that  had  they  feet 
they  would  seeme  to  be  men,  and  therefore  he  cals  them  by  a  coigned 
name,  tyxiKavBpdnrovQ,  eele-like  men,  though  hee  might  more  properly 
call  them  o(piavdpwiTovQ,  dragon-like  men.  Now  though  we  can  yeeld 
noe  greater  beleefe  to  this  story  then  the  Portuguez  that  traffique 
thither  deserve,  yet  bycause  the  world  owes  many  excellent  discoveryea 


shape  was  fitter  for  this  enterprise,  it  being  more  than  pro- 
bable she  ■would  be  amazed  to  hear  a  serpent  speak ;  some 

of  hidden  truths  to  his  indefatigable  diligence  and  learned  labors,  sel- 
dome  t.axed  for  fabulous  assertions,  why  may  we  not  think  that  itt  was 
this  kinde  of  serpent,  whose  shape  Satan  assumed  when  he  spake  to 
Eve.*  For  since  Moses  telsus  that  God  permitted  the  serpent  to  deceive 
our  grandmother  by  faigning  the  voyce  of  man,  wee  may  reasonably 
acquit  St.  Basil  of  error,  or  offring  violence  to  trueth,  that  hee  tooke 
it  as  granted  by  a  paritye  of  like  reason,  that  the  serpent  would  rather 
assume  such  a  face  and  appearance  of  humane  forijie  as  might  sute  with 
a  humane  voyce,  at  least  would  frame  a  humane  visage  as  well  as  a 
human  tounge,  which  is  but  a  parte  in  the  head  of  man,  for  which  the 
head  (rather  then  for  any  other  sense)  seemes  to  have  been  made  by 
God,  that  the  spirits  of  men  (which  till  they  discover  themselves  by 
language  cannot  bee  understood)  might  by  the  benefit  of  this  admirable 
instrument,  have  mutual  commerce  and  intelligence,  and  conveighe 
their  inwarde  conceptions  each  to  other.  Surely  yf  every  such  a  strange 
serpent  as  this  which  Scaliger  describes  were  scene  in  the  world,  we  must 
perforce  grant  that  they  are  some  of  that  kinde  which  God  at  first  created 
8oe,  and  that  Satan  subtily  choose  to  enter  into  that  kinde  which  before 
the  curse  naturally  went  upright  (a.*  they  say  the  basiliske  now  does)  and 
could  soe  easily,  soe  nearly  represent  the  appearance  and  show  of  man 
not  only  in  gate  but  in  voyce  as  the  Scripture  speakes.  That  they  have 
no  feete  makes  soe  much  the  more  for  the  conjecture,  and  that  however 
itt  seemes  this  kinde  of  seri)ent  (which  Satan  used  as  an  instrument  of 
his  fraud)  did  originally  goe  upwright,  and  can  yet  frame  himselfe  into 
that  posture,  yet  by  God's  just  doome  is  now  forced  to  creep  on  hia 
belly  in  the  duste  ;  where  though  they  strike  at  our  heele,  they  are 
liable  to  have  their  heade  bruised  and  trampled  on  by  the  foote  of 
man. —  Wr. 

In  one  of  the  illustrations  to  Caedmon's  Paraphrase,  mentioned 
p.  14,  I  find  the  serpent  standing  "bolt  upright, "  receiving  his  sen- 
tence, and  another  figure  of  him  lying  on  the  ground,  do  indicate  big 
condemnation  to  subsequent  repiiUty.  Some  critics  have  complained 
of  the  painters  for  representing  him  without  feet  in  his  interview  with 
Eve,  whereas,  say  they,  his  creeping  on  his  belly  was  inflicted  on  him 
as  a  punishment.  Had  those  critics  been  acquainted  with  Professor 
Mayer's  assertion,  that  rudimental  feet  are  found  in  almost  all  the  ser- 
pent tribe,  tliey  would  doubtless  have  regarded  it  as  a  confirmation  of 
their  opinion,  and  would  have  contended  that  these  imperfect  and 
unserviceable  rudiments  of  feet  were  all  the  traces  left  to  them  of  those 
locomotive  powers  which  this,  as  well  as  other  vertebrated  animals,  had 
originally  enjoyed. 

Dr.  Adam  Clarke  gives  a  very  long  and  elaborate  article  on  the  temp- 
tation of  Eve.     His  opinion  is  that  the  tempter  was  an  ape  ;  he  builda 

*  See  what  I  noted  long  since  on  Gen.  iii.  14,  to  this  purpose  in  th« 
Geneva  Bible. 


conceive  she  might  not  yet  be  certain  that  only  man  was 
privileged  with  speecli,  and  being  in  the  novity  of"  the  crea- 
tion, and  inexpei-iencc  of  all  things,  might  not  be  affrighted 
to  hear  a  serpent  speak.  Besides,  she  might  be  ignorant  ol 
their  natures,  who  was  not  versed  in  their  names,  as  being 
not  present  at  the  general  survey  of  animals  when  Adam 
assigned  unto  every  one  a  name  concordant  unto  its  nature. 

his  hypothesis  on  the  fact  that  the  Hebrew  word  {nachash,  Gen.  iii.  1) 
is  nearly  the  same  with  an  Arabic  word,  signifying  an  ape  and  THE 
DEvnj !  He  thus  sums  up  :  "  In  thi.s  account  we  find,  1.  That  what- 
ever tliis  nachash  was,  he  stood  at  the  head  of  all  inferior  animals  for 
wisdom  and  understanding.  2.  That  he  walked  erect,  for  this  is  neces 
sarily  implied  in  his  punishment — mi  thy  belly  (i.  e.  on  all  fours)  shall 
tkou  go.  3.  That  he  was  endued  with  the  fjift  of  speech,  for  a  conversa- 
tion is  here  related  between  him  and  the  woman.  4.  That  he  was  also 
endueil  with  the  gift  of  reason,  for  we  find  him  reasoning  and  disputing 
with  Eve.  5.  That  these  things  were  common  to  this  creature,  the  woman 
no  doubt  having  often  seen  him  walk  erect,  talk,  and  reason,  and  there- 
fore she  testifies  no  kind  of  surprise  when  he  accosts  her  in  the  languao^e 
related  in  the  text."  Granting,  for  a  moment,  the  Doctor's  five  posi- 
tions, I  would  ask,  does  he  mean  that  the  ape  is  a  creature  which  now 
answers  the  description  ?  Most  certainly  it  does  not,  any  more  than  the 
serpent.  If  on  the  other  hand  he  means  that  the  creature,  through 
whom  Satan  tempted  Eve,  had  previously  possessed  those  advantages, 
but  lost  them  as  a  punishment  of  that  offence,  then  why  not  suppose  it 
to  have  been  a  serpent,  or  any  other  creature,  as  well  as  the  ape  ?  The 
theory  itself  stultifies  any  attempt  to  discover  the  tempter  aniono- 
creatures  noio  in  existence,  because  we  are  required  to  suppose  their 
nature  and  habits  to  have  totally  changed.  The  serpent  certainly  has 
one  claim,  which  the  ape  has  not,  namely,  that  its  present  mode  of  o-oincr 
is  (in  accordance  with  the  Scriptural  description)  on  its  belly ;  which, 
with  deference  to  the  learned  Doctor,  "going  on  all  fours  "  is  not,  unless 
he  can  justify  what  he  in  fact  says,  that  quadrupeds  and  reptiles  move 
alike  !  Moreover,  his  selection  is  specially  unfortunate  in  this  very 
respect,  that  of  all  animals  the  ape  now  approaches  most  nearly  to  the 
human  mode  of  walking,  and  exhibits  therefore  the  most  incomplete 
example  of  the  fulfilment  of  the  curse — "  on  thy  belly  shalt  thou  go." 

Hadrian  Beverland,  in  his  Peccatum  Originale,  12mo.  1676,  has  pub- 
lished his  strange  speculations  as  to  the  nature  of  the  temptation,  to 
which  our  mother  yielded.  But  after  all,  neither  as  one  point  nor 
another,  which  has  not  been  clearly  revealed,  shall  we  be  likely  either 
to  obtain  or  communicate  any  useful  information.  The  indulgence  of  a 
prurient  and  speculative  imagination  on  points  which,  not  having  been 
disclosed,  cannot  be  discovered,  and  the  knowledge  of  which  would 
serve  no  good  purpose,  were  far  better  restrained.  We  know,  alas, 
that  what  constituted  sin  originally,  has  ever  been  and  ever  will  be  its 
heinous  feature  in  the  sight  of  the  Great  Lawgiver — viz.,  disobedience 
to  his  known  and  understood  commands. 

14  OF  TUE    PICTURE    OF   ADAM   ANIJ   EVE.  [bOOK  V. 

Nor  is  this  only  my  opinion,  but  the  determination  of  Lom- 
bard and  Tostatus,  and  also  the  reply  of  Cyril  unto  the 
objection  of  Julian,  who  compared  this  story  unto  the  fablea 
of  the  Greeks. 


Of  the  Picture  of  Adam  and  Eve  with  Navels. 

Another  mistake  there  may  be  in  the  picture  of  our  first 
parents,  who  after  the  manner  of  their  posterity  are  both 
delineated  with  a  navel ;  and  this  is  observable  not  only  in 
ordinary  and  stained  pieces,  but  in  the  authentic  draughts 
of  Urbin,  Angelo,  and  others.^  Which  notwithstanding 
cannot  be  allowed,  except  we  impute  that  unto  the  first 
cause,  which  we  impose  not  on  the  second,  or  what  we  deny 
unto  Nature,  we  impute  unto  naturity  itself,  that  is,  that  in 
the  first  and  most  accomplished  piece,  the  Creator  aflected 
superfluities,  or  ordained  parts  without  use  or  office.^ 

'  and  others.]  It  is  observable  in  the  rude  figures  of  Adam  and  Eve, 
among  the  illuminations  ot  Caedmon's  Metrical  Paraphrase  of  Scripture 
History,  engraved  in  the  2-tth  vol.  of  the  Archceologia.  But  worse  mis- 
takes have  been  committed  in  depicting  "  our  first  parents."  In  the 
gallery  of  the  convent  of  Jesuits,  at  Lisbon,  there  is  a  fine  picture  of 
Adam  in  paradise,  dressed  (qu.  after  the  fall  ?)  in  blue  breeches  with 
silver  buckles,  and  Eve  with  a  striped  petticoat.  In  the  distance 
appears  a  procession  of  capuchins  bearing  the  cross. 

'■'  Which  noticithstanding,  tfcc]  It  seems  to  have  been  the  intention 
of  our  author,  in  this  somewhat  obscure  sentence,  to  object,  that,  in 
supposing  Adam  to  have  been  formed  with  a  navel,  we  suppose  a  super- 
fluity in  that  which  was  produced  by  nature  (naturity),  while  in  nature 
herself  we  alfirm  there  is  nothing  superfluous,  or  useless.  It  is,  how- 
ever, somewhat  hazardous  to  pronounce  that  useless  whose  office  may 
not  be  very  obvious  to  us.  Who  will  venture  to  point  out  the  office  of 
the  mammce  in  the  male  sex  ?  or  to  say  wherefore  some  of  the  serpent 
tribes  are  provided  with  the  rudiments  of  feet  which  can  scarcely,  if  at 
all,  be  of  any  use  to  them  ? — a  fact  which  has  been  asserted  recently  by 
a  German  naturalist  of  distinction,  Dr.  Mayer,  as  the  result  of  long  and 
very  extensive  anatomical  examination  of  the  principal  families  of  the 
serpents.  He  thereon  proposes  a  new  division  of  the  order, —  into  PHiE- 
NOPTERA,  those  snakes  whose  rudimental  feet  are  externally  visible,  and 
comprising  Boa,  Python,  Eryx,  Clothonia,  and  Tortrix  ;  Crtptopoda,  in 
which  the  bony  rudiments  are  entirely  concealed  beneath  the  skin,  con- 
taining Anyuis,  Typhlops,  and  Amphisbwna ;  and  Chondkopoda  and 

CHAP.  T.]         OF    TUE    PICTUIIE    OF   ADAM   AND   EVE.  15 

For  the  use  of  the  navel  is  to  continue  the  infant  unto  the 
mother,  and  by  the  vessels  thereof  to  convey  its  aliment  and 
sustentation.  The  vessels  whereof  it  consisteth,  are  the 
umbilical  vein,  which  is  a  branch  of  the  porta,  and  implanted 
in  the  liver  of  the  infant ;  two  arteries  likewise  arising  from 
the  iliacal  branches,  by  which  the  infant  receiveth  the  purer 
portion  of  blood  and  spirits  from  the  mother  ;  and  lastly,  the 
urachos  or  ligamental  passage  derived  from  the  bottom  of 
the  bkidder,  whereby  it  dischargeth  the  waterish  and  urinary 
part  of  its  aliment.  Now  upon  the  birth,  when  the  infant 
forsaketh  the  womb,  although  it  dilacerate,  and  break  the 
involvmg  membranes,  yet  do  these  vessels  hold,  and  by  the 
mediation  thereof  the  infant  is  connected  unto  the  womb, 
not  only  before,  but  awhile  also  after  the  birth.  These 
therefore  the  midwife  cutteth  olF,  contriving  them  into  a 
knot  close  unto  the  body  of  the  infant ;  from  whence  ensueth 
that  tortuosity  or  complicated  nodosity  we  usually  call  the 
navel ;  occasioned  by  the  colligation  of  vessels  before  men- 
tioned. Now  the  navel  being  a  part,  not  precedent,  but 
subsequent  unto  generation,  nativity,  or  parturition,  it  can- 
not be  well  imagined  at  the  creation  or  extraordinary  forma- 
tion of  Adam,  who  immediately  issued  from  the  artifice  of 
God ;  nor  also  that  of  Eve,  who  was  not  solemnly  begotten, 
but  suddenly  framed,  and  anomalously  proceeded  from  Adam. 

And  if  we  be  led  into  conclusions  that  Adam  had  also  this 

Apoda,  in  which  the  rudiments  are  scarcely,  or  not  at  all,  observable. — 
Nova  Acta  Acad.  Ccesar.  Naturce  Curiosorum,  torn.  xii.  p.  2. 

Respecting  the  singular  subject  of  discussion  in  this  chapter ;  it 
appears  to  me  that  not  only  Adam  and  Eve,  but  all  species,  both  of  the 
animal,  vegetable,  and  mineral  kingdoms,  were  created  at  once  in  their 
perfect  state,  and  therefore  all  exhibiting  such  remaining  traces  of  a  less 
perfect  state,  as  those  species,  in  their  maturity,  retain.  If  so,  Adam 
was  created  with  the  marks  of  an  earlier  stage  of  existence,  though  he 
had  never  passed  through  that  stage. 

Sir  Thomas's  opinion  is  cited  and  adopted  by  Dr.  John  Bulwer,  in 
his  most  curious  work,  entitled  Anthropoinetamoi'phosis :  Man  Tra'ns- 
formed :  or  the  Artificial  Changling,  Historically  Presented,  drc.  4to. 
1653,  p.  401.  In  the  same  work  (p.  4S2),  Dr.  B.  also  discusses  atsome 
length  Sir  Thomas's  chapter  on  pigmies  (c.  xi.  book  iv.).  —  See 
Mel.  Med.,  where  Adam  is  called  "  the  man  without  a  navel."  Ross 
deems  the  part  in  question  to  have  been  intended  by  the  Creator 
merely  for  ornament ;  in  support  of  which  opinion  he  cites  Canticles 
vii.  2 ! ! 

IG  or    THE    PICTURE    OF    ADAM    A>^D    EVE.  [bOOK  T. 

part,  because  we  behold  the  same  in  ourselves,  the  inference 
is  not  reasonable ;  for  if  we  conceive  the  way  of  his  forma- 
tion, or  of  the  first  animals,  did  carry  in  all  points  a  strict 
conformity  unto  succeeding  productions,  we  might  fall  into 
imaginations  that  Adam  was  made  without  teeth  ;  or  that  he 
ran  through  those  notable  alterations  in  the  vessels  of  tfhe 
heart,  which  the  infant  suffereth  after  birth :  we  need  not 
dispute  whether  the  egg  or  bird  were  first ;  and  might  con- 
ceive that  dogs  were  created  blind,  because  we  observe  they 
are  littered  so  with  us.  Which  to  affirm,  is  to  confound,  at 
least  to  regulate  creation  unto  generation,  the  first  acts  of 
God,  unto  the  second  of  nature ;  which  were  detei'mined  in 
that  general  indulgence,  increase  and  multiply,  produce  or 
propagate  each  other ;  that  is,  not  answerably  in  all  points, 
but  in  a  prolonged  method  according  to  seminal  progression. 
For  the  formation  of  things  at  first  was  different  from  their 
generation  after ;  and  although  it  had  nothing  to  precede  it, 
was  aptly  contrived  for  that  which  should  succeed  it.  And 
therefore  though  Adam  were  framed  without  this  part,  as 
having  no  other  womb  than  that  of  his  proper  principles,  yet 
was  not  his  posterity  without  the  same ;  for  the  seminality 
of  his  fabrick  contained  the  power  thereof ;  and  was  endued 
with  the  science  of  those  parts  whose  predestinations  upon 
succession  it  did  accomplish. 

All  the  navel,  therefore,  and  conjunctive  part  we  can  sup- 
pose in  Adam,  was  his  dependency  on  his  Maker,  and  the 
connexion  he  must  needs  have  unto  heaven,  who  was  the 
Son  of  God.  For,  holding  no  dependence  on  any  preceding 
efficient  but  God,  in  the  act  of  his  production  there  may 
be  conceived  some  connexion,  and  Adam  to  have  been  in  a 
momental  navel  with  his  Maker.^  And  although  from  his 
carnality  and  corporal  existence,  the  conjunction  seemeth  no 
nearer  than  of  causality  and  effect ;  yet  in  his  immortal  and 
di^dner  part  he  seemed  to  hold  a  nearer  coherence,  and  an 
umbilicality  even  with  God  himself.  And  so  indeed  although 
the  propriety  of  this  part  be  found  but  in  some  animals,  and 
many  species  there  are  which  have  no  navel  at  all;  yet  is  there 
one  link  and  common  connexion,  one  general  ligament,  and 

^  in  a  momental  navel  with  his  Maker.]  Momental ;  important. 
"  Substantially  'pr  in  an  important  sense),  in  a  state  of  connexion  with 
his  Maker." 

CHAP.  VI.]  OF   THE   JEWS   AT   THEIE   FEASTS.  17 

necessary  obligation  of  all  whatever  unto  Grod.  "WTiereby, 
although  they  act  themselves  at  distance,  and  seem  to  be 
at  loose,  yet  do  they  hold  a  continuity  with  their  Maker. 
Which  catenation  or  conserving  union,  whenever  his  pleasure 
shaU  divide,  let  go,  or  separate,  they  shall  fall  from  their 
existence,  essence,  and  operations ;  in  brief,  they  must  re- 
tire unto  their  primitive  nothing,  and  shrink  into  their 
chaos  again. 

They  who  hold  the  egg  was  before  the  bird,  prevent  this 
doubt  in  many  other  animals,  which  also  extendeth  imto 
them.  For  birds  are  nourished  by  umbilical  vessels,  and 
the  navel  is  manifest  sometimes  a  day  or  two  after  exclusion. 
The  same  is  probable  in  all  oviparous  exclusions,  if  the 
lesser  part  of  eggs  must  serve  for  the  formation,  the  greater 
part  for  nutriment.  The  same  is  made  out  in  the  eggs  of 
snakes ;  and  is  not  improbable  in  the  generation  of  por- 
wiggles  or  tadpoles,  and  may  be  also  true  in  some  vermi- 
parous  exclusions :  although  (as  we  have  observed  in  the 
daily  progress  in  some)  the  whole  maggot  is  little  enough 
to  make  a  fly,  without  any  part  remaining.'* 


Of  the  Pictures  of  the  Jews  and  Eastern  Nations,  at  their  Feasts,  especially 
our  Saviour  at  the  Passover. 

CoNCEBKiKQ-  the  pictures  of  the  Jews,  and  eastern  nations 
at  their  feasts,  concerning  the  gesture  of  our  Saviour  at  the 
passover,  who  is  usually  described  sitting  upon  a  stool  or 
bench  at  a  square  table,  in  the  midst  of  the  twelve,  many 
make  great  doubt ;  and  (though  they  concede  a  table  gesture) 
will  hardly  allow  this  usual  way  of  session.^ 

Wherein,  restraining  no  man's  enquiry,  it  will  appear  that 
accubation,  or  lying  down  at  meals,  was  a  gesture  used  by 
very  many  nations.     That  the  Persians  used  it,  beside  the 

"  They  who  hold,  tfcc]  This  paragraph  was  first  added  in  the  2nd 

*  session.]  See  Fenelon's  Letter  to  the  French  Academy,  §  8,  p. 
231.  Glasg.  1750. — Jeff.  I  give  this  reference,  though  I  liave  net  been 
able  to  avail  myself  of  it. 

VOL.  II.  C 


testimony  of  humane  writers,  is  deducible  from  that  passage 
in  Esther :  *  "  That  when  the  king  returned  into  the  place  of 
the  banquet  of  wiiie,  Haman  was  fallen  upon  the  bed  whereon 
Esther  was."  That  the  Parthians  used  it,  is  evident  from 
Athenaeus,  who  delivereth  out  of  Possidonius,  that  their  king 
lay  down  at  meals  on  an  higher  bed  than  others.^  That 
Cleopatra  thus  entertained  Anthony,  the  same  author  ma- 
uifesteth,  when  he  saith,  she  prepared  twelve  tricliniums. 
That  it  was  in  use  among  the  Greeks,  the  word  triclinium 
implieth,  and  the  same  is  also  declarable  from  many  places  in 
the  Si/mjjosiacks  of  Plutarch.  That  it  was  not  out  of  fashion 
in  the  days  of  Aristotle,  he  declareth  in  his  Politicks  ;  when 
among  the  institutionary  rules  of  youth,  he  adviseth  they 
might  not  be  permitted  to  hear  iambicks  and  tragedies 
before  they  were  admitted  unto  discumbency  or  lying  along 
with  others  at  their  meals.  That  the  Romans  used  this 
gesture  at  repast,  beside  many  more,  is  evident  from  Lipsius, 
Mercurialis,  Salmasius,  and  Ciaconius,  who  have  expressly 
and  distinctly  treated  hereof 

Now  of  their  accumbing  places,  the  one  was  called  stiba- 
dion  and  sigma,  carrying  the  figure  of  an  half-moon,  and  of 
an  uncertain  capacity,  whereupon  it  received  the  name  of 
liexaclinon,  octoclinon,  according  unto  that  of  Martial — 

Accipe  LunatS.  scriptum  testudine  sigma  : 
Octo  capit,  veniat  quisquis  amicus  erit. 

Hereat  in  several  ages  the  left  and  right  hand  were  the 
pi'incipal  places,  and  the  most  honourable  person,  if  he  were 
not  master  of  the  feast,  possessed  one  of  those  rooms.  The 
other  was  termed  triclinium,  that  is,  three  beds  about  a  table, 
as  may  be  seen  in  the  figures  thereof,  and  particularly  in  the 
BJiamnusian  triclinium,  set  down  by  Mercurialis.f  The  cus- 
tdmary  use  hereof  was  probably  deduced  from  the  frequent 
use  of  bathing,  after  which  they  commonly  retired  to  bed, 
and  refected  themselves  with  repast ;  and  so  that  custom  by 
degrees  changed  their  cubiculary  beds  into  discubitory,  and 
introduced  a  fashion  to  go  from  the  baths  uuto  these. 

As  for  their  gesture  or  position,  the  men  lay  down  leaning 
*  Esther  vii.  t  -^^  -^''^^  Gymnastica. 

*  That  the  Persians,  tfcc]  This  sentence  was  first  added  in  the  2nd 

CHAP.  TI.]      OP   THE   JEWS   AT   THEIE  FEASTS,  19 

on  their  left  elbow,  their  back  being  advanced  by  some 
piUow  or  soft  substance ;  the  second  lay  so  with  his  back 
towards  the  first,  that  his  head  attained  about  his  bosom  ;  ^ 
and  the  rest  in  the  same  order.  Por  women,  they  sat  some- 
times distinctly  with  their  sex,  som'etimes  promiscuously 
with  men,  according  to  affection  or  favour,  as  is  delivered 
by  Juvenal. 

Gremio  jacuit  nova  nupta  mariti. 

And  by  Suetonius,  of  Caligula,  that  at  his  feasts  he  placed 
his  sisters,  with  whom  he  had  been  incontinent,  successively 
in  order  below  him. 

Again,  as  their  beds  were  three,  so  the  guests  did  not 
usually  exceed  that  number  in  every  one,  according  to  the 
ancient  laws,  and  proverbial  observations  to  begin  with  the 
Grraces,  and  make  up  their  feasts  with  the  Muses  ;  and  there- 
fore it  was  remarkable  in  the  Emperor  Lucius  Verus,  that  he 
lay  dovm  with  twelve,  which  was,  saith  Julius  Capitolinus, 
prceter  exempla  maiorum,  not  according  to  the  custom  of  his 
predecessors,  except  it  were  at  public  and  nuptial  suppers. 
The  regular  number  was  also  exceeded  in  the  last  supper, 
whereat  there  were  no  less  than  thirteen,  and  in  no  place 
fewer  than  ten,  for  as  Josephus  delivereth,  it  was  not  lawful 
to  celebrate  the  passover  with  fewer  than  that  number.^ 

Lastly,  for  the  disposing  and  ordering  of  the  persons  ;  the 
first  and  middle  beds  were  for  the  guests,  the  third  and 
lowest  for  the  master  of  the  house  and  his  family,  he  always 
lying  in  the  first  place  of  the  last  bed,  that  is,  next  the  middle 
bed,  but  if  the  wife  or  children  were  absent,  their  rooms 
were  supplied  by  the  ximbrce,  or  hangers  on,  according  to 
that  of  Juvenal.^ 

Locus  est  et  pluribus  unibris. 

For  the  guests,  the  honourablest  place  in  every  bed  was  the 
first,  excepting  the  middle  or  second  bed,  wherein  the  most 
honourable  guest  of  the  feast  was  placed  in  the  last  place, 

^  hosom.']     See  note  4,  p.  23. 

*  The  regular  number,  <£'c.]    This  sentence  first  added  in  2nd  edition. 

*  Juvetial.]  (Not  Juvenal,  but  Horace),  Epist.  lib.  i.  8,  1.  28.  See 
also  Hor.  Sat.  ii.  8,  22:  "  —  quoa  Maecenas  adduxerat  umbras," 
—  "  Porro  et  conviva  ad  coenam  dicitur  <TKidv  suum  adducere,  cum 
amicum  aliquem  non  invitatum  secum  adducit." — Plut.  7,  6, 



OF    THE   JEWS   AT    THEIE   EEASTS.  [bOOK  V. 

because  by  that  position  he  might  be  next  the  master  of  the 
feast.*  For  the  master  lying  in  the  first  of  the  last  bed,  and 
the  principal  guest  in  the  last  place  of  the  second,  they  must 
needs  be  next  each  other,  as  this  figure  doth  plainly  declare, 
and  whereby  we  may  apprehend  the  feast  of  Perpenna  made 
unto  Sertorius,  described  by  Sallustius,  whose  words  we  shall 
thus  read  with  Salmasius  :  Igitur  discubuere,  Sertorius  infe- 
rior in  medio  lecto,  supra  Fabius  ;  Antonius  in  summo  ;  Infra 
scriba  Sertorii  Versius ;  alter  scriba  Meccenas  in  imo,  medius 
inter  Tarquitium  et  dominum  Perpennam. 

snviisgiivuouoff  smui}]/} 


6  S.g 



fniumng  sno(yj 



At  this  feast  there  were  but  seven,  the  middle  places  of 
the  highest  and  middle  bed  being  vacant,  and  hereat  was 
Sertorius  the  general,  and  principal  guest  slain ;  and  so  may 
we  make  out  what  is  delivered  by  Plutarch  in  his  life,  that 
lying  on  his  back  and  raising  himself  up,  Perpenna  cast  him- 

*  Jul.  Scalig.  Familiarum  Exercitationum  Probl&na  1. 

CHAP.  VI.]      OF   THE   JEWS   AT   THEIE   FEASTS.  21 

self  upon  his  stomach,  which  he  might  very  well  do,  being 
master  of  the  feast,  and  lying  next  unto  him  ;  and  thus  also 
from  this  tricliniary  disposure,  we  may  illustrate  that  obscure 
expression  of  Seneca ;  that  the  north  wind  was  in  the  middle, 
the  north-east  on  the  higher  side,  and- the  north-west  on  the 
lower.  For  as  appeareth  in  the  circle  of  the  winds,  the 
north-east  will  answer  the  bed  of  Antonius,  and  the  north- 
west that  of  Perpenna. 

That  the  custom  of  feasting  upon  beds  was  in  use  among 
the  Hebrews,  many  deduce  from  Ezekiel,*  "  Thou  sattest 
upon  a  stately  bed,  and  a  table  prepared  before  it."  The 
custom  of  discalceation  or  putting  off  their  shoes  at  meals, 
is  conceived  to  confirm  the  same ;  as  by  that  means  keeping 
their  beds  clean ;  and  therefore  they  had  a  peculiar  charge 
to  eat  the  passover  with  their  shoes  on ;  which  injunction 
were  needless,  if  they  used  not  to  put  them  off.  However 
it  were  in  times  of  high  antiquity,  probable  it  is  that  in  after 
ages  they  conformed  unto  the  fashions  of  the  Assyrians  and 
eastern  nations,  and  lastly  of  the  Eomans,  being  reduced  by 
Pompey  unto  a  provincial  subjection.^ 

That  this  discumbency  at  meals  was  in  use  in  the  days  of 
our  Saviour,  is  conceived  probable  from  several  speeches  of 
his  expressed  in  that  phrase,  even  unto  common  auditors,  as 
Luke  xiv. :  Cum  invitatus  fueris  ad  nuptias,  non  discumhas  in 
primo  loco ;  and,  besides  many  more,  Matthew  xxiii.,  when 
reprehending  the  Scribes  and  Pharisees,  he  saith,  Amant 
protoclisias,  id  est,  primos  recubitus  in  coenis,  et  protocatlie- 
drias,  sive,primas  cafhedras,  in  synagogis  ;  wherein  the  terms 
are  very  distinct,  and  by  an  antithesis  do  plainly  distinguish 
the  posture  of  sitting,  from  this  of  lying  on  beds.  The  con- 
sent of  the  Jews  with  the  Romans  in  other  ceremonies  and 
rites  of  feasting  makes  probable  their  conformity  in  this. 
The  Romans  washed,  were  anointed,  and  wore  a  cenatory 
garment :  and  that  the  same  was  practised  by  the  Jews,  is 
deducible  from  that  expostulation  of  our  Saviour  with  Simon,t 
that  he  washed  not  his  feet,  nor  anointed  his  head  with  oil ; 
the  common  civilities  at  festival  entertainments :  and  that 
expression  of  his  concerning  the  cenatory  or  wedding  gar- 

•  Ezek,  xxiii.  +  Luke  \-ii. 

ffoieever  it  were,  d:c.]    Thia  sentence  was  first  added  in  2nd  edition 

22  OF    OIJB,    SATIOUE   AT    THE    PASSOVER.  ^BOOK  V. 

meut  ;*  and  as  some  conceive  of  the  linen  garment  of  the 
young  man,  or  St.  John ;  which  might  be  the  same  he  wore 
the  night  before  at  the  last  supper.^ 

That  they  used  this  gesture  at  the  passover,  is  more  than 
probable  from  the  testimony  of  Jewish  writers,  and  particu- 
larly of  Ben-Maimon  recorded  by  Scaliger,  De  Emendatione 
temporum.  After  the  second  cup  according  to  the  institu- 
tion, the  son  asketh,  what  meaneth  this  service  ?  f  then  he 
that  maketh  the  declaration,  saith,  liow  chfterent  is  this  night 
from  all  other  nights  ;  for  all  other  nights  we  wash  but  once, 
but  this  night  twice  ;  all  other  we  eat  leavened  or  mileavened 
bread,  but  this  only  leavened ;  aU  other  we  eat  flesh  roasted, 
boiled,  or  baked,  but  this  only  roasted  ;  all  other  nights  we 
eat  together  lying  or  sitting,  but  this  only  lying  along.  And 
this  posture  they  used  as  a  token  of  rest  and  security  which 
they  enjoyed,  far  different  from  that  at  the  eating  of  the 
passover  in  Egypt. 

That  this  gesture  was  used  when  our  Saviour  eat  the  pass- 
over,  is  not  conceived  improbable  from  the  words  whereby  the 
Evangelists  express  the  same,  that  is,  avaTviwTELv,  avaKilaQai, 
KaTaKEiadai,  arak\(0j}rat,which  terms  do  properly  signify  this 
gesture,  in  Aristotle,  Athenaeus,  Eiu-ipides,  Sophocles,  and 
aU  humane  authors  ;  and  the  like  we  meet  with  in  the  para- 
phrastical  expression  of  jN'onnus. 

Lastly,  if  it  be  not  fully  conceded,  that  this  gesture  was 
used  at  the  passover,  yet  that  it  was  observed  at  the  last 
supper  seems  almost  incontrovertible :  for  at  this  feast  or 
cenatory  convention,  learned  men  make  more  than  one  sup- 
per, or  at  least  many  parts  thereof.  The  first  was  that  legal 
one  of  the  passover,  or  eating  of  the  paschal  lamb  with  bitter 
herbs,  and  ceremonies  described  by  Moses. ;{:  Of  this  it  is 
said,  "  Then  when  the  even  was  come,  he  sat  down  with  the 
twelve."  §  This  is  supposed  when  it  is  said,  that  the  supper 
being  ended,  our  Savioui-  arose,  took  a  towel  and  washed  the 
disciples'  feet.  The  second  was  common  and  domestical, 
consisting  of  ordinary  and  imdefined  provisions  ;  of  this  it 
may  be  said,  that  oui'  Saviour  took  his  garment,  and  sat  down 
again,  after  he  had  washed  the  disciples'  feet,  and  performed 

*  Matt.  xxii.  f  Exod.  xii.  %  Matt.  xxvi.         §  John  xiii. 

*  the  consent  of  the  Jews,  d-c.]    First  added  in  2nd  edition. 

CHAP,  Tl.]         OF    OlTll   SAVIOUR   AT   THE    PASSOVER  23 

the  preparative  civilities  of  suppers ;  at  this  'tis  conceivea 
the  sop  was  given  unto  Judas,  the  original  word  implying 
some  broth  or  decoction,  not  used  at  the  passover.  The 
third  or  latter  part  was  eucharistical,  which  began  at  the 
breaking  and  blessing  of  the  bread,  according  to  that  of 
Matthew,  "  And  as  they  were  eating,  Jesus  took  bread  and 
blessed  it." 

Now  although,  at  the  passover  or  first  supper,  many  have 
doubted  this  reclining  posture,  and  some  have  affirmed  that 
oiu"  Saviour  stood,  yet  that  he  lay  down  at  the  other,  the 
same  men  have  acknowledged,  as  Chrysostom,*  Theophylact, 
Austin,  and  many  more.  And  if  the  tradition  wiU  hold,  the 
position  is  imquestionable ;  for  the  very  triclinium  is  to  be 
seen  at  Rome,  brought  thitlier  by  Vespasian,  and  graphi- 
phicaUy  set  forth  by  Casalius.'^ 

Thus  may  it  properly  be  made  out,  what  is  delivered,  John 
xiii. ;  Erat  recumhens  unus  ex  discipiilin  ejus  in  sinu  Jesu 
quern  diligebat ;  "  Now  there  was  leaning  on  Jesus'  bosom 
one  of  his  disciples  whom  Jesus  loved ;"  which  gesture  will 
not  so  well  agree  unto  tlie  position  of  sitting,  but  is  natural, 
and  cannot  be  avoided  in  the  laws  of  accubation."^    And  the 

*De  Veteruni  Ritibus. 

'  Lastly,  if  it  he  not,  <fcc.]  This  and  the  next  paragraph  were  first 
added  in  the  2nd  edition. 

*  which  gesture,  <£r.]  I  am  not  aware  whether  our  author  had  any 
authority  for  saying  that  "  the  back  was  advanced  by  some  pillow  or  soft 
substance."  If  it  was  so,  John  could  not  very  conveniently  have  leaned 
back  upon  the  bosom  of  his  master.  It  seems  probable  that  each  per- 
son lay  at  an  acute  angle  with  the  line  of  the  table  (as  seems  implied  in 
the  following  quotation),  in  which  case  the  head  of  John,  as  our  author 
observes,  p.  19,  would  have  attained  to  about  his  master's  bosom.  It 
must  also  (as  it  seems  to  me)  be  supposed  that  the  table  was  scarcely,  if 
at  all,  higher  than  the  level  of  the  couch.  I  subjoin  Godwin's  description 
of  the  table,  &c.  "  The  table  being  placed  in  the  middest,  roundabout 
the  table  were  certain  beds,  sometimes  two,  sometimes  three,  sometimes 
more,  according  to  the  number  of  the  guests  ;  upon  these  they  lay  down 
in  manner  as  foUoweth  :  each  bed  contained  three  persons,  sometimes 
more, — seldom  or  never  more  (qu.  fewer  ?)  If  one  lay  upon  the  bed, 
then  he  rested  the  upper  part  of  his  body  upon  the  left  elbow,  the  lower 
part  lying  at  length  upon  the  bed :  but  if  many  lay  on  the  bed,  then  the 
uppermost  did  lie  at  the  bed's  head,  laying  his  feet  behinde  the  second's 
back  :  in  like  manner  the  thiwl  or  fourth  did  lye,  each  resting  his  head 
in  the  other's  bosome.  Thus  John  leaned  on  Jesus;'  bosom." — Moses  and 
Aaron,  p.  93,  4to.  1667. 

24  or   OUE   SATIOUE   AT   THE    PASSOTEB.         [bOOK  T. 

very  same  expression  is  to  be  found  in  Pliny,  concerning  the 
emperor  Nerva  and  Veiento  whom  he  favoured ;  Coenahat 
Nerva  cum  paucis,  Veiento  recumhebat  propius  atque  etiam 
in  sinu ;  and  from  this  custom  arose  the  word  tTnaTyjBtoc, 
that  is,  a  near  and  bosom  friend.  And  therefore  Casaubon* 
justly  rejecteth  Theophylact ;  *  who  not  considering  the 
ancient  manner  of  decumbency,  imputed  this  gesture  of  the 
beloved  disciple  imto  rusticity,  or  an  act  of  incivility.  And 
thus  also,  have  some  conceived  it  may  be  more  plainly  made 
out  what  is  delivered  of  Mary  Magdalen,  that  she  "  stood  at 
Christ's  feet  behind  him  weeping,  and  began  to  wash  his  feet 
with  tears,  and  did  wipe  them  with  the  hairs  of  her  head."t 
WTiich  actions,  if  our  Saviour  sat,  she  could  not  perform 
standing,  and  had  rather  stood  behind  his  back  than  at  his 
feet.  And  therefore  it  is  not  allowable,  what  is  observable 
in  many  pieces,  and  even  of  Raphael  Urbin,  wherein  Mary 
Magdalen  is  pictured  before  our  Saviour  washing  his  feet  on 
her  knees,  which  will  not  consist  with  the  strict  description 
and  letter  of  the  text. 

Now,  whereas  this  position  may  seem  to  be  discounte- 
nanced by  our  translation,  which  usually  renders  it  sitting,  it 
cannot  have  that  illation :  for  the  French  and  Italian  trans- 
lations, expressing  neither  position  of  session  nor  recubation, 
do  only  say  that  he  placed  himself  at  the  table ;  and  when 
ours  expresseth  the  same  by  sitting,  it  is  in  relation  unto 
our  custom,  time,  and  apprehension.  The  like  upon  occasion 
is  not  unusual :  so  when  it  is  said,  Luke  iv.,  vTvlaQ  to  ftt^Xiov^ 
and  the  Vulgate  renders  it,  cum  plicdsset  librum,  ours  trans- 
lateth  it,  he  shut  or  closed  the  book ;  which  is  an  expression 
proper  unto  the  paginal  books  of  our  times,  but  not  so  agree- 
able unto  volumes  or  rolling  books,  in  use  among  the  Jews, 
not  only  in  elder  times,  but  even  unto  this  day.  So  when 
it  is  said,  the  Samaritan  delivered  imto  the  host  twopence 

*  Not.  in  Evang.  t  Luke  vii. 

*  Theophylact.']  Theophylact,  bishop  of  Bulgary,  lived  930th  yeare 
of  Christe,  in  which  time  the  empire  being  translated  into  Germanye, 
and  the  maner  of  lying  at  all  meales  translated  into  the  maner  of  sitting, 
which  was  most  used  among  the  northern  nations,  gave  the  bishop 
occasion  to  taxe  the  Jewish  and  Roman  forme  of  lying  as  uncouth  and 
uncivil :  every  nation  prefen-ing  their  owne  customes,  and  condeuming 
all  other  as  barbarians. —  Wr. 

CHAP.  VI.]         OF   OUE   SAVIOUB   AT   THE   PASSOTER.  25 

for  the  pro  ision  of  the  Levite,  and  when  our  Saviour  agreed 
with  the  labourers  for  a  penny  a  day,  in  strict  translation  it 
should  be  seven-pence  halfpenny,  and  is  not  to  be  conceived 
our  common  penny,  the  sixtieth  part  of  an  ounce.  For  the 
word  in  the  original  is  crivdpiov,  in  Latin  denarius,  and  with 
the  Romans  did  value  the  eighth  part  of  an  ounce,  which, 
after  five  shillings  the  ounce,  amounteth  unto  seven-pence 
halfpenny  of  our  money. 

Lastly,  whereas  it  might  be  conceived  that  they  ate  the 
passover,  standing  rather  than  sitting,  or  lying  down,  accord- 
ing to  the  institution,  Exodus  xii.,  "  Thus  shall  you  eat  with 
your  loins  girded,  your  shoes  on  your  feet,  and  your  staff 
in  your  hand ;"  the  Jews  themselves  reply,  this  was  not 
required  of  succeeding  generations,  and  was  not  observed 
but  in  the  passover  of  Egypt.  And  so  also  many  other 
injunctions  were  afterward  omitted :  as  the  taking  up  of 
the  paschal  lamb  from  the  tenth  day,  the  eating  of  it  in  their 
houses  dispersed,  the  striking  of  the  blood  on  the  door-posts, 
and  the  eating  thereof  in  haste  ;  solemnities  and  ceremonies 
primitively  enjoined,  afterward  omitted  ;  as  was  also  this 
of  station :  for  the  occasion  ceasing,  and  being  in  security, 
they  applied  themselves  unto  gestures  in  use  among  them. 

Now  in  what  order  of  recumbency  Christ  and  the  disciples 
were  disposed,  is  not  so  easily  determined.  Casalius,  from 
the  Lateran  triclinium,  will  tell  us,  that  there  being  thirteen, 
five  lay  down  in  the  first  bed,  five  in  the  last,  and  three  in 
the  middle  bed ;  and  that  our  Saviour  possessed  the  upper 
place  thereof.  That  John  lay  in  the  same  bed  seems  plain, 
because  he  leaned  on  our  Saviour's  bosom.  That  Peter 
made  the  third  in  that  bed,  conjecture  is  made,  because  he 
beckoned  unto  John,  as  being  next  him,  to  ask  of  Christ  who 
it  was  that  should  betray  him  ?  That  Judas  was  not  far  off, 
seems  probable,  not  only  because  he  dipped  in  the  same  dish, 
but  because  he  was  so  near  that  our  Saviour  could  hand  the 
Bop  unto  him.^ 

*  N</w  m  what  order,  ic]    This  paragraph  was  added  iu  2nd  edit. 

26  or   OUB   SATIOUE   WITH   LONG   HAIE,         [bOOK  T. 


Of  the  Picture  of  our  Saviour  with  Long  Hair. 

Anothee  picture  there  is  of  our  Saviour  described  with 
long  hair/  according  to  the  custom  of  the  Jews,  and  his 
description  sent  by  Lentulus  unto  the  senate.^     Wherein 

'  Another  picture,  dccJl  A  very  beautiful  head  of  our  Saviour  has 
recently  been  engraved  in  mezzotint,  by  J.  Rogers.  It  is  a  copy  from 
a  gem,  said  to  have  been  executed  by  order  of  Tiberius  Ctesar,  and  sub- 
sequently sent  to  Pope  Innocent  VIII.  by  the  emperor  of  the  Turks 
as  a  ransom  for  his  brother. 

Another  error  has  been  noticed  by  some  commentators  in  represent- 
ing our  Lord  with  a  crown  of  long  thorns,  whereas  it  is  supposed  to 
have  been  made  of  the  acanthus,  or  bears-foot,  a  prickly  plant,  very 
unlike  a  thorn.     See  Dr.  Adam  Clarke,  in  loc. 

"  his  description  sent  by  Lentulus,  <i-c.]  Or  rather  said  to  have  been 
sent  by  Lentulus,  &c.  ;  for  this  letter  is  now  known  to  have  been  a 
forgery.  The  supposed  author  was  a  Roman  governor  of  Sjrria  ;  of 
whom  it  was  pretended  that  he  was  a  follower  of  our  Lord,  and  that  he 
gave  a  description  of  his  person  in  a  letter  to  the  senate.  This  was 
however  obviously  insupposable  at  a  period  when  the  governors  of 
provinces  addressed  the  emperor,  and  no  longer  the  senate  ;  to  say 
nothing  of  the  style,  which  is  by  no  means  Augustan.  The  fact  is,  as 
has  been  remarked  to  me,  that  when  publick  opinion  had  been  made  up 
as  to  the  probable  appearance  of  our  Lord's  person,  this  letter  comes 
out  to  settle  the  point.  In  No.  7026-4  of  the  Harleian  MSS.  is  pre- 
served a  copy  of  this  letter,  on  vellum,  in  the  beautiful  handwriting  of 
the  celebrated  German  dwarf  Math.  Buchinger,  which  he  sent  to  his 
patron.  Lord  Oxford.  It  contains  also  a  portrait  agreeing  with  the 
description  given  in  the  letter.  This  letter  has  been  translated  into 
English,  and  occurs,  Christ.  Mag.  1764,  p.  455,  and  other  places. 

Perhaps  the  most  celebrated  of  the  reputed  portraits  of  the 
Redeemer  is  that  said  to  have  been  received  by  Abgarus,  king  of 
Edessa,  mentioned  by  Evagrius.  Eusebius  gives  a  letter  sent  by  the 
said  Abgar  to  Jesus  Christ,  professing  the  conviction  which  the  Re- 
deemer's miracles  had  wrought  in  his  mind  of  the  divine  character  of 
our  Lord,  and  entreating  him  to  come  to  Edessa  and  cure  a  disease 
under  which  the  king  had  long  laboured; — together  with  our  Lord ' s 
answer,  declining  to  come,  but  promising  to  send  a  disciple  to  heal  the 
king.  For  these  letters  see  Hone's  Apocryphal  New  Testament.  In  hia 
Evo-y- Day  Book,  Jan.  13th,  he  gives  a  wood-cut  of  the  portrait.  In  the 
London  Literary  Gazette  of  Nov.  29,  1834,  is  a  much  better  account  of 
the  circumstance,  in  a  review  of  Baron  Hubboff's  History  of  Armenia, 
published  by  the  Oriental  Translation  Society.  I  subjoin  his  account  of 
the  picture.     "  Abgar  sent  a  painter  to  take  the  likeness  of  tJ  i  Saviour, 

CHAP.  VII.]         OF   OTJE   SATIOUIi    WITH   LONG   HAIE.  27 

indeed  tlie  hand  of  the  painter  is  not  accusable,  but  the  judg- 
ment of  the  common  spectator :  conceiving  he  observed  this 
fashion  of  his  hair,  because  he  was  a  Nazarite ;  and  con- 
.foundiag  a  Nazarite  by  vow,  with  those  by  birth  or  educa- 

The  Nazarite  by  vow  is  declared,  Numbers  vi. ;  and  was 
to  refrain  three  things,  drmkiag  of  wine,  cutting  the  hair, 
and  approaching  unto  the  dead ;  and  such  an  one  was  Samp- 
son. Now  that  our*  Saviour  was  a  Nazarite  after  this  kind, 
we  have  no  reason  to  determine ;  for  he  drank  wine,  and 
was  therefore  called  by  the  Pharisees  a  wine-bibber;  he 
approached  also  the  dead,  as  when  he  raised  from  death 
Lazarus,  and  the  daughter  of  Jairus. 

The  other  Nazarite  was  a  topical  appellation,  and  appli- 
able  unto  such  as  were  born  in  Nazareth,  a  city  of  Gralilee, 
and  in  the  tribe  of  Napthali.  Neither,  if  strictly  taken,  was 
our  Saviour  in  this  sense  a  Nazarite,  for  he  was  born  in 
Bethlehem  ia  the  tribe  of  Judah ;  but  might  receive  that 
name  because  he  abode  ia  that  city,  and  was  not  only  con- 
ceived therein,  but  there  also  passed  the  silent  part  of  his  life 
after  his  return  from  Egypt ;  as  is  delivered  by  Matthew, 
"  And  he  came  and  dwelt  in  a  city  called  Nazareth,  that  it 
might  be  fulfilled  which  was  spoken  by  the  prophet,  he  shall 
be  called  a  Nazarene."  Both  which  kinds  of  Nazarites,  as 
they  are  distinguishable  by  Zain,  and  Tsade  ia  the  Hebrew, 
so  in  the  Greek,  by  Alpha  and  Omega :  for,  as  Janseniua 
observeth,*  where  the  votary  Nazarite  is  mentioned,  it  is 
written,  Na^apdlog,  as  Levit.  vi.  and  Lament,  iv.    Where  it 

*  Jans.  Concordia  Evangelica. 

if  he  would  not  vouchsafe  to  visit  Edessa.  The  painter  made  many  vain 
attempts  to  draw  a  correct  likeness  of  our  Saviour.  But  Jesus,  being 
willing  to  satisfy  the  desire  of  King  Abgar,  took  a  clean  handkerchief 
and  applied  it  to  his  countenance.  In  that  same  hour,  by  a  miraculous 
power,  his  features  and  likeness  were  represented  on  the  handkerchief." 
Tlie  picture  thus  miraculously  produced,  is  said  to  have  been  the  means 
of  delivering  the  city  from  the  siege  laid  to  it  by  Chosroes,  the  Persian, 
500  years  afterwards.  Thaddeus  went  to  Edessa  after  Christ's  ascension 
and  healed  Abgar. 

See  also  Mr.  W.  Huttman's  Life  of  Christ,  where  will  be  found  a 
copious  account  of  the  portrait  of  Jesus  Christ,  published  in  prints, 
coins,  &c.  Mr.  Huttman  spells  the  name  of  the  king  of  Edessiv, 


is  spoken  of  our  Saviour,  we  read  it,  Na^wpatoc,  as  in  Mat- 
thew, Luke,  and  John ;  only  Mark,  who  writ  his  gospel  at 
Rome,  did  Latinize  and  wrote  it  Na^apjyi'dc. 

CHAPTEE  yill. 

Of  the  Picture  of  Ahraham  sacrificing  Isaac. 

In  the  picture  of  the  immolation  of  Isaac,  or  Abraham 
sacrificing  his  son,  Isaac  is  described  as  a  little  boy  ;^  which 
notwithstanding  is  not  consentaneous  unto  the  authority  of 
expositors,  or  the  circumstance  of  the  text.  For  therein  it 
is  delivered  that  Isaac  carried  on  his  back  the  wood  for  the 
sacrifice,  which  being  an  holocaust  or  burnt-ofiering  to  be 
consumed  unto  ashes,  we  cannot  well  conceive  a  burthen  for 
a  boy ;  but  such  a  one  unto  Isaac,  as  that  which  it  typified 
was  unto  Christ,  that  is,  the  wood  or  cross  whereon  he  suf- 
fered, which  was  too  hea\y  a  load  for  his  shoulders,  and  was 
fain  to  be  relieved  therein  by  Simon  of  Cyrene.^ 

Again  he  was  so  far  from  a  boy,  that  he  was  a  man  grown, 
and  at  his  full  stature,  if  we  believe  Josephus,  who  placeth 
him  in  the  last  of  adolescency,  and  makes  him  twenty-five 
years  old.  And  whereas  in  the  vulgar  translation  he  is 
termed  puer,^  it  must  not  be  strictly  apprehended  (for  that 

^  as  a  little  6oi/.]  More  absurd  representations  have  been  made  of 
this  event.  Bourgoanne  notices  a  painting  in  Spain  where  Abraham  is 
preparing  to  shoot  Isaac  with  a  pistol !  Phil.  Rohr  (Pictor  Errans) 
mentions  one  in  which  Abraham's  weapon  was  a  sword. 

'  too  heavy  a  load,  d-c]  Some  painters  have  accordingly  represented 
Christ  and  Simon  of  Cyrene  as  both  employed  in  carrying  the  cross. 
Some  have  supposed,  as  Lipsius  notices,  that  only  a  part  (probably  the 
transverse  portion)  of  the  cross  was  borne  by  our  Lord. — Lipsii  Opera, 
vol.  iii.  p.  658. 

^  pucr.]  In  the  Greeke  the  word  [Tratc]  is  ambiguous  and,  as  wee  say, 
polysen  on,  signifying  diversely e  according  to  the  subject  to  which  it 
relates :  as  when  it  relates  to  a  lord  and  master  it  signifies  a  servant, 
and  is  to  bee  soe  translated  :  where  itt  relates  to  a  father  itt  signifyes  a 
Bonne.  The  old  translation  is  therefore  herein  faulty,  which  takes  the 
word  in  the  prime  grammatical  sense  for  a  child,  which  is  not  always 
true.  In  the  4th  cap.  of  the  Acts,  vers.  25,  itt  renders  AaCi5  rov  iradoq 
aov,  David  pueri  tui,  and  in  the  27th,7raitd  aov  'I/yaoiii' puerumtuum 

CHAP.  IX.]  OF   MOSES   WITH   HOEKS.  29 

age  properly  endeth  in  puberty,  and  extendeth  but  unto  four- 
teen), but  respectively  unto  Abraham,  who  was  at  that  time 
above  six  score.  And  therefore  also  herein  he  was  not  un- 
like unto  him,  who  was  after  led  dumb  unto  the  slaughter, 
and  commanded  by  others,  who  had  legions  at  command ; 
that  is,  in  meekness  and  humble  submission.  For  had  he 
resisted,  it  had  not  been  in  the  power  of  his  aged  parent  to 
have  enforced ;  and  many  at  his  years  have  performed  such 
acts,  as  few  besides  at  any.  David  was  too  strong  for  a 
lion  and  a  bear ;  Pompey  had  deserved  the  name  of  Great ; 
Alexander  of  the  same  cognomination  was  generalissimo  of 
Greece  ;  and  Annibal,  but  one  year  after,  succeeded  Asdru- 
bal  in.  that  memorable  war  against  the  Romans. 


Of  the  Pictv/re  of  Moses  with  Horns. 

In  many  pieces,  and  some  of  ancient  bibles,  Moses  is 
described  with  horns.^  The  same  description  we  find  in  a 
silver  medal ;  that  is,  upon  one  side  Moses  horned,  and  on  the 
reverse  the  commandment  against  sculptile  images.  Which 
is  conceived  to  be  a  coinage  of  some  Jews,  in  derision  of 
Christians,  who  first  began  that  portrait."* 

The  ground  of  this  absurdity  was  surely  a  mistake  of  the 
Hebrew  text,  in  the  history  of  Moses  when  he  descended 
from  the  mount,  upon  the  affinity  of  kceren  and  karan,  that 
is,  an  horn,  and  to  shine,  which  is  one  quality  of  horn.  The 
vulgar  translation  conforming  imto  the  former ;  Ignorahat 
quod  cornuta  esset  fades  ejus.*  Qui  videhant  faciem  Mosis 
esse  cornutam.  But  the  Chaldee  paraphrase,  translated  by 
Paulus  Eagius,  hath  otherwise  expressed  it :  Moses  nescielat 
*  Exod.  xxxiv.  29,  30. 

lesum,  in  both  places  absurdly :  •which  Beza  observed  and  corrected  ; 
rendering  the  first  by  the  word  servant,  and  the  later  by  the  word 
Sonne  rightlye  and  learnedlye. —  Wr. 

^  In  many  pieces,  tfec]  And  in  Michael  Angelo's  Statue  of  Moses  in 
St.  Peter's  at  Rome. 

*  The  same  description,  etc.]  This  sentence  was  first  added  in  2nd 

30  or   MOSES   WITH   HOENS.  [BOOK  T. 

quod  multus  esset  splendor  glorice  vultus  ejus.  Et  viderunt 
filii  Israel  quod  multa  esset  claritas  glorice  faciei  Mosis.^ 
The  expression  of  the  Septuagint  is  as  large,  ^f^dsoorai  »/  '64"-Q 
Tov  "^pwjiaroQ  tov  TTpocwTrov,  Gloi'ijicafus  est  aspectus  cutis,  seu 
color  is  faciei. 

And  this  passage  of  the  Old  Testament  is  well  explained 
by  another  of  the  New  ;  wherein  it  ia  delivered,  that  "  they 
could  not  stedfastly  behold  the  face  of  Moses,"  *  Idi  Tt)r  co^av 
TOV  Trpoo-wTTov,  that  is,  for  the  glory  of  his  countenance.  And 
surely  the  exposition  of  one  text  is  best  performed  by  an- 
other;^ men  vainly  interposing  their  constructions,  where 
the  Scripture  decideth  the  controversy.  And  therefore  some 
have  seemed  too  active  in  their  expositions,  who  in  the  story 
of  Eahab  the  harlot,  have  given  notice  that  tlie  word  also 
signifieth  an  hostess  ;  for  in  the  epistle  to  the  Hebrews,  she 
is  plainly  termed  woprr]/  which  signifies  not  an  hostess,  but  a 
pecuniary  and  prostituting  harlot,t  a  term  applied  unto  Lais 
by  the  Greeks,  and  distinguished  from  kraipci,  or  arnica,  as 
may  appear  in  the  thirteenth  of  AthensBus. 

And  therefore  more  allowable  is  the  translation  of  Tre- 

*  2  Cor.  iii.  13. 

+  What  kind  of  harlot  she  was,  read  Camar.  de  Vita  Elice. 

*  But  the  Chaldce,  <£-c.]     First  added  in  2nd  edition. 

®  another. '\     This  is  a  golden  rule,  as  necessary  as  infallible. —  Wr. 

'  in  the  epistle,  A-c.]  Dr.  Adam  Clarke  (on  Joshua  ii.  2),  admitting 
thatTTopi';;  generally  signifies  a  prostitute,  contends  nevertheless  that  it 
might  not  have  been  used  in  that  sense  here  :  he  asks  why  the  derived 
meaning  of  the  word,  fi-om  iropvaoj,  to  sell,  may  not  have  reference  to 
goods,  as  well  as  to  person  ?  In  that  sense  he  observes  the  Chaldee 
Targum  understood  the  word,  and  in  their  translation  gave  it  accord- 
ingly the  meaning  of  a  tavern  keeper.  He  concludes  rather  a  long  article 
by  saying,  "  it  is  most  likely  that  she  was  a  single  woman,  or  widow, 
who  got  her  bread  honestly,  by  keeping  a  house  of  entertainment  for 
strangers."  He  proceeds  however  in  tins  criticism,  on  a  principle 
v?hich  he  has  elsewhere  laid  down,  "  that  the  writers  of  the  New  Tes- 
tament scarcely  ever  quote  the  Old  Testament,  but  from  the  Septuagint 
translation  ;"  thus  he  contents  himself  with  a  rabbinical  version  of  the 
LXX—  and  to  that  interpretation  would  bind  the  apostle. 

Dr.  Gill  notices  the  rabbinical  authorities  in  favour  of  the  intei-pre- 
tation  adopted  by  Dr.  Clarlie,  but  ren^rks  that  the  Jews  commonly 
take  Eahab  to  be  a  harlot ;  and  that  generally  speaking,  in  those  times 
and  countries  such  as  kept  public  houses  were  prostitutes.  He  notices 
the  Greek  version  and  decidedly  leans  to  the  usual  acceptation  of  the 

CHAP.  IX.]  OF   MOSES   WITH    nORNS.  31 

mellius,  quod  splendida  facta  esset  cutis  faciei  ejus ;  or  as 
Estius  hath  interpreted  it,  fades  ejus  erat  radiosa,  his  face 
was  radiant,  and  dispersing  beams  like  many  horns  and  cones 
about  his  head ;  which  is  also  consonant  unto  the  original 
signification,  and  yet  observed  in  the  .pieces  of  our  Saviour, 
and  the  Virgin  Mary,  who  are  commonly  drawn  with  scintil- 
lations, or  radiant  halos  about  their  head ;  which,  after  the 
Trench  expression,  are  usually  termed  the  glory. 

Now  if,  besides  this  occasional  mistake,  any  man  shall  con- 
tend a  propriety  in  this  picture,  and  that  no  injury  is  done 
unto  truth  by  this  description,  because  an  horn  is  the  hiero- 
glyphick  of  authority,  power,  and  dignity,  and  in  this  meta- 
phor is  often  used  in  Scripture ;  the  piece  I  confess  in  this 
acception  is  harmless  and  agreeable  unto  Moses ;  and,  under 
such  emblematical  constructions,  we  find  that  Alexander  the 
Great,  and  Attila  king  of  the  Huns,  in  ancient  medals  are 
described  with  horns.  But  if  from  the  common  mistake,  or 
any  solary  consideration,  we  persist  in  this  description,  we 
vilify  the  mystery  of  the  irradiation,  and  authorize  a  danger- 
ous piece,  conformable  unto  that  of  Jupiter  Ammon  ;  which 
was  the  sun,  and  therefore  described  with  horns,  as  is  deli- 
vered by  Macrobius ;  Hammonem  quern  Deum  solem  occi- 
dentem  Libyes  existimant,  arietinis  cornihus  ftngunt,  quibus 
id  animal  valet,  sicut  radiis  sol.  We  herein  also  imitate  the 
picture  of  Pan,  and  pagan  emblem  of  nature.  And  if  (as 
Macrobius  and  very  good  authors  concede)  Bacchus  (who  is 
also  described  with  horns),  be  the  same  deity  with  the  sun ; 
and  if  (as  Vossius  well  contendeth)*  Moses  and  Bacchus 
were  the  same  person  ;  their  descriptions  must  be  relative, 
or  the  tauricornous  picture  of  the  one,  perhaps  the  same 
with  the  other.'^ 

*  De  Origine  Idololatrice. 

^  any  solary  consideration.]  Solary,  'relating  to  the  sun.' — The 
Hebrew  word  used  in  this  passage  signifies  to  shoot  forth,  and  may  be 
appUed  perliaps  to  rays  of  Ught,  as  well  as  to  horns.  Bp.  Taylor,  in  his 
Holy  Dying,  p.  17,  describes  the  rising  sun,  as  "peeping  over  the 
eastern  hills,  thrusting  out  his  golden  horns,  <i;c." — Jeff. 

32        THE  SCUTCHEONS  OF  THE  TWELVE  TEIBES.        [bOOK  T. 


Of  the  Scutcheons  of  the  Twelve  Tnhes  of  Israel, 

"We  will  not  pass  over  the  scutcheons  of  the  tribes  of  Israel, 
as  they  are  usually  described  in  the  maps  of  Canaan  and 
several  other  pieces  ;  generally  conceived  to  be  the  proper 
coats,  and  distinctive  badges  of  their  several  tribes.  So 
Eeuben  is  conceived  to  bear  three  bars  wave,  Judah  a  lion 
rampant,  Dan  a  serpent  nowed,  Simeon  a  sword  impale,  the 
poiut  erected,  &c.*  The  ground  whereof  is  the  last  bene- 
diction of  Jacob,  wherein  he  respectively  draweth  compa- 
risons from  things  here  represented. 

Now  herein  although  we  allow  a  considerable  measure  of 
truth,  yet  whether,  as  they  are  usually  described,  these  were 
the  proper  cognizances,  and  coat-arms  of  the  tribes  ;  whether 
in  this  manner  applied,  and  upon  the  grounds  presmned, 
material  doubts  remain. 

For  first,  they  are  not  strictly  made  out  from  the  prophe- 
tical blessing  of  Jacob  ;  for  Simeon  and  Levi  have  distinct 
coats,  that  is,  a  sword,  and  the  two  tables,  yet  are  they  by 
Jacob  included  in  one  prophecy  ;  "  Simeon  and  Levi  are 
brethren,  instruments  of  cruelty  are  in  their  habitations." 
So  Joseph  beareth  an  ox,  whereof  notwithstanding  there  is 
no  mention  in  this  prophecy ;  for  therein  it  is  said,  "  Joseph 
is  a  fruitful  bough,  even  a  fruitful  bough  by  a  well ; "  by 
which  repetition  are  intimated  the  two  tribes  descending 
from  him,  Ephraim  and  Manasses  ;  whereof  notwithstanding 
Ephraim  only  beareth  an  ox.  True  it  is,  that  many  years 
after,  in  the  benediction  of  Moses,  it  is  said  of  Joseph,  "  His 
glory  is  like  the  firstlings  of  his  bullock  :  "  and  so  we  may 
concede,  what  Vossius  learnedly  declareth,  that  the  Egyptians 
represented  Joseph  in  the  symbol  of  an  ox  ;  for  thereby  was 
best  implied  the  dream  of  Pharaoh,  which  he  interpreted, 
the  benefit  by  agricultm*e,  and  provident  provision  of  com 
which  he  performed ;  and  therefore  did  Serapis  bear  a  bushel 
upon  his  head. 

Again,  if  we  take  these  two  benedictions  together,  the 
resemblances  are  not  appropriate,  and  Moses  therein  con- 

*  Gen.  xlix. 

CHAP.  X.  j       THE  SCUTCllEOKS  OF    THE  TWELTE  TRIBES.        33 

forms  not  uiiti  Jacob ;  for  that  which  in  the  phophecy  of 
Jacob  is  appropriated  unto  one,  is  in  the  blessing  of  Moses 
made  common  unto  others.  ISo,  whereas  Jndah  is  compared 
mato  a  lion  by  Jacob,  Judah  is  a  lion's  whelp,  the  same  is 
applied  unto  Dan  by  Moses,  "  Dan  is  a  lion's  whelp,  he  shall 
leap  from  Bashan  ;  "  and  also  unto  Gad,  "  he  dwell eth  as  a 

Thirdly,  if  a  lion  were  the  proper  coat  of  Judah,  yet  were 
it  not  probably  a  lion  rampant,  as  it  is  commonly  described, 
but  rather  couchant  or  dormant,  as  some  heralds  and  rabbins 
do  determine,  according  to  the  letter  of  the  text,  Beciimbens 
dormisti  iit  ho,  "  He  couched  as  a  lion,  and  as  a  young  lion, 
who  shall  rouse  him  ?" 

Lastly,  when  it  is  said,  "  Every  man  of  the  children  of 
Israel  shall  pitch  by  his  own  standard,  with  the  ensign  of 
their  father's  house  ;"*  upon  enquiry  what  these  standards 
and  ensigns  were,  there  is  no  small  incertainty,  and  men  con- 
form not  unto  the  prophecy  of  Jacob.  Christian  expositors 
are  fain  herein  to  rely  upon  the  rabbins,  who  notwithstand- 
ing are  various  in  their  traditions,  and  confirm  not  these 
common  descriptions.  For  as  for  inferior  ensigns,  either  of 
particular  bands  or  houses,  they  determine  nothing  at  all ; 
and  of  the  four  principal  or  legionary  standards,  that  is,  of 
Judah,  Eeuben,  Ephraim,  and  Dan  (under  every  one  whereof 
marched  three  tribes),  they  explain  them  very  variously. 
Jonathan,  who  compiled  the  Tarffum,  conceives  the  colours 
of  these  banners  to  answer  the  precious  stones  in  the  breast- 
plate, and  upon  which  the  names  of  the  tribes  were  engraven.f 
So  the  standard  for  the  camp  of  Judah  was  of  three  colours, 
according  unto  the  stones,  chalcedony,  sapphire,  and  sardo- 
nyx ;  and  therein  were  expressed  the  names  of  the  three 
tribes,  Judah,  Issachar,  and  Zabulon ;  and  in  the  midst 
thereof  was  written,  "  Rise  up,  Lord,  and  let  thy  enemies  be 
scattered ;  and  let  them  that  hate  thee,  flee  before  thee  :  J  in 
it  was  also  the  portrait  of  a  lion.  The  standard  of  Reuben 
was  also  of  three  colours,  sardine,  topaz,  and  amethyst ; 
therein  were  expressed  the  names  of  Reuben,  Simeon,  and 
Gad,  in  the  midst  was  written,  "  Hear,  0  Israel,  the  Lord 

*  Num.  ii. 

+  The  like  also  P.  Fagius  upon  the  Targum  or  Chaldee  Paraphrase 
of  Onkelos,  Num.  i.  J  Num.  x. 

VOL.  II.  B 

34         THE  SCUTCHEONS  OF  THE  TWELVE  TRIBES.        [bOOK  V. 

our  God,  the  Lord  is  one ;"  *  therein  was  also  the  portraiture 
of  a  hart.  But  Abenezra  and  others,  beside  the  colours  of 
the  field,  do  set  down  other  charges,  in.  Reuben's  the  form  of 
a  man  or  mandi'ake,  in  that  of  Judah  a  lion,  in  Ephraim's  an 
ox,  in  Dan's  the  figure  of  an  eagle. 

And  thus  indeed  the  four  figiires  in  the  banners  of  the 
principal  squadrons  of  Israel,  are  answerable  unto  the  cheru- 
bims  ill  the  vision  of  Ezekiel  ;t  every  one  carrying  the  form 
of  all  these.  As  for  the  likeness  of  their  faces,  they  four  had 
the  Ukeness  of  the  face  of  a  man,  and  the  face  of  a  lion  on 
the  right  side,  and  they  four  had  the  face  of  an  ox  on  the  left 
side,  they  foiu"  had  also  the  face  of  an  eagle.  And  confor- 
mable hei'eunto  the  pictures  of  the  evangelists  (whose  gospels 
are  the  Christian  banners)  are  set  forth  with  the  addition  of 
a  man  or  angel,  an  ox,  a  lion,  and  an  eagle.  And  these 
symbolically  represent  the  ofiice  of  angels  and  ministers  of 
Grod's  will,  in  whom  is  required  understanding  as  in  a  man, 
coiu"age  and  vivacity  as  in  the  lion,  service  and  ministerial 
ofiiciousness  as  in  the  ox,  expedition  or  celerity  of  execution 
as  in  the  eagle.^ 

*  Deut.  vi.  +  Ezek.  i. 

^  eagle.]  The  reasons  which  the  fathers  give  of  these  emblems  is 
excellent  and  proper.  St.  Matthew  insists  on  those  prophecyes  in 
Christ,  and  therefore  hath  an  angel,  as  itt  were  revealing  those  things  to 
him.  St.  Marke  insists  most  upon  his  workes  of  wonder  and  miracles, 
and  therefore  hathe  the  lyon  of  Judah  by  him.  St.  Luke  is  most  copious 
in  those  storyes  which  set  forthe  his  passive  obedience,  and  therefore 
hathe  the  beast  of  sacrifice  by  him.  And  lastly,  St.  John,  whose 
gospel  sores  like  the  eagle  up  to  heaven,  and  expresses  the  divinity  of 
Christe  in  such  a  sublime  manner  above  all  the  rest,  hath  therefore 
that  bird  set  by  him.  They  were  shortly,  but  excellently  expresst  by 
these  four  emblems  at  the  pedestal  of  Prince  Henrye's  pillar,  each  of 
them  in  a  scroll  uttering  these  four  wordes,  which  make  up  a  verse. 
Expcdo,  by  the  angel,  invpavidus,  by  the  lion,  patiento;  by  the  oxe, 
dum  renotahor,  by  the  eagle. —  Wr. 

The  dean's  expose  reminds  us  of  that  of  Victorinus,  Bishop  of  Petau, 
mentioned  by  Dr.  Clarke  (in  his  Concise  View  of  the  Succession  of  Sacred 
Literature,  &c.,  p.  199,  vol.  i.).  In  his  Comment  on  the  4th  chap,  of 
Rev.  V.  6,  7,  the  bishop  remarks  : — "The  four  living  creatures  are  the 
four  gospels.  The  lion  denotes  Mark,  in  whom  the  voice  of  a  lion, 
roaring  in  the  wilderness,  is  heard  ;  the  voice  of  one  that  crieth  in  the 
icilderness,  <£-c.  Matthew,  who  has  the  resemblance  of  a  man,  en- 
deavours to  show  us  the  family  of  Mary,  from  whom  Christ  took  flesh  ; 
he   speakes  of  him  as  a  man  ;  the  book  of  the  geiierations,  &c.     LuE£, 


From  hence,  therefore,  we  may  observe  that  these  descrip- 
tions, the  most  authentic  of  any,  are  neither  agreeable  uuto 
one  another,  nor  unto  the  scutcheons  in  question.  For 
though  they  agree  in  Ephraim  and  Judah,  that  is,  the  ox  and 
the  Hon,  yet  do  they  differ  in  those  of  Dan  and  Eeuben,  as 
far  as  an  eagle  is  different  from  a  serpent,  and  the  figure  of 
a  man,  hart,  or  mandrake,  from  three  bars  wave.  Wherein 
notwithstanding  we  rather  declare  the  incertainty  of  arms  in 
this  particular,!  than  any  way  question  their  antiquity  ;  for 

who  relates  the  priesthood  of  Zecharias  offering  sacrifice  for  the  people, 
&c.,  has  the  resemblance  of  a  calf.  John,  like  an  eagle  with  out- 
stretched wings  soaring  aloft,  speaks  concerning  the  Word  of  God, 
&c."  But  here  we  find  various  opinions  ;  for  while  St.  Jerome,  in  his 
Commentary  on  Matthew,  and  Gregory  m  his  4th  Homily  on  Ezekiel, 
give  the  same  version  as  Victorinus,  St.  Augustine  assigns  the  man  to 
Mark,  and  the  lion  to  Matthew.  And  the  dean,  in  the  preceding  note, 
follows  those  who  regard  Matthew's  man  to  have  been  an  angel. 

'  the  incertainty  of  arms  in  this  particular.']  Not  a  few  of  our  anti- 
quarian writers,  theologians,  as  well  as  heralds,  have  been  anxious  to 
trace  the  origin  of  heraldry  to  the  Bible.  Bishop  Hall,  in  his  Innwesse 
of  God,  says,  "  If  the  testament  of  the  patriarchs  had  as  much  credit  as 
antiquity,  all  the  patriarchs  had  their  amies  assigned  them  by  Jacob : 
Judah  a  lyon,  Dan  a  serpent,  Nepthali  an  hinde,  Benjamin  a  wolf, 
Joseph  a  hough,  and  so  of  the  rest."       Worls,  fol.  1648,  p.  406,  E. 

In  Mr.  Jefferson's  copy  occurs  the  following  MS.  note.  "  Sir  John 
Prestwick,  in  his  MS.  history  of  the  noble  family  of  Chichester,  derives 
the  practice  of  heraldry  from  Gen.  i.  14.  'Let  them  be  for  signs,' — 
which  he  refers  to  heraldic  signs." 

Sylvanus  Morgan  begins  with  the  creation  ;  "  deducing  from  the 
principles  of  nature  "  his  Spjhere  of  Gentry,  which  he  divides  into  four 
books,  the  first  entitled  Adam's  shield,  or  nobility  native  ;  the  2nd, 
Joseph's  coat,  or  nobility  dative,  &c.  In  the  latter  he  gives  a  curiously 
engraven  representation,  and  a  description  of  Joseph's  whole  achieve- 
ment;  his  coat  being /ler /esse  imhatled  Argent  and  Gules  out  of  a 
Well  a  Tree  grotving  Proper,  ensigned  toith  a  Helmet  of  a  Knight 
thereon,  out  of  a  croion  Mural  Gides,  a  Wheatsheaf  Or  ;  his  Mantles  being 
of  three  sorts  :  the  outmost  being  that  of  the  gown,  being  cloth  of  gold 
lined  with^r^w'ne,  Erminees,  Erminois,  a,nd  Ermijiets  ;  the  next  being  that 
of  the  Cloah,  accompanying  him  in  all  his  adversities,  being  lined  Vaire, 
Vairy,  and  Cuppa  ;  the  outside  Purple:  the  third  being  the  Mantle  for  hia 
funeral,  being  mantled  Sable,  lined  Argent;  his  Motto,  Nee  Sorti  nee 
Fato :  having  his  wife's  amies  in  an  In-Escutcheon,  she  being  the 
daughter  and  heir  of  Potiphar,  Prince  and  Priest  of  C»t .-  his  Sword  and 
Girdle  on  the  left  side.  Thus  he  is  apublick  person,  conferring  honours 
by  Nobility  Dative  to  his  brethren  !  !  " — Sjjhere  of  Gentry,  book  ii.  p.  72. 
Alas  !  for  poor  Joseph's  coat  of  many  colours,  to  be  thus  blazoned  ! 

Master  Morgan,  in  setting  forth  the  Camp  of  Israel  seemeth  not 


o6        THE  SCUTCHEONS  OF  THE  TWELTE  TRIBES.        [bOOK  T. 

hereof  more  ancient  examples  there  are  than  the  seutcl  eons 
of  the  tribes,  if  Osyris,  Mizraim,  or  Jupiter  the  Just,  -n-ere 
the  son  of  Cham  ;  for  of  his  two  sons,  as  Diodorus  deli- 
vereth,  the  one  for  his  device  gave  a  dog,  the  other  a  wolf. 
And,  beside  the  shield  of  Achilles,  and  many  ancient  Greeks, 
if  we  receive  the  conjecture  of  Vossius,  that  the  crow  upon 
Cor^inus'  head  was  but  the  figure  of  that  animal  upon  his 
helmet,  it  is  an  example  of  antiquity  among  the  Eomans. 

But  more  widely  must  we  walk  if  we  follow  the  doctrine 
of  the  Cabalists,  who  in  each  of  the  four  banners  inscribe  a 
letter  of  the  tetragrammaton,  or  quadi'iliteral  name  of  God ; 
and  mysterizing  their  ensigns,  do  make  the  particular  ones 
of  the  twelve  tribes,  accommodable  imto  the  twelve  signs  in 
the  zodiac,  and  twelve  months  in  the  year ;  but  the  tetrar- 
chical  or  general  banners  of  Judah,  Eeuben,  Ephraim,  and 

less  exactly  informed  as  to  the  precise  bearing  of  each  tribe  {Ibid. 
p.  78). 

Judah  bare  Gules,  a  Lyon  couchant  or,  (past. 

Zabulun's  black  Ship's  like  to  a  man  of  warr. 

IsSACHAR's.4sse  between  two  burtliens  girt, 
As  Dan's  Sly  Snake  lies  in  a  field  of  vert.  jiort^. 

AsHUR  with  azure  a  Cup  of  Gold  sustains, 

And  Nepthali's  Hind  trips  o'er  the  flowrj'  plains. 
Epheaim's  strong  Ox  lyes  with  the  couchant  Hart,    fflElfSt. 

Manasseh's  Tree  its  branches  doth  impart. 

Benjamin's  Wolfe  in  the  field  gules  resides, 
Eeuben's  field  argent  and  blew  Bam  Wared  gWies.  §OUtt. 

Simeon  doth  beare  the  Sivord :  and  in  that  manner 

Gad  having  pitched  his  Tent  sets  up  his  Banner. 

Unfortunately,  however,  as  our  author  shrewdly  remarks,  the  "  de- 
scriptions" of  the  conoscenti  are  not  "agreeable  unto  one  another." 
Andrew  Favine,  in  his  Theater  of  Honor  and  Knighthood,  fol.  1623, 
p.  4,  perfectly  agrees  with  Morgan  as  to  the  antiquity  of  amies  and 
blazons,  which  he  does  not  hesitate  to  say  "  have  been  in  use  from  the 
creation  of  the  world."  But  when  he  descends  to  particulars,  their  dis- 
agreement is  instantly  apparent.  To  say  nothing  oi tinctures,  half  the 
heaHngs  are  different.  Favine  makes  Judah's  lyon  rampant  instead  of 
cotuhaiit ;  Eeuben  bears  an  armed  man,  instead  of  the  bcu-s  wavy ;  in 
Epliraira's  standard  he  omits  the  hart  ;  to  Simeon  he  assigns  two  swords 
instead  of  one  ;  to  Gad  a  sword  instead  of  a  banner;  (though  I  suspect 
the  description  of  Morgan  intended  a  sword,  but  the  artist,  misunder- 
standing his  doggrel,  has  drawn  a  banner)  ;  to  Manasseh  a  crowned 
sceptre  instead  of  a  tree  ;  and  to  Dan,  ears  of  corn  instead  of  a  cup  of 


Dan,2  unto  the  signs  of  Aries,  Cancer,  Libra,  and  Capri- 
cornus;*  that  is,  the  four  cardinal  parts  of  the  aodiack  and 
seasons  of  the  year.^ 

*  Recius  de  Coslesti  Agrictdtwa,  lib.  iv. 

'  do  make  the  particular  ones,  ctr.]  Browne  most  probably  alludes  to 
the  opinion  of  Kircher  on  this  point.  But  several  other  writers  have 
taken  pains  to  establish  the  same  theory.  General  Valiancy,  in  his 
chapter  on  the  astronomy  of  the  ancient  Irish  ;  i.  e.,  Qdlectanea  de 
Rebus  Hibernicis,  vol.  vi.  ch.  ix.)  proposes  a  scheme,  which  Dr.  Hales 
has  adopted,  with  some  alterations,  in  his  Chronology,  vol.  ii.  At  still 
greater  length  has  Sir  Wm.  Drummond  investigated  the  subject,  in  a 
paper  on  Gen.  xlix.  in  the  Classical  Journal,  vol.  iii.  p.  387.  But  here 
again  the  authorities  are  at  issue.  Sir  William  thus  arranges  his 
Zodiack  : — Reuben,  A  quarius  ;  Simeon  and  Levi,  Pisces  ;  Judah,  Leo  ; 
Zebulun,  Capricorn;  Issachar,  Cancer;  Dan,  Scorpius ;  Gad,  Aries; 
Asher,  Libra  ;  Napthali,  Virgo  ;  Joseph,  Taurus  ;  Benjamin,  Gemini  ; 
Mariasseh,  Sagittarius.  General  Valiancy  on  the  other  hand  assigns  to 
Simeon  and  Levi  the  sign  Gemini,  to  Zebulun,  Cancer;  to  Issacher, 
Taurus;  to  Napthali,  Aries;  to  Joseph,  Virgo;  and  to  Benjamin, 
Capricorn  ;  omitting  Gad,  Asher,  and  Manasseh.  Dr.  Hales  also  omits 
Manasseh,  but  places  Gad  in  Pisces,  Asher  in  Virgo,  and  Joseph  in 
Sagittarius.  There  are  other  variations.  Some  have  given  Levi  an 
open  bough.  The  banner  of  Gad,  which  in  Morgan  bears  a  lion,  is  also 
given  green,  and  without  any  device.  Reuben  has  sometimes  a  man- 
drake, instead  of  the  bars  or  the  armed  man.  Dan's  serjjent  is  some- 
times nowed,  sometimes  curled,  Manasseh  has  sometimes  an  ox,  and 
Ephraim  an  unicorn  or  a  bough.  But  enough  of  this.  Further  exami- 
nation of  the  various  fanciful  speculations  of  critics  and  antiquaries, 
whether  heraldic  or  astronomical,  will  only  confirm  our  author's  con- 
clusion, "of  theincertainty  of  arms,"  and  the  iiTeconcilable  discrepancy 
of  those  who  have  written  on  the  subjects  of  the  present  chapter: — 
quot  homines,  tot  sentcntice  ;  and  how  should  it  be  otherwise  in  a  case 
where  nothing  can  be  known,  and  any  thing  may  therefore  be  con- 
jectured ?  Before  I  close  this  note,  however,  I  must  be  allowed  to  pro- 
test against  Sir  Wm.  Drummond's  mode  of  conducting  his  enquiry. 
With  a  view  of  enhancing  the  probability  of  his  favourite  theory,  he 
commences  byeiuleavouring  to  prove  that  the  patriarchs  were  tinctured 
with  polytheism,  and  addicted  to  divination  and  astrology  ;  and  arrives, 
in  the  space  of  half  a  dozen  sentences,  at  the  absurd  and  revolting  con- 
clusion, that  JaKob  was  an  astrologer,  who  believed  himself  under  the 
influence  of  the  planet  Saturn  !  'To  what  lengths  will  not  some  men  go 
in  support  of  a  favourite  hypothesis,  however  fanciful !  What  would 
be  our  feelings  of  indignation  against  him  who  should  demolish  the 
classical  remains  of  Grecian  antiquity,  to  make  way  for  the  vagaries  of 
modern  architecture  ?  Less  deep  by  far,  than  when  we  are  asked  to 
sacrifice  the  hallowed  and  beautiful  simplicity  of  Scripture  narrative  to 
the  base  figments  of  rabbinical  tradition,  or  the  gratuitous  assumption! 
of  such  critics  as  Sir  Wm.  Drummond. 

'  But  more  widely,  <fcc.]    First  added  in  2nd  edition. 

38  OV   THE   PICTTIEES    OF   THE    SYBILS.         [bOOK  V. 


Of  the  Pictures  of  the  Sybils. 

The  pictures  of  the  sybils  are  very  common,  and  for  their 
prophecies  of  Christ  in  high  esteem  with  Christians;  described 
commonly  with  youthful  faces,  and  in  a  defined  number. 
Common  pieces  making  twelve,  and  many  precisely  ten  ; 
observing  therein  the  account  of  Varro,  that  is,  Sibylla  Del- 
phica,  Erythrcea,  Samia,  Oiimana,  CumcBa,  or  Cimmeria,  Sel- 
lespontiaca,  Libyca,  Fhryyia,  Tihurtina,  Persica.  In  which 
enumeration  I  perceive  learned  men  are  not  satisfied,  and 
many  conclude  an  irreconcilable  incertainty ;  some  making 
more,  others  fewer,  and  not  this  certain  number.  Por  Sui- 
das,  though  he  afiirm  that  in  divers  ages  there  were  ten,  yet 
the  same  denomination  he  affordeth  imto  more ;  Boysardus, 
in  his  tract  of  Divination,  hath  set  forth  the  icons  of  these 
ten,  yet  addeth  two  others,  Epirotica  and  JEgyptia ;  and 
some  affirm  that  prophesying  women  were  generally  named 

Others  make  them  fewer  :  Martianus  Capella  two  ;  Pliny 
and  Solinus  three  ;  -3]llian  four ;  and  Salmasius  in  effect  but 
seven.  Por  discoursing  thereof  in  his  Plinian  Exercitations, 
he  thus  determineth ;  Eidere  licet  hodiernos  pictores,  qui 
tahulas  proponunt  Cumance,  Cumcece  et  Erythrcece,  quasi  trium 
diversarum  sihyllarum  ;  cum  una  eademque  fuerit  Cicmana, 
Cumcea,  et  Eryfht'cea,  ex  plurium  et  doctissimorum  authorum 
sententia.  Boysardus  gives  us  leave  to  opinion  there  was  no 
more  than  one ;  for  so  doth  he  conclude.  In  tanta  scriptorum 
varietate  liherum  relinquimus  lectori  credere,  an  una  et  eadem 
in  diversis  regionihus  peregrinata,  cognomen  sortita  sit  ah  iis 
locis  uii  oracula  reddidisse  coynperitur,  an  plures  extiterint : 
and  therefore  not  discovering  a  resolution  of  their  number 
from  pens  of  the  best  writers,  we  have  no  reason  to  deter- 
mine the  same  from  the  hand  and  pencil  of  painters. 

As  touching  their  age,  that  they  are  generally  described 
as  yoimg  women,  history  will  not  allow  ;  for  the  sybil  whereof 
Virgil  speaketh,  is  termed  by  him  longceva  sacerdos,  and  Ser- 
rius,  in  his  comment,  amplifieth  the  same.  The  other,  that 
Bold  the  books  unto  Tarquin,  and  whose  history  is  plainer 

CHAP.  XII.]  OF    THE    DEATU    OF    CLEOPATKA.  39 

than  any,  by  Livy  and  Gellius  is  termed  anus  ;  that  is,  pro- 
perly no  woman  of  ordinary  age,  but  full  of  years,  and  in  the 
days  of  dotage,  according  to  the  etymology  of  Festus,*  and 
consonant  unto  the  history,  wherein  it  is  said,  that  Tarquiu 
thought  she  doted  with  old  age.  "Which  duly  perpended, 
the  licentia  pictoria  is  very  large  ;  with  the  same  reason 
they  may  delineate  old  jSTe'stor  like  Adonis,  Hecuba  with 
Helen's  face,  and  time  with  Absolom's  head.  But  this 
absurdity  that  eminent  artist,  Michael  Angelo,  hath  avoided, 
in  the  pictures  of  the  Cumean  and  Persian  Sybils,  as  they 
stand  described  from  the  printed  sculptiires  of  Adam  Man- 


Of  the  Picture  describing  the  death  of  Cleopatra. 

The  picture  concerning  the  death  of  Cleopatra,  with  two 
asps  or  venomous  serpents  unto  her  arms  or  breasts,  or  both, 
requires  consideration:^  for  therein  (beside  that  this  variety 
*  Amis,  quasi  Avoijg,  sine  mente. 

*  Mantuanus.]  On  the  subject  of  this  chapter,  the  origin  of  the  Sybils, 
see  the  Abbt^  Pluche,  Hist,  du  Ciel,  vol.  i.  p.  263. — Jeff. 

*  The  picture,  d-c]  "  An  ancient  encaustic  picture  of  Cleopatra  has 
lately  been  discovered,  and  detached  from  a  wall,  in  which  it  had  been 
hidden  for  centuries,  and  supposed  to  be  a  real  portrait,  painted  by  a 
Greek  artist.  It  is  done  on  blue  slate.  The  colouring  is  fresh,  very 
like  life.  She  is  represented  applying  the  aspic  to  her  bosom."  Ex- 
tract from  a  Letter  from  Paris  ;  Phil,.  Gaz.  Nov.  27,  1822.— /ef. 

The  preceding  notice  refers  in  all  probability  to  the  painting  which 
was  afterwards  brought  over  to  England  by  its  possessor,  Signer  Micheli, 
who  valued  it  at  £10,000.  He  caused  an  engraving  of  it  to  be  executed, 
which  I  have  had  an  opportunity  of  seeing,  in  the  hands  of  R.  R.  Rein- 
agle,  Esq.,  R.A.  by  whose  kindness  I  have  also  been  favoured  with  the 
following  very  full  and  interesting  history  and  description  of  this  curioua 
work  of  art,  in  compliance  with  my  request  : 

"17,  Fitzroy  Square,  Dec.  2,  1834. 

"Sir, — The  painting  was  done  on  a  species  of  black  slaty  marble — was 
broken  in  two  or  three  places.  It  was  said  by  the  Chev.  Micheli,  the  pro- 
prietor, who  brought  it  from  Florence  to  this  country,  that  it  had  been 
found  in  the  recesses  of  a  great  wine  cellar,  where  other  fragments  of  anti- 
quity had  been  deposited.  That  it  was  in  a  very  thick  case  of  wood  nearly 
mouldered  away.  That  it  got  into  a  broker's  hands,  by  the  major  domo 
of  the  house  or  palace  where  it  was  discovered,  having  sold  a  parcel  cf 

40  or  THE  DEATF  OF  CLEOPATEA.     [bOOK  V. 

is  not  excusable)  the  thing  itself  is  questionable ;  nor  is  it 

insignificant  lumber,  so  called,  in  which  this  painting  was  found.  It 
was  generally  incrusted  with  a  sort  of  tartar  and  decomposed  varnish, 
which  was  cleared  off  by  certain  eminent  chemists  of  Florence.  Parts 
of  the  colouring  were  scraped  off  and  analysed  by  three  or  four  persons. 
Formal  attestations  were  made  by  them  before  the  constituted  autho- 
rities, and  the  documents  had  the  stamps  of  authorized  bodies  and 
signatures.  The  colours  were  found  to  be  all  mineral,  and  few  in 
number.  The  red  was  the  synojna  of  Greece  ;  another  laky  red,  put 
over  the  red  mantle  Cleopatra  wore,  was  of  a  nature  not  discovered  ; — 
it  had  the  look  of  Venetian  glazed  red  lake,  of  the  crimson  colour  ; — 
the  white  was  a  calx,  but  I  forget  of  what  nature  ; — the  yellow  was  of 
the  nature  of  Naples  yellow — it  seemed  a  vitrification  ;  there  was  also 
yellow  ochre  ; — the  black  was  charcoal.  The  green  curtain  was  esteemed 
terra  verd  of  Greece,  passed  over  with  some  unknown  enriching  yellow 
colour.  The  hair  was  deep  auburn  colour,  and  might  be  mangenese  ; — 
the  curls,  elaborately  made  out,  were  finished  hair  by  hair,  with  vivid 
curved  lines  on  the  lighted  parts,  of  the  bright  yellow  golden  colour. 
The  necklace  consisted  of  various  stones  set  in  gold  :  the  amulet  was  of 
gold,  and  a  chain  twice  or  thrice  round  her  right  wrist.  She  wore  a 
crown  with  radiating  points,  and  jewels  between  each  ; — also  a  forehead 
jewel,  with  a  large  pearl  at  the  four  comers,  worn  lozengeways  on  her 
forehead  ;  part  of  her  front  hair  was  plaited,  and  two  plaits  where  brought 
round  the  neck,  and  tied  in  a  knot  of  the  hair  ; — the  red  mantle  was 
fastened  on  both  shoulders — no  linen  was  seen.  She  held  the  a.sp  in 
her  left  hand  :  it  was  of  a  green  colour,  and  rather  large.  Its  head  was 
fanciful,  and  partook  of  the  whims  of  sculptors,  both  ancient  and 
modern,  resembling  the  knobhead  and  pouting  mouth  of  the  dolphin. 
While  writhing,  it  seems  as  if  preparing  to  give  a  second  bite  ;  two 
minute  indents  of  the  fangs  were  imprinted  on  the  inside  of  the  left 
lireast,  and  a  drop  or  two  of  blood  flowed.  Cleopatra  was  looking  up- 
wards ;  a  shuddering  expression  from  quivering  lips,  and  heavy  teara 
falling  down  her  cheeks,  gave  the  countenance  a  singular  effect ;  her 
right  hand  was  falling  from  the  wrist  as  if  life  were  departing  and  con- 
vulsion commencing.  The  composition  of  the  figure  was  erect  and 
judiciously  disposed  for  the  confined  space  it  was  placed  in.  The  pro- 
portion of  the  picture  was  about  two  feet  nine  inches,  and  narrow,  like 
that  sized  canvass  which  artists  in  England  call  a  kitcat.  On  decom- 
posing the  colours,  the  learned  men  of  Florence  and  of  Paris  were  fuUy 
persuaded  that  it  was  an  encaustic  painting ;  wax  and  resinous  gum 
were  distinctly  separated.  The  whole  picture  presented  the  strongest 
signs  of  antiquity  ;  but  whether  it  is  a  real  antique,  remains  still  a  doubt 
on  many  minds.  It  was  attributed  to  Timomachus,  an  artist  of  great 
eminence  and  a  traveller,  who  lived  at  the  court  of  Augustus  Caesar. 
He  followed  the  encaustic  style  of  Apelles,  and  with  him  died  or  faded 
away  that  difficult  art.  The  picture  was  painted  (as  is  surmised)  by 
the  above-named  Greek  artist,  from  memory  (for  he  had  seen  Cleopatra 
often),  to  supply  her  place  in  tt.e  triumph  of  Augustus,  when  he  cele- 
brated his  Egj'ptian  victories  «ver  Anthony  and  Cleopatra.      She,  by 


indisputably  certain  what  manner  of  death  she  died.^  Plu- 
tarch, in  the  life  of  Anthony,  plainly  delivereth,  that  no  man 
knew  the  manner  of  her  death ;  for  some  aflirmed  she 
perished  by  poison,  which  she  always  carried  in  a  little 
hollow  comb,  and  wore  it  in  her  hair.  Beside,  there  were 
never  any  asps  discovered  in  the  place  of  her  death  ;  although 
two  of  her  maids  perished  also  with  her ;  only  it  was  said, 
two  small  and  almost  insensible  pricks  were  found  upon  her 
arm  ;  which  was  all  the  ground  that  Caesar  had  to  presume  the 
manner  of  her  death.  Galen,  who  was  contemporary  unto 
Plutarch,  delivereth  two  ways  of  her  death  ;  that  she  killed 
herself  by  the  bite  of  an  asp,  or  bit  an  hole  in  her  arm  and 
poured  poison  therein.  Strabo,  that  lived  before  them  both, 
hath  also  two  opinions ;  that  she  died  by  the  bite  of  an  asp, 
or  else  a  poisonous  ointment. 

We  might  question  the  length  of  the  asps,  which  are  some- 

her  desperate  resolution,  deprived  him  of  the  honour  of  exposing  hex 
person  to  the  gaze  of  the  Roman  people.  The  picture  was  said  to  have 
been  taken,  as  a  precious  relic  of  art,  by  Constantine  to  Byzantium, 
afterwards  named  Constantinople,  and  restored  to  Rome  on  the  return 
of  his  successors  to  the  ancient  seat  of  government.  Among  the  very 
many  things  in  and  relating  to  art,  this  picture  was  overlooked,  and  re- 
mained in  the  deep  dark  recesses  of  the  wine  cellar.  The  Chevalier 
Micheli  carried  it  back  to  Italy,  when  he  left  England,  about  two  years 
ago.     What  has  become  of  it  since  I  know  not. 

"The  title  of  the  print  is  as  follows  : — '  Cleopatra,  Queen  of  Egypt. 
The  original,  of  which  the  present  plate  is  a  faithful  representation,  ia 
the  only  known  and  hitherto  discovered  specimen  of  ancient  Greek 
painting.  It  has  given  rise  to  the  most  learned  enquiries  both  in  Italy 
and  France,  and  been  universally  admitted  by  cognoscenti,  assisted  by 
actual  analysis  of  the  colours,  to  be  an  encaustic  painting.  The  picture 
is  attributed  to  Timomachus,  and  supposed  to  have  been  painted  by  him 
for  his  friend  and  patron,  Augustus  Csesar,  33  years  before  Christ,  to 
adorn  the  triumph  that  celebrated  his  Egyptian  victories  over  Anthony 
and  Cleopatra,  as  a  substitute  for  the  beautiful  original,  of  whom  he 
was  disappointed  by  the  heroic  death  she  inflicted  on  herself.  This 
plate  is  dedicated  to  the  virtuosi  and  lovers  of  refined  art  in  the  British 
empire  by  the  author,  who  is  also  the  possessor  of  this  inestimable  relic 
of  Grecian  art.' 

"  I  remain  your  very  obedient  sei-vant. 

*'To  Mr.  S.  Wilkin.  "  R.  R.  Reinagle." 

*  the  thing  itself,  (tc]  The  painters  have  however  this  justification, 
that  they  follow  authorities.  "  Casar,  from  the  two  small  pricks  pre- 
sumed the  manner  of  her  death."  Suetonius  and  Eutropius  mention 
one  asp  ;  Horace,  Virgil,  Florus,  and  Propertius,  two. — Rons  and  J(ff. 

42        OF  THE  PICTURES  OF  THE  NINE  WOETHIES.        [bOOK  V. 

times  described  exceeding  short ;  whereas  the  cherseea,  or 
land-asp,  which  most  conceive  she  used,  is  above  four  cubits 
long.  Their  number  is  not  imquestionable ;  for  whereas 
there  are  generally  two  described,  Augustus  (as  Plutarch 
relateth)  did  carry  in  his  triumph  the  image  of  Cleopatra, 
but  with  one  asp  unto  her  arm.  As  for  the  two  pricks,  or 
little  spots  in  her  arm,  they  infer  not  their  plurality ;  for 
like  the  viper  the  asp  hath  two  teetli,  whereby  it  left  this 
impression,  or  double  puncture  behind  it. 

And  lastly,  we  might  question  the  place ;  for  some  apply 
them  laito  her  breast,  which  notwithstanding  will  not  con- 
sist with  the  history,  and  Petrus  Victorius  hath  well  observed 
the  same.  But  herein  the  mistake  was  easy,  it  being  the 
custom  in  capital  malefactors  to  apply  them  unto  the  breast ; 
as  the  author  De  Tlieriaca  ad  Pisonem,  an  eye-witness 
hereof  in  Alexandria,  where  Cleopatra  died,  determineth ; 
"I  beheld,"  saith  he,  " in  Alexandria,  how  suddenly  these 
serpents  bereave  a  man  of  life ;  for  when  any  one  is  con- 
demned to  this  kind  of  death,  if  they  intend  to  use  him 
favovu'ably,  that  is,  to  despatch  him  suddenly,  they  fasten  an 
asp  unto  his  breast,  and  bidding  him  walk  about,  he  presently 
perisheth  thereby." 


Of  the  Pictures  of  the  Nine  Worthies. 

The  pictures  of  the  nine  worthies  ^  are  not  unquestion- 
able, and  to  critical  spectators  may  seem  to  contain  sundry 
improprieties.  Some  will  enquire  why  Alexander  the  Great 
is  described  upon  an  elephant :  ^  for  we  do  not  find  he  used 
that  animal  in  his  armies,  much  less  in  his  own  person ;  but 

'  the  nine  ivorthies.']  Namely,  Josliua,  Gideon,  Sampson,  David, 
Judas  Maccabjeus,  Alexander  the  Great,  Julius  Caesar,  Charlemagne, 
and  Godfrey  of  Boulogne. 

^  Some  will  enquire,  tfrc]  Ross  suggests  that  "  this  picture  hath 
reference  to  that  story  of  the  elephant  in  Philostratus  (lib.  i.  c.  61), 
which  from  Alexander  to  Tiberius,  lived  three  hundred  and  fifty  years. 
This  huge  elephant,  Alexander,  after  he  had  overcome  Porus,  dedicated 
to  the  sun,  in  these  words,  'AXt^nj'^pof  o  Aioc  tov  Afarra  rtp  rfKiq)  ; 
for  he  gave  to  this  elephant  the  name  of  Ajax,  and  the  inhabitants  so 
honoured  this  beast,  th»  t  they  beset  him  round  with  garlands  and  rib- 
bons.— Arcana,  p.  160. 


his  horse  is  famous  in  history,  and  its  name  alive  to  this  day.'' 
Beside,  he  fought  but  one  remarkable  battle  wherein  there 
were  any  elephants,  and  that  was  with  Porus,  king  of  India, 
in  whicli  notwithstanding,  as  Curtius,  Arrianus,  and  Plu- 
tarch report,  he  was  on  horseback  himself.  And  if  because 
he  fought  against  elephants  he  is  with  propriety  set  upon 
their  backs,  with  no  less  (or  greater)  reason  is  the  same 
description  agreeable  unto  Judas  Maccabeus,  as  may  be 
observed  from  the  history  of  the  Maccabees,  and  also  unto 
Julius  Caesar,  whose  triumph  was  honoured  with  captive 
elephants,  as  may  be  observed  in  the  order  thereof  set  forth 
by  Jacobus  Laurus.*  And  if  also  we  should  admit  this 
description  upon  an  elephant,  yet  were  not  the  manner 
thereof  unquestionable,  tlmt  is,  in  his  ruling  the  beast  alone  ; 
for  beside  the  champion  upon  their  back,  there  was  also  a 
guide  or  ruler  which  sat  more  forward  to  command  or  guide 
the  beast.  Thus  did  King  Porus  ride  when  he  was  over- 
thrown by  Alexander ;  and  thus  are  also  the  towered  ele- 
phants described,  Maccabees  ii.  6.  Upon  the  beasts  ^  there 
were  strong  towers  of  wood,  which  covered  every  one  of 
them,  and  were  girt  fast  unto  them  by  devices  ;  there  were 
also  upon  every  one  of  them  thirty-two  strong  men,  beside 
the  Indian  that  ruled  them. 

Others  will  demand,  not  only  why  Alexander  upon  an 
elephant,  but  Hector  upon  an  horse  ;  whereas  his  manner  of 
fighting,  or  presenting  himself  in  battle,  was  in  a  chariot,- 

*  In  Splendor e  Urhis  Antiquw. 

*  hut  Ms  horse,  Sc]  There  is  an  engraving  of  Alexander  on  Buce- 
phalus, from  an  antique  statue,  without  stirrups,  in  the  Youth's  Magazine, 
for  May,  1820.— /ef. 

'  upon  the  beasts.]  Yf  wee  reckon  but  3001b.  weight  for  every  man 
and  his  armour  and  weapons  (which  is  the  lowest  proportion),  and 
allowing  for  the  tower  and  harnessing  but  5  or  6001b.  more,  the 
burthen  of  each  elephant  cannot  be  esteemed  less  than  10,1001b. 
weight ;  which  is  a  thing  almost  incredible :  for,  4,0001b.  or  5,0001b. 
is  the  greatest  loade  that  8  or  10  strong  horses  are  usually  put  to 
drawe. —  Wr. 

=  chariot.]  The  use  of  chariots  and  (in  warr)  of  iron,  and  in  private 
travayle  of  lighter  substance  is  as  olde  as  Jacob,  as  appeares  Gen.  xlv. 
27.  And  in  Gen.  xiv.  7,  the  text  sayes,  that  Pharoah  had  in  hi.4 
army  600  chosen  chariots,  besides  all  the  chariots  of  ^gypt.  Now  the 
former  of  these  two  storyes  was  500  yeares  before  the  Trojan  war,  and 
the  later  300.— m-. 

44        or  THE  PICTURES  OP  THE  NINE  WOETHIES.        [BOOK  V. 

as  did  the  other  noble  Trojans,  who,  as  Pliny  affirmeth,  were 
the  first  inventors  thereof.  The  same  v^a.j  of  fight  is  testi- 
fied by  Diodorus,  and  thus  delivered  by  Sir  AValter  Ealeigh  : 
"  Of  the  vulgar,  little  reckoning  was  made,  for  they  fought  all 
on  foot,  slightly  armed,  and  commonly  followed  the  success 
of  their  captains,  who  rode  not  upon  horses,  but  in  chariots 
drawn  by  two  or  three  horses."  And  this  was  also  the 
ancient  way  of  fight  among  the  Britons,  as  is  delivered  by 
Diodorus,  Caesar,  and  Tacitus ;  and  there  want  not  some 
who  have  taken  advantage  hereof,  and  made  it  one  argument 
of  their  original  from  Troy. 

Lastly,  by  any  man  versed  in  antiquit}',  the  question  can 
hardly  be  avoided,  why  the  horses  of  these  wortliies,  espe- 
cially of  Csesar,  are  described  with  the  furniture  of  great 
saddles  and  stirrups ;  for  saddles,  largely  taken,  though 
some  defence  there  may  be,  yet  that  they  had  not  the  use 
of  stirrups,  seemeth  of  lesser  doubt  ;  as  Pancirollus  hath 
observed,  as  Polydore  Virgil  and  Petrus  Yictorius  have  eon- 
firmed,*  expressly  discoursing  hereon  ;  as  is  observable  from 
Pliny,  and  cannot  escape  our  eyes  in  the  ancient  monuments, 
medals,  and  triumphant  arches  of  the  Eomans.  Nor  is  there 
any  ancient  classical  word  in  Latin  to  express  them.  For 
sfaphia,  stapes,  or  stapeda,  is  not  to  be  foimd  in  authors  of 
this  antiquity.  And  divers  words  which  may  be  urged  of 
this  signification,  are  either  later,  or  signified  not  thus  much 
in  the  time  of  Caesar.  And  therefore,  as  Lipsius  observeth, 
lest  a  thing  of  common  use  should  want  a  common  word, 
Pranciscus  Philelphus  named  them  stapedas,  and  Bodinus 
Subiecus,  pedanos.  And  vrhereas  the  name  might  promise 
some  antiquity,  because  among  the  three  small  bones  in  the 
auditory  organ,  by  physicians  termed  incus,  malleus  and 
stapes,  one  thereof  from  some  resemblance  doth  bear  this 
name;  these  bones  were  not  observed,  much  less  named  by 
Hippocrates,  Galen,  or  any  ancient  physician.  But  as  Lau- 
rentius  observeth,  concerning  the  invention  of  the  stapes  or 
stirrup-bone,  there  is  some  contention  between  Columbus 
and  Ingrassias ;  the  one  of  Sicilia,  the  other  of  Cremona, 
and  both  within  the  compass  of  this  centiu-y. 

The  same  is  also  deducible  from  very  approved  authors. 

*  De  Tnventione  Rerum,  Varice  Lectiones. 


Polybius,  speaking  of  the  way  which  Annibal  marched  into 
Italy,  useth  the  word  /3£/3/?juart<7rrti,  that  is,  saith  Petrus  Vic- 
torius,  it  was  stored  with  devices  for  men  to  get  upon  their 
horses,  which  assents  were  termed  hemata,  and  in  the  life  of 
Caius  Gracchus,  Plutarch  expresseth  as  much.  Por  endea- 
vouring to  ingratiate  himself  with  the  people,  besides  the 
placing  of  stones  at  every  mile's  end,  he  made  at  nearer 
distances  certain  elevated  places  and  scalary  ascents,  that  by 
the  help  thereof  they  might  with  better  ease  ascend  or 
mount  their  horses.  Now  if  we  demand  how  cavaliers,  then 
destitute  of  stirrups,  did  usually  mount  their  horses,  as  Lip- 
sius  informeth,  the  unable  and  softer  sort  of  men  had  their 
dj'a/3ox£«c,  or  stratores,  which  helped  them  upon  horseback, 
as  in  the  practice  of  Crassus,  in  Plutarch,  and  Caracalla,  in 
Spartianus,  and  the  later  example  of  Valentinianus,  who 
because  his  horse  rose  before,  that  he  could  not  be  settled 
on  his  back,  cut  of  the  right  hand  of  his  strator.  But  how 
the  active  and  hardy  persons  mounted,  Vegetius  *  resolves 
us,  that  they  used  to  vault  or  leap  up,  and  therefore  they 
had  wooden  horses  in  their  houses  and  abroad,  that  thereby 
young  men  might  enable  themselves  in  this  action  ;  wherein 
by  instruction  and  practice  they  grew  so  perfect,  that  they 
could  vault  up  on  the  right  or  left,  and  that  with  their 
sword  in  hand,  according  to  that  of  Virgil, — 

Poscit  equos  atque  arina  simul,  sultiique  superbus 

And  again, — 

Infi-senant  alii  curnis,  et  corpora  saltu 
Injiciunt  in  equos. 

So  Julius  Pollux  adviseth  to  teach  horses  to  incline,  dimit, 
and  bow  down  their  bodies,  that  their  riders  may  with  better 
ease  ascend  them.  And  thus  may  it  more  causally  be  made 
out  what  Hippocrates  affirmeth  of  the  Scythians,  that  using 
continual  riding  they  were  generally  molested  with  the 
sciatica  or  hip  gout.  Or  what  Suetonius  delivereth  of  Ger- 
manicus,  that  he  had  slender  legs,  but  increased  them  by 
riding  after  meals ;   that  is,  the  humours  descending  upon 

*  De  re  Milit. 

46        OF  THE  PICTURES  OF   THE  NI>'E  "WOETHIES.      [BOOK  V. 

their  peudulosity,  they  having  uo  support  or  suppedaueoua 

Now  if  any  shall  say  that  these  are  petty  errors  and  minor 
lapses,  not  considerably  injurious  unto  truth,  yet  is  it  neither 
reasonable  nor  safe  to  contemn  inferior  falsities,  but  rather  aa 
between  falsehood  and  truth  there  is  uo  medium,  so  shoidd 
they  be  maintained  in  their  distances  ;  nor  the  contagion  of 
the  one  approach  the  sincerity  of  the  other. 

3  Or  what  Suetonius,  <frc.]  Hippocrates  observes,  that  the  Scythians, 
who  were  much  on  horseback,  were  troubled  with  defluxions  and 
swellings  in  their  legs,  occasioned  by  their  dependent  posture,  and  the 
want  of  something  to  sustain  their  feet.  Had  stirrups  been  known,  this 
inconvenience  could  not  have  been  urged,  and  on  this  fact,  together  with 
other  arguments,  Berenger  much  relies  in  his  opinion  that  stirrups  were 
not  known  to  the  ancients.  See  his  Histoi-y  and  Art  of  Horsemanship, 
2  vols.  4to.  Montfaucon  attributes  this  ignorance  to  the  absence  of 
saddles,  and  to  the  impossibility  of  attaching  stirrups  to  the  horse- 
cloths, or  ephippia,  which  were  anciently  used  for  saddles. 

Beckman,  in  his  chapter  on  stirrups  {History  of  Inventions  and  Dis- 
coveries, vol.  ii.  270),  among  other  authorities,  refers  to  the  present 
chapter  in  the  French  translation.  Nothing,  he  says,  resembling 
stirnips,  remains  in  ancient  works  of  art  or  coins.  Xenophon,  in  his 
chapter  on  horsemanship,  makes  no  mention  of  them.  Stone  mount- 
ing-steps, he  observes,  were  not  only  used  among  the  Romans,  but  are 
still  to  be  found  even  in  England.  Victorious  generals  used  to  compel 
the  vanquished  even  of  the  highest  rank,  to  stoop  that  they  might  mount 
by  stepping  on  their  backs.  He  mentions  some  spurious  inscriptions 
and  coins  which  exhibit  the  stirrup.  He  names  Mauritius  as  the  first 
writer  who  has  expressly  mentioned  it,  in  the  sixth  century,  and  from 
Eustathius  it  appears  that  even  in  the  12th  century,  the  use  of  stirrups 
had  not  become  common. 

"  Abdallah's  friend  found  him  with  his  foot  in  the  stirrup,  just 
mounting  his  camel."  Sale's  Koran,  Prelim.  Disc.  p.  29.  Abdallah 
lived  in  the  sixth  century. — J(jf'. 

"  Stirops.  From  the  old  English  astige  or  stighe,  to  ascend  or  mount 
up,  and  ropes  ;  being  first  devised  with  cords  or  ropes,  before  they  were 
made  with  leather  and  iron  fastened  to  it."  Verstegan,  p.  209.  "To 
have  styed  up  from  the  very  centre  of  the  earth."  Bishop  Hall's  Con- 
templations on  the  Ascension,  vol.  ii.  p.  285.     Hinc  Stigh-rcpes. — Jeff. 

According  to  Sir  John  Carr's  ''  Caledonian  Sketches,"  n  his  account 
of  a  male  equipage,  that  island  is  not  yet  "a  land  :f  bridles  and 
•addles."— i/o.  Eev.  Sep.  1809.— Jeff. 



Of  tlve,  Picture  ofJephthah  Sacrificing  his  Daughter. 

The  hand  of  the  painter  confidently  setteth  forth  the 
picture  of  Jephthah  in  the  posture  of  Abraham,  sacrificing 
his  only  daughter.  Thus  is  it  commonly  received,  and  hath 
had  the  attest  of  many  worthy  writers.  Notwithstanding, 
upon  enquiry  we  find  the  matter  doubtful,  and  many  upon 
probable  grounds  to  have  been  of  another  opinion ;  conceiv- 
ing in  this  oblation  not  a  natural  but  a  civil  kind  of  death, 
and  a  separation  only  unto  the  Lord.  For  that  he  pursued 
not  his  vow  imto  a  literal  oblation,  there  want  not  arguments 
both  from  the  text  and  reason.'* 

For  first,  it  is  evident  that  she  deplored  her  virginity,  and 
not  her  death :  "  Let  me  go  up  and  down  the  mountains  and 
bewail  my  virginity,  I  and  my  fellows." 

Secondly,  when  it  is  said,  that  Jephthah  did  unto  her 
according  unto  his  vow,  it  is  immediately  subjoined,  et  non 

*  For  that  he  pursued  not,  d-c]  The  observations  of  Dr.  Adam 
Clarke  on  this  very  interesting  question,  are  so  spirited  and  satisfactory, 
that  I  must  insert  them.  Judg.  xi.  31. — "The  translation  of  which, 
according  to  the  most  accurate  Hebrew  scholars,  is  this — ■'  I  will  conse- 
crate it  to  the  Lord  ;  OR,  I  will  offer  it  for  a  burnt-offering :'  that  is, 
*  if  it  be  a  thing  fit  for  a  hurnt-offerlng ,  it  shall  be  made  one  :  if  fit /or 
the  service  of  God,  it  shall  be  consecrated  to  him.'  That  conditions  of 
this  kind  must  have  been  implied  in  the  vow  is  evident  enough  ;  to  have 
been  made  without  them  it  must  have  been  the  vow  of  a  heathen  or  a 
madman.  li  a,  dog  had  met  him,  this  could  not  have  been  made  a 
burnt-offering:  and  if  his  neighbour's  or  friend's  wi/e,  so«,  or  daughter, 
&c.  had  been  returning  from  a  visit  to  his  family,  his  vow  gave  him  no 
right  over  them.  Besides,  human  sacrifices  were  ever  an  abomination 
to  the  Lord  ;  and  this  was  one  of  the  grand  reasons  why  God  drave  out 
the  Canaanites,  &c.  because  they  offered  their  sons  and  daughters  to 
Moloch,  in  the  fire  ;  i.  e.  made  burnt-offerings  of  them,  as  is  generally 
supposed.  That  Jephthah  was  a  deeply  pious  man,  appears  in  the 
whole  of  his  conduct ;  and  that  he  was  well  acquainted  with  the  law  of 
Moses, — which  prohibited  such  sacrifices,  and  stated  what  was  to  be 
offered  in  sacrifice, — is  evident  enough  from  his  expostulation  with  the 
king  and  people  of  Amnion,  verse  14  to  27.  Therefore  it  must  be 
granted  that  he  never  made  that  rash  vow  which  several  suppose  he  did  ; 
nor  was  he  capable,  if  he  had,  of  executing  it  in  that  most  shocking 
manner  which  some  Christian  writers  (tell  it  not  in  Gath)  have  con- 
tended for.  He  could  not  commit  a  crime  which  himself  had  just  now 
been  an  executor  of  God's  justice  to  punish  in  others." 


cognovit  virum,  and  she  knew  no  man ;  which,  as  immediate 
in  words,  was  probably  most  near  in  sense  unto  the  vow. 

Thirdly,  it  is  said  in  the  text,  that  the  daughters  of  Israel 
^Jrent  yearly  to  talk  with  the  daughter  of  Jephthah  four  days 
in  the  year;  which  had  she  been  sacrificed  they  could  not  have 
done  :  for  whereas  the  word  is  sometime  translated  to  lament, 
yet  doth  it  also  signify  to  talk  or  have  conference  with  one, 
and  by  Tremellius,  who  was  well  able  to  judge  of  the  original, 
it  is  in  this  sense  translated :  Ibantjilics  Israelitarum,  ad  con- 
fahulandmn  cum  filia  Jeptlitliaci,  q^uatuor  diehus  quotannis : 
and  so  it  is  also  set  down  in  the  marginal  notes  of  our  trans- 
lation. And  from  this  annual  concourse  of  the  daughters  of 
Israel,  it  is  not  improbable  in  future  ages  the  daughter  of 
Jephthah  came  to  be  worshipped  as  a  deity,  and  had  by 
the  Samaritans  an  annual  festivity  observed  unto  her  ho- 
noiu",  as  Epiphanius  hath  lefl  recorded  in  the  heresy  of  the 

It  is  also  repugnant  unto  reason  ;  for  the  offering  of  man- 
kind was  against  the  law  of  Grod,  who  so  abhorred  human 
sacrifice,  that  he  admitted  not  the  oblation  of  unclean  beasts, 
and  confined  his  altars  but  unto  few  kinds  of  animals,  the  ox, 
the  goat,  the  sheep,  the  pigeon,  and  its  kinds.  In  the  cleans- 
ing of  the  leper,  there  is,  I  confess,  mention  made  of  the 
sparrow  ;  but  great  dispute  may  be  made  whether  it  be  pro- 
perly rendered.  And  therefore  the  Scripture  with  indigna- 
tion ofttimes  makes  mention  of  human  sacrifice  among  the 
Gentiles  ;  whose  oblations  scarce  made  scruple  of  any  ani- 
mal, sacrificing  not  only  man,  but  horses,  lions,  eagles  ;  and 
though  they  come  not  into  holocausts,  yet  do  we  read  the 
Syrians  did  make  oblations  of  fishes  imto  the  goddess  Der- 
ceto.  It  being  therefore  a  sacrifice  so  abominable  unto  Grod, 
although  he  had  pursued  it,  it  is  not  probable  the  priests  and 
wisdom  of  Israel  would  have  permitted  it ;  and  that  not  only 
in  regard  of  the  subject  or  sacrifice  itself,  but  also  the  sacri- 
ficator,  which  the  picture  makes  to  be  Jephthah,  who  was 
neither  priest,  nor  capable  of  that  ofiice  ;  for  he  was  a 
GrUeadite,  and  as  the  text  affirmeth,  the  son  also  of  an  harlot. 
And  how  hardly  the  priesthood  would  endrn-e  encroachment 
upon  their  function,  a  notable  example  there  is  in  the  story 
of  Ozias. 

Secondly,  the  offering  up  of  his  daughter  was  not  only 


unlawful  and  entrenched  upon  his  religion,  but  had  been 
a  course  that  had  much  condemned  his  discretion  ;  that  is, 
to  have  punished  himself  in  the  strictest  observance  of  his 
vow,  when  as  the  law  of  God  had  allowed  an  evasion  ;  that 
is,  by  way  of  commutation  or  redemption,  according  as  is 
determined,  Levit.  xxvii.  AVhereby  if  she  were  between 
the  age  of  five  and  twenty,  she  was  to  be  estimated  but  at 
ten  shekels,  and  if  between  twenty  and  sixty,  not  above 
thirty.  A  sum  that  could  never  discourage  an  indulgent 
parent ;  it  being  but  the  value  of  a  servant  slain ;  the  incon- 
siderable salary  of  Judas ;  and  will  make  no  greater  noise 
than  three  pounds  fifteen  shillings  with  us.  And  therefore 
their  conceit  is  not  to  be  exploded,  who  say  that  from  the 
story  of  Jephthah's  sacrificing  his  own  daughter,  might 
spring  the  fable  of  Agamemnon,  delivering  unto  sacrifice 
his  daughter  Iphigenia,  who  was  also  contemporary  unto 
Jephthah ;  wherein  to  answer  the  ground  that  hinted  it, 
Iphigenia  was  not  sacrificed  herself,  but  redeemed  with  an 
hart,  which  Diana  accepted  for  her.^ 

Lastly,  although  his  vow  run  generally  for  the  words, 
"Whatsoever  shall  come  forth,  &c.,"  yet  might  it  be  re- 
strained in  the  sense,  for  whatsoever  was  sacrificeable  and 
justly  subject  to  lawl'ul  immolation ;  and  so  would  not  have 
sacrificed  either  horse  or  dog,  if  they  had  come  out  upon 
him.  Nor  was  he  obliged  by  oath  unto  a  strict  observation 
of  that  which  promissorily  was  unlawful ;  or  coidd  he  be 
qualified  by  vow  to  commit  a  fact  which  naturally  was  abo- 
minable. Which  doctrine  had  Herod  understood,  it  might 
have  saved  John  Baptist's  head,  when  he  promised  by 
oath  to  give  unto  Herodias  whatsoever  she  would  ask ; 
that  is,  if  it  were  in  the  compass  of  things  which  he  could 
lawfully  grant.  For  his  oath  made  not  that  lawfid  which 
was  illegal  before ;  and  if  it  were  unjust  to  murder  John, 
the  supervenient  oath  did  not  extenuate  the  fact,  or  oblige 
the  juror  imto  it" 

Now  the  ground  at  least  which  much  promoted  the 
opinion,  might  be  the  dubious  words  of  the  text,  which 
contain  the   sense   of  his   vow ;  most   men  adhering  unto 

*  Iphigenia,  <fcc.]     So  the  son  of  Idomeneus,  on  whose  fate  there  jj 
an  interesting  scene  in  Fcndon's  Telcmackus,  book  v. — Jeff. 
^  Lastly,  although  his  vow,  d-c]     First  added  in  2nd  edition. 
TOL.  II.  E 

50        OF  JOHN  THE  BAPTIST  IN  A  CAMEL's  SKIN.        [bOOK  T. 

their  common  and  obvious  acception.  "  "Whatsoever  shall 
come  forth  of  the  doors  of  my  house,  shall  surely  be  the 
Lord's,  and  I  will  offer  it  up  for  a  burnt-offering."  K'ow 
whereas  it  is  said,  Erit  Jehovce,  et  offeram  illud  Iwlocaustum, 
the  word  signifpng  both  et  and  aut,  it  may  be  taken  dis- 
junctively ;  aut  offeram,  that  is,  it  shall  either  be  the  Lord's 
by  separation,  or  else,  an  holocaust  by  common  oblation ; 
even  as  our  marginal  translation  advertiseth,  and  as  Tre- 
mellius  rendereth  it,  Erit  inqiiam  Jehovce,  aut  offeram  illud 
Iwlocaustum.  And,  for  the  vulgar  translation,  it  useth  often 
et  where  aut  must  be  presumed,  as  Exod.  xxi. ;  Si  quis 
percusserit  fatrem  et  matrem,  that  is,  not  both,  but  either. 
There  being  therefore  two  ways  to  dispose  of  her,  either  to 
separate  her  unto  the  Lord,  or  offer  her  as  a  sacrifice,  it  is 
of  no  necessity  the  latter  sliould  be  necessary ;  and  surely 
less  derogatory  unto  the  sacred  text  and  history  of  the 
people  of  God  must  be  the  former. 


Of  the  Picture  of  John  the  Baptint  in  a  Camel's  SHn. 

The  picture  of  John  the  Baptist  in  a  camel's  skin  is  very 
questionable/    and  many  I  perceive   have  condemned  it. 

'  in  a  camel's  skin,  d-c.']  Eoss,  as  usual,  supports  the  opinion  which 
Browne  attacks.  "  It  was  fit  the  Baptist,  who  came  to  preach  re- 
pentance for  sin,  should  wear  a  garment  of  skins,  which  was  the  first 
clothes  that  Adam  wore  after  he  had  sinned  ;  for  his  fig-leaves  were  not 
proper,  and  this  garment  also  showed  both  his  poverty  and  humility. 
For  as  great  men  wear  rich  skins  and  costly  furs,  he  was  contented  with 
a  camel's  skin.  By  this  garment  also  he  shows  himself  to  be  another 
Elijah  (2  Kings  i.),  who  did  wear  such  a  garment,  and  to  be  one  of  those 
of  whom  the  apostle  speaks,  who  went  about  in  skins,  of  whom  the 
world  was  not  worthy.  Neither  was  it  unuseful  in  John's  time,  and 
before,  to  wear  skins  ;  for  the  prophets  among  the  Jews,  the  philoso- 
phers among  the  Indians,  and  generally  the  Scythians  did  wear  skins  ; 
hence  by  Claudian  they  are  c&Wedi  'pellita  juvenilis.  Great  commanders 
also  used  to  wear  them  ;  as  Hercules  the  lion's  skin,  Acestes  the 
bear's,  Camilla  the  tiger's.  John's  garment,  then,  of  camel's  hair,  was 
not,  as  some  fondly  conceit,  a  sackcloth  or  camblet,  but  a  skin  with  the 
Ijiir  on  it." 

ThU  is  quaint  and  lively  enough ;   but  the  most  competent  autho- 

CHAP.  XV.]     OF  JOHN  THE  BAPTIST  IN  A  CAMEl's  SKIN.      51 

The  ground  or  occasion  of  this  description  are  the  words  of 
the  Holy  Scripture,  especially  of  Matthew  and  Mark 
(for  Luke  and  John  are  silent  herein)  ;  by  them  it  is  deli- 
vered, "  his  garment  was  of  camel'  s  hair,  and  he  had  a 
leather  girdle  about  his  loins."  Now  here  it  seems  the 
camel's  hair  is  taken  by  painters  for  the  skin  or  pelt  with 
the  hair  upon  it.  But  this  exposition  wiU  not  so  well  con- 
sist with  the  strict  acception  of  the  words  ;  for  Mark  i.,  it 
is  said,  he  was,  ey^eSvfxeyog  rpiycLQ  Kafxr]\ov,  and  Mat- 
thew iii.,  £t)(£  TO  ivZvjia  ciTTo  TpL-y^uJi'  KafiijXov,  that  is,  as  the 
vulgar  translation,  that  of  Beza,  that  of  Sixtus  Quintus, 
und  Clement  the  Eighth,  hath  rendered  it,  vestimentum 
habebat  e  pills  eamelinis ;  which  is,  as  ours  translateth  it, 
a  garment  of  camel's  hair ;  that  is,  made  of  some  texture  of 
that  hair,  a  coarse  garment,  a  ciHcious  or  sackcloth  habit, 
suitable  to  the  austerity  of  his  life, — the  severity  of  his  doc- 
trine, repentance, — and  the  place  thereof,  the  wilderness, — 
his  food  and  diet,  locusts  and  wild  honey.*  Agreeable  unto 
the  example  of  Elias,*  who  is  said  to  be  vir  pilosus,  that  is, 
as  Tremellius  interprets.  Teste  villosd  cinctus,  answerable 
unto  the  habit  of  the  ancient  prophets,  according  to  that  of 
Zaehary :  "  In  that  day  the  prophets  shall  be  ashamed, 
neither  shall  they  wear  a  rough  garment  to  deceive  ;"t  and 
suitable  to  the  cilicious  and  hairy  vests  of  the  strictest  orders 
of  friars,  who  derive  the  institution  of  their  monastic  life 
from  the  example  of  John  and  Elias. 

As  for  the  wearing  of  skins,  where  that  is  properly  in- 
tended, the  expression  of  the  Scripture  is  plain ;  so  is  it 
said,  Heb.xi.,  they  wandered  about  h  alysioig  ci'p/xao-tj',  that 
is,  in  goat's  skins  ;  and  so  it  is  said  of  our  first  parents. 
Gen.  iii..  That  God  made  them  -x^inLvae  cipnaTirovg,  vestes 
pelliceas,  or  coats  of  skins  ;"  which  though  a  natural  habit 
unto  all,  before  the  invention  of  texture,  was  something 
more  unto  Adam,  who  had  newly  learned  to  die ;  for  xiuto 
him  a  garment  from  the  dead  was  but  a  dictate  of  death,  and 
an  habit  of  mortality. 

*  2  Kings  iii.  18.  t  Zach.  xiii. 

rities  agree  with  our  author  in  supposing  John's  garment  to  have  been 
made  of  a  coarse  sort  of  camel's  hair  camblet,  or  stuff:  and  Harmerhaa 
given  several  instances  of  such  an  article  being  worn. 
"  his  food,  cfcc]     See  book  vii.  ch.  ix. 

52  or    THE    PICTURE    OE    ST.  CHEISTOPnEE.  [bOOK  V. 

Now  if  any  man  will  say  this  habit  of  John  was  neither 
of  camel's  skin,  nor  any  coarse  texture  of  its  hair,  but  rather 
some  finer  weave  of  camelot,  grograin,  or  the  like,  inasmuch 
as  these  stuffs  are  supposed  to  be  made  of  the  hair  of  that 
animal,  or  because  that  ^lian  affirmeth  tliat  camel's  hair  of 
Persia  is  as  fine  as  Milesian  wool,  wherewith  the  great  ones 
of  that  place  were  clothed ;  they  have  discovered  an  habit 
not  only  unsuitable  unto  his  leathern  cincture,  and  the 
coarseness  of  his  life,  but  not  consistent  with  the  words  of 
our  Saviour,  when  reasoning  with  the  people  concerning 
John,  he  saith,  "  What  went  you  out  into  the  wilderness  to 
see  ?  A  man  clothed  in  soft  raiment  ?  Behold,  they  that 
wear  soft  raiment,  are  in  king's  houses." 


Of  the  Picture  of  St.  Christopher. 

The  picture  of  St.  Christopher,  that  is,  a  man  of  a  giant- 
like stature,  bearing  upon  his  shoulders  om*  Saviour  Christ, 
and  with  a  staft"  in  his  hand,  wading  through  the  water,  is 
known  unto  children,  common  over  all  Europe,  not  only  as 
a  sign  unto  houses,  but  is  described  in  many  churches,^ 
and  stands  Colossus-like  in  the  entrance  of  Notre  Dame  in 

Now  from  hence  common  eyes  conceive  an  history  suit- 
able unto  this  description,  that  he  carried  our  Saviour  in  his 
minority  over  some  river  of  water ;  which  notwithstanding 
we  cannot  at  all  make  out.  For  we  read  not  thus  much  in 
any  good  author,  nor  of  any  remarkable  Christopher,  before 
the  reign  of  Decius,  who  lived  two  hundred  and  fifty  years 
after  Clu-ist.  This  man  indeed,  according  unto  history,  suf- 
fered as  a  martyr  in  the  second  year  of  that  emperor,  and 
in  the  lioman  calendar  takes  up  the  21st  of  July. 

^  is  known  unto  children,  &c.']  This  gigantic  saint  is  not  so  general  an 
acquaintance  in  our  nurseries,  &c.  as  he  seems  to  have  been  in  days  of 
yore.  An  amusing  account  of  one  of  the  ecclesiastical  figures  of  him, 
just  as  here  described,  may  be  found  in  the  Gcnt.'s  Mar;,  for  Oct.  1803. 

'  Notre  Dame.]  Also  in  the  cathedral  of  Christ's  Church,  Canter- 

CHAJ.  XVI,]      or    THE    PICTUEB    OF    ST,  CHBISTOPHEE,  53 

The  ground  fcliat  begat  or  promoted  this  opinion,  was  first 
the  fabulous  adjections  of  succeeding  ages  unto  the  veritable 
acts  of  this  martyr,  who  in  the  most  probable  accoimts  was 
remarkable  for  his  staff",  and  a  man  of  a  goodly  stature. 

Tlie  second  might  be  a  mistake  or  misapprehension  of  the 
picture,  most  men  conceiving  that  an  history,  which  was  con- 
trived at  first  but  as  an  emblem  or  symbolical  fancy  ;  as  from 
the  annotations  of  Baronius  upon  the  Eoman  martyrology, 
Lipellous,*  in  the  life  of  St.  Christopher,  hath  observed  in 
these  words  :  Acta  S.  Christopheri  a  multis  depravata  inve- 
niuntur :  quod  quidem  noil  aliunde  originem  sumpsisse  cer- 
ium est,  quam  quod  symholicas  figuras  imperiti  ad  veritatem 
successu  temporis  transtiderint :  itaque  cuncta  ilia  de  Sancto 
Christophero  pingi  consueta,  sgmhola  potius  quam  Mstoricd 
alicujus  eccistimandum  est  esse  expressam  imaginem  ;  that  is, 
"  the  acts  of  St.  Christopher  are  depraved  by  many :  which 
surely  began  from  no  other  groiuid  than  that  in  process  of 
time  unskilful  men  translated  symbolical  figiu'es  unto  real 
verities :  and  therefore  what  is  usually  described  in  the  pic- 
ture of  St.  Christopher,  is  rather  to  be  received  as  an  emblem, 
or  symbolical  description,  than  any  real  histoiy."  Now  what 
emblem  this  was,  or  what  its  signification,  conjectures  are 
many ;  Pierius  hath  set  down  one,  that  is,  of  the  disciple  of 
Christ ;  for  he  that  will  carry  Christ  upon  his  shoulders,  must 
rely  upon  the  staff"  of  his  direction,  whereon  if  he  firmeth 
himself  he  may  be  able  to  overcome  the  billows  of  resistance, 
and  in  the  virtue  of  this  staff",  like  that  of  Jacob,  pass  over 
the  waters  of  Jordan,  Or  otherwise  thus  :  he  that  will  sub- 
mit his  shoulders  unto  Christ,  shall  by  the  concurrence  of 
his  power  increase  into  the  strength  of  a  giant ;  and  being 
supported  by  the  staff"  of  his  Holy  Spirit,  shall  not  be  over- 
whelmed by  the  waves  of  the  world,  but  wade  through  all 

Add  also  the' mystical  reasons  of  this  portrait  alleged  by 
Vida  and  Xerisanus ;  and  tlie  recorded  story  of  Christo- 
pher, that  before  his  martyrdom  he  requested  of  Cod,  that 
wherever  his  body  were,  the  places  should  be  freed  from 
pestilence  and  mischiefs,  from  infection.  And  therefore  his 
picture  or  portrait  was  usually  placed  in  public  ways,  and  at 

*  Lip.  De  Vitis  Sanctorum. 

54  OF   THE    PTCTUEE    OP    ST.  GEOEGE,  [bOOK  V. 

the  entrance  of  towns  and  churches,  according  to  the  received 
distich  :2  * 

Christophorum  videas,  postea  tutus  eris. 


Of  the  Picture  of  St.  George, 

The  picture  of  St.  George  killing  the  dragon,  and  as  most 
ancient  draughts  do  run,  with  the  daughter  of  a  king  stand- 
ing by,  is  famous  amongst  Christians.  And  upon  this  de- 
scription dependeth  a  solemn  story,  how  by  this  achieve- 
ment he  redeemed  a  king's  daughter  :  which  is  more 
especially  believed  by  the  English,  whose  protector  he  is ; 
and  in  which  form  and  history,  according  to  his  description' 
in  the  English  college  at  Eome,  he  is  set  forth  in  the  icons 
or  cuts  of  martyrs  by  Cevalerius,  and  aU  this  according  to 
the  Historia  Lombardica,  or  golden  legend  of  Jacobus  de 
Voragine.3  Now  of  what  authority  soever  this  piece  be 
amongst  us,  it  is  I  perceive  received  with  different  beliefs  : 
for  some  believe  the  person  and  the  story ;  some  the  person, 
but  not  the  story  ;  and  others  deny  both.'* 

*  Anton.  Castellionm  Antiquitates  Mediolanenses 

^  Add  also  the  mystical,  etc.]     First  added  in  3rd  edition, 

^  and  all  this,  <i-c.]     First  added  in  2nd  edition. 

*  soTne  believe  the  person,  tfcc]  Dr.  Pettingal  published  a  dissertation 
to  prove  both  the  person  and  the  story  to  be  fabulous,  and  the  device  of 
the  order  to  be  merely  emblematical :  and  Dr.  Byron  wrote  an  essay  (in 
verse)  to  prove  that  St.  Gregory  the  Great,  and  not  St.  George,  was  the 
guardian  saint  of  England.  Against  these  two,  and  other  writers  on 
the  same  side.  Dr.  S.  Pegge  drew  up  a  paper  which  appeared  in  the  5th 
vol.  oi  the  Archoiologia :  vindicating  the  honor  of  the  patron  saint  of 
these  realms,  and  of  that  society  ;  asserting  that  he  was  a  Christian  saint 
and  martyr — George  of  Cappadocia  ;  and  distinct  from  the  Arian  bishop 
George  of  Alexandria,  with  whom  Dr.  Reynolds  had  identified  him. 
In  this  paper  Dr.  Pegge  has  not  mentioned  the  present  chapter,  which 
in  all  probability  only  attracted  his  notice  some  years  after. — In  hi3 
(posthumous  work  called)  Anonymiana,  No.  54,  he  says,  that  "  the 
substance  of  Pettingal's  dissertation  on  the  original  of  the  equestrian 
figure  of  St.  George  (which  the  learned  author  supposes  to  be  all 
emblematical)  and  of  the  Garter,  may  be  found  in  Browyie's  Vulgar 

Browne,  however,  it  must  be  observed,  is  of  the  same  opinion  as  Dr. 

:;nAP,  XVII.]  OF    THE    PICTURE    OE    ST.  GEOBGE.  55 

That  such  a  person  there  was,  we  shall  not  contend :  for 
besides  others,  Dr.  Heylin  hath  clearly  asserted  it  in  his 
History  of  St.  George.  The  indistinction  of  many  in  the 
community  of  name,  or  the  misapplication  of  the  acts  of  one 
unto  another,  hath  made  some  doubt  thereof.  Eor  of  this 
name  we  meet  with  more  than  one  m  history,  and  no  less  than 
two  conceived  of  Cappadocia.  The  one  an  Ai'ian,  who  was 
slain  by  the  Alexandrians  in  the  time  of  Julian ;  the  other  a 
valiant  soldier  and  Christian  martyr,  beheaded  in  the  reign  of 
Dioclesian.  This  is  the  George  conceived  in  this  picture, 
who  hath  his  day  in  the  Roman  calendar,  on  whom  so  many 
fables  are  delivered,  whose  story  is  set  forth  by  Metaphrastes, 
and  his  miracles  by  Turonensis. 

As  for  the  story  depending  hereon,  some  conceive  as 
lightly  thereof,  as  of  that  of  Perseus  and  Andromeda,  con- 
jecturing the  one  to  be  the  father  of  the  other ;  and  some  too 
highly  assert  it.  Others  with  better  moderation,  do  either 
entertain  the  same  as  a  fabulous  addition  unto  the  true  and 
authentic  story  of  St.  George,^  or  else,  we  conceive  the  literal 
acception  to  be  a  misconstruction  of  the  symbolical  expres- 
sion ;  apprehending  a  veritable  history,  in  an  emblem  or 
piece  of  Christian  poesy.  And  this  emblematical  construc- 
tion hath  been  received  by  men  not  forward  to  extenuate 

Pegge  as  to  the  reality  of  St.  George,  his  identity  with  George  of  Cap- 
padocia, and  his  distinctness  from  the  Arian  bishop.  All  these  parties 
are  agreed  in  declining  assent  to  the  dragon  part  of  the  story. 

It  is  very  probable  that  Sir  Thomas  was  led  partly  by  his  residence  at 
Norwich,  to  investigate  the  story  of  St.  George,  who  is  a  personage  of 
no  small  importance  there.  Pegge  mentions  the  guild  of  St.  George  in 
that  city  (in  his  paper  in  the  Archoeologia),  but  he  was  probably  not 
aware  that  there  has  been  from  time  immemorial,  on  ["Lord]  Mayor's 
Day"  at  Norwich,  an  annual  pageant,  the  sole  remnant  of  St.  George's 
guild,  in  which  an  immense  dragon,  horrible  to  view,  with  hydra  head, 
and  gaping  jaws  and  winga,  and  scales  bedecked  in  gold  and  green,  is 
carried  about  by  a  luckless  wight,  whose  task  it  is,  the  live-long-day,  by 
string  and  pulley  from  within,  to  ope  and  shut  the  monster's  jaws,  by 
way  of  levying  contributions  on  the  gaping  multitude,  especially  of 
youthful  gazers,  with  whom  it  is  matter  of  half  terror,  half  joy,  to  pop  a 
half-penny  into  the  opened  mouth  of  snap  (so  is  he  called),  whose  bow 
of  thanks,  with  long  and  forked  tail  high  waved  in  air,  acknowledges 
the  gift.  Throughout  the  rest  of  the  year,  fell  Snap  lives  on  the  forage 
of  that  memorable  day  :  quietly  reposing  in  the  hall  of  his  conqueror'a 
sainted  brother,  St.  Andrew,  where  the  civic  fc'iSt  's  held. 

^  soViC  conceive,  tfcc]    First  added  in  2nd  editioL 

56  OF    THE    PICTUEE    OF   JEEOME.  [bOOK  V 

tbe  acts  of  saints :  as,  from  Baronius,  Lipellous  tlie  Car- 
thusian hath  delivered  in  tlie  life  of  St.  G-earge  ;  Piduram 
illam  St.  Georgii  qua  effingitur  eqioes  armatus,  qui  liastce 
cusplde  hostem  interjicit,  juocta  quern  etiani  virgo  posita  manus 
supplices  tendens  ejus  explorat  auxilmm,  symboli  potius  quam 
JiistoricB  alicujus  censenda  expressa  imago.  Consiievit  quidem 
ut  equestris  miUtice  miles  equestri  imagine  referri.  That  is, 
the  picture  of  St.  George,  wherein  he  is  described  like  a 
cuirassier  or  horseman  completely  armed,  &c.  is  rather  a 
symbolical  image,  than  any  proper  figure.^ 

Now  in  the  picture  of  this  saint  and  soldier,  might  be 
implied  the  Christian  soldier,  and  true  champion  of  Christ : 
A  horseman  armed  cap  a  pie,  intimating  tlie  jmnojjlia  or  com- 
plete armour  of  a  Christian  combating  with  the  dragon,  that 
is,  with  the  devil,  in  defence  of  the  king's  daughter,  that  is, 
the  Church  of  God.^  And  therefore  although  the  history  be 
not  made  out,  it  doth  not  disparage  the  knights  and  noble 
order  of  St.  George :  whose  cognisance  is  honourable  in  the 
emblem  of  the  soldier  of  Christ,  and  is  a  worthy  memorial  to 
conform  unto  its  mystery.  Nor,  were  there  no  such  person 
at  all,  had  they  more  reason  to  be  ashamed,  than  the  noble 
order  of  Burgundy,  and  knights  of  the  golden  fleece ;  whose 
badge  is  a  confessed  fable.^ 


Of  the  Picture  of  Jerome. 

The  picture  of  Jerome  usually  described  at  his  study,  with 
a  clock  hanging  by,  is  not  to  be  omitted  ;  for  though  the  mean- 
ing be  allowable,  and  probable  it  is  that  industrious  father 
did  not  let  slip  his  time  without  account,  yet  must  not 

®  the  picture,  <kc.'\     First  added  in  2nd  edition. 

'  Church  of  God.'\  Or  rather  the  soule,  for  soe  in  the  picture  and 
story  shee  is  called  [psjichcl  that  is  the  soul  of  man,  which  in  a  specificaU 
sense  is  endeed  every  Christian  soule,  and  comprehensively  may  signifye, 
the  Church  of  God. —  Wr. 

*  fable.]  Borowed  from  that  old  storye  of  the  Argo-nauts,  or  Argo- 
knights,  as  wee  may  call  them,  though  the  golden  fleece  be  a  meer 
tomance. —  Wr. 

CHAP.  XTIII.]  OF   THE    PICTUEE    OF  JEllOME.  57 

perhaps  that  clock  he  set  do^vn  to  have  been  his  measure 
thereof.  For  clocks^  or  automatons  organs,  whereby  we 
now  distinguish  of  time,  have  found  no  mention  in  any 
ancient  writers,  but  are  of  late  invention,  as  PanciroUus  ob- 
serveth.  And  Polydore  Virgil,  discoursing  of  new  inventions 
whereof  the  authors  are  not  known,  makes  instance  in  clocks 
and  guns.  JSTow  Jerome  is  no  late  writer,  but  one  of  the 
ancient  fathers,  and  lived  in  the  fourth  century,  in  the  reign 
of  Theodosius  the  first. 

It  is  not  to  be  denied  that  before  the  days  of  Jerome  there 
were  horologies,  and  several  accounts  of  time  ;  for  they  mea- 
sured the  hoiu's  not  only  by  drops  of  water  in  glasses  called 
clepsydra,  but  also  by  sand  in  glasses  called  clepsammia. 
There  were  also  from  great  antiquity,  scioterical  or  sun-dials, 
by  the  shadow  of  a  stile  or  cjnomon  denoting  the  hours  of 
the  day ;  an  invention  ascribed  nnto  Anaximenes  by  Pliny. 
Hereof  a  memorable  one  there  was  in  Campus  Martins,  from 
an  obeUsk  erected,  and  golden  figures  placed  horizontally 
about  it ;  which  was  brought  out  of  Egypt  by  Augustus,  and 
described  by  Jacobus  Laurus.*  And  another  of  great  an- 
tiquity we  meet  with  in  the  story  of  Ezechias ;  for  so  it  is 
delivered  in  2  Kings,  xx.  :  "  That  the  Lord  brought  the 
shadow  backward  ten  degrees  by  which  it  had  gone  down 
in  the  dial  of  Ahaz."  That  is,  say  some,  ten  degrees,  not 
lines ;  for  the  hours  were  denoted  by  certain  di^^sions  or 
steps  in  the  dial,  which  others  distinguished  by  lines,  accord- 
ing to  that  of  Persius, — 

Stertimus  indomitum  quod  despumare  Falemum 
Sufficiat,  quints  dum  linea  tangitur  umbra. 

That  is,  the  line  next  the  meridian,  or  within  an  hour  of 

*  A  peculiar  description  and  particular  construction  hereof  out  of 
R.  Chomer,  is  set  down,  Curios,  de  Caffarel.  chap.  ix. 

*  clochs.']  The  ancient  pictures  of  St.  Hierom  were  naked,  on  his 
knees,  in  a  cave,  with  an  hour-glasse  and  a  scull  by  him,  intimating  his 
indefatigable  continuance  in  prayers  and  studye  while  hee  lived  in  the 
cave  at  Bethleem.  But  the  later  painters  at  Rome,  bycause  hee  had 
been  senator  and  of  a  noble  familye,  picture  him  in  the  habit  of  the  car- 
dinals, leaning  on  his  arm  at  a  desk  in  study  with  a  clock  hanging  by 
him,  and  his  finger  on  a  scull  :  and  this  they  take  to  bee  a  more  proper 
eymbol  f  ?  she  cardinal  eminencye. —  Wr. 

68  OF    THE   PICTUEE   OF   JEEOHE.  [bOOK  V. 

Of  later  years  there  succeeded  new  inventions,  and  horo- 
logies composed  by  trochilick  or  the  artifice  of  wheels  ; 
whereof  some  are  kept  in  motion  by  weight,  others  perform 
without  it.  Now  as  one  age  instructs  another,  and  time, 
that  brings  all  things  to  ruin,  perfects  also  every  thing ;  so 
are  these  indeed  of  more  general  and  ready  use  than  any 
that  went  before  them.  By  the  water-glasses  the  account 
was  not  regular ;  for  from  attenuation  and  condensation, 
whereby  that  element  is  altered,  the  hours  were  shorter  in 
hot  weather  than  in  cold,  and  in  summer  than  in  winter. 
As  for  scioterical  dials,  whether  of  the  sun  or  moon,  they 
are  only  of  use  in  the  actual  radiation  of  those  luminaries, 
and  are  of  little  advantage  unto  those  inhabitants,  which  for 
many  months  enjoy  not  the  lustre  of  the  sun. 

It  is,  I  confess,  no  easy  wonder  how  the  horometry  of 
antiquity  discovered  not  this  artifice,  how  Architas,  that 
contrived  the  moving  dove,  or  rather  the  helicosophy  of 
Archimides,  fell  not  upon  this  way.  Surely  as  in  many 
things,  so  in  this  particular,  the  present  age  hath  far  sur- 
passed antiquity  ;  whose  ingenuity  hath  been  so  bold  not  only 
to  proceed  below  the  account  of  minutes,  but  to  attempt 
perpetual  motions ;  ^  and  engines  whose  revolutions  (could 
their  substance  answer  the  design)  might  out-last  the  exem- 
plary mobility,  and  out-measure  time  itself.  For  such  a 
one  is  that  mentioned  by  John  Dee,  whose  words  are  these, 
in  his  learned  preface  unto  Euclid:  "By  wheels,  strange 
works  and  incredible  are  done  :  a  wondrous  example  was 
seen  in  my  time  in  a  certain  instrmnent,  which,  by  the  in- 
ventor and  artificer  was  sold  for  twenty  talents  of  gold  ;  and 
then  by  chance  had  received  some  injury,  and  one  Janellus 
of  Cremona  did  mend  the  same,  and  presented  it  unto  the 
emperor  Charles  the  Fifth.  Jeronymous  Cardanus  can  be 
my  witness,  that  therein  was  one  wheel  that  moved  at  such 
a  rate,  that  in  seven  thousand  years  only  his  own  period 
should  be  finished ;  a  thing  almost  incredible,  but  how  far  I 
keep  within  my  bounds  many  men  yet  alive  can  tell." 

'  perpetual  motions.]  John  Romilly,  a  celebrated  watchmaker,  bom 
Bt  Geneva,  wrote  a  letter  on  the  impossibility  of  perpetual  mo- 
tion.— Jeff. 

CHAP.  XIX.]     OP  MERMAIDS,   UNICOENS,   AND    OTHERS.       59 


Of  the  Pictures  of  Mei~maids,  Unicoriis,  and  some  others. 

Few  eyes  have  escaped  the  pictures  qf  mermaids  ;  ^  that 
is,  according  to   Horace's   monster,  -n-ith  a  woman's  head 

'  mermaids.]  The  existence  of  mermaids  has  been  so  generally  ridi- 
culed, and  high  authorities  have  so  repeatedly  denounced  as  forgeries, 
delusions,  or  travellers'  wonders,  the  detailed  narratives  and  exhibited 
specimens  of  these  sea-nymphs,  that  it  must  be  a  Quixotic  venture  to 
say  a  word  in  their  defence.  Yet  am  I  not  disposed  to  give  up  their 
cause  as  altogether  hopeless.  I  cannot  admit  the  probability  of  a  belief 
in  them  having  existed  from  such  remote  antiquity,  and  spread  so 
widely,  without  some  foundation  in  truth.  Nor  can  I  consent  to  reject 
en  masse  such  a  host  of  delightfully  pleasant  stories  as  I  find  recorded  of 
these  daughters  of  the  sea  (as  Illiger  call  the  Dugongs),  merely  because  it 
is  the  fashion  to  decry  them,  I  must  be  allowed,  then,  to  hold  my 
opinion  in  abeyance  for  further  evidence.  Unconvinced  even  by  Sir 
Humphry  Davy's  grave  arguments  to  prove  that  such  things  cannot 
be,  and  undismayed  by  his  asserted  detection  of  the  apes  and  salmon  in 
poor  Dr.  Philip's  "undoubted  original,"  I  persist  in  expecting  one  day 
to  have  the  pleasure  of  beholding — A  Mermaid  ! 

But  what  is  a  mermaid?     Aye,  there  is  the  very  gist  of  the  question. 

Cicero  little  dreamt  of  his  classical  rule  being  degraded  by  application 
to  such  a  discussion  as  the  present ;  but  I  shall  nevertheless  endeavour 
to  avail  myself  of  his  maxim  ; — Omnis  disputatio  debet  a  deflnitione  pro- 
Jicisci.  What  is  a  mermaid  ?  Not  the  fair  lady  of  the  ocean,  admiring 
herself  in  a  hand-mirror,  and  bewitching  the  listener  by  her  song  ; — not 
the  triton,  dwelling  in  the  ocean-cave,  and  sounding  his  conch-like  cor- 
net or  trumpet ; — not  the  bishop-frocked  creature  of  Rondeletius  ;  nor 
Aldrovandus'  mer-devil,  with  his  horns  and  face  of  fury  ;  nor  the  howl- 
ing and  tempest-stirring  monsters  of  Olaus  Magnus — not,  in  short,  the 
creature  of  poetry  or  fiction  :  but  a  most  supposable,  and  probably  often 
seen,  though  hitherto  undescribed,  species  of  the  herbivorous  cetacea  (the 
seals  and  lamantins),  more  approaching,  in  several  respects,  the  human 
configuration,  than  any  species  we  know. 

Let  us  hear  and  examine  Sir  Humphry's  arguments  against  the  pro- 
bability of  such  a  discovery.  He  says,  that  "a  human  head,  human 
hands,  and  human  mammae,  are  wholly  inconsistent  with  &  fish's  tail." 
In  one  sense  this  is  undeniable  ; — viz. — since  homo  sapiens  is  (begging 
Lord  Monboddo's  pardon)  an  incaudate  animal, — it  follows  that  the 
head,  hands,  and  mammce  of  any  creature  furnished  also  with  a  tail, 
could  not  be  human :  and  so,  conversely,  the  tail  of  such  a  creature 
could  not  be  a  fish's  tail.  But  this  is  a  truism,  only  to  be  paralleled  by 
the  exclamation  attributed  by  Peter  Pindar  to  Sir  Joseph  Banks,  when 
he  had  boiled  the  fleas  and  found  they  did  not  turn  red, — "  Fleas  aro 
not  lobsters  I  &c."  Davy's  was  not  a  nominal  objection,  a  mere  play  upon 

60  OF   MERMAIDS,    UNICORNS,   AND    OTHERS.         [eoOK  V. 

above,  and  fishy  extremity  below ;  and  these  are  conceived 
to  answer  the  shape  of  the  ancient  sirens  that  attempted 

words :  he  goes  on  to  say,  "  the  human  head  is  adapted  for  an  erect 
posture,  and  in  such  a  posture  an  animal  with  a  fish's  tail  could  not 
swim."  The  head  of  our  mermaid,  however,  may  more  strongly  resemble 
the  human  head,  than  any  described  animal  of  its  tribe,  and  yet  preserve 
at  the  same  time  the  power  which  they  all  have,  of  raising  the  head  per- 
pendicularly out  of  the  water  while  swimming,  as  Sir  Humphry  himself 
probably  did,  when  he  was  mistaken  by  the  fair  ladies  of  Caithness  for 
a  mermaid  !  Cuvier  remarks,  moreover,  that  the  tails  of  these  herbi- 
vorous cetacea  dififer  from  those  of  fish  in  their  greater  adaptation  to 
maintain  an  erect  posture.  Sir  Humphry  proceeds — "  A  creature  with 
lungs  must  be  on  the  surface  several  times  in  a  day  ;  and  the  sea  is  an 
inconvenient  breathing  place  !' '  I  must  take  the  liberty  of  confronting 
this  most  singular  observation  with  a  much  greater  authority.  Cuvier 
says  (and  surely  Sir  Humphry  must  have  for  the  moment  forgotten), 
that  the  cetacea,  though  constantly  residing  in  the  sea,  "  as  they  respire 
by  lungs,  are  obliged  to  rise  frequently  to  the  surface  to  take  in  fresh 
supplies  of  air."  What  is  to  be  said  of  a  naturalist  who  argues  against 
the  possibility  of  any  creature  provided  with  lungs  residing  in  the  sea, 
in  the  face  of  so  important  an  example  of  the  fact  as  we  have  in  the 
entire  class  of  cetacea  ?  What  would  Cuvier,  with  all  his  readiness  to 
do  homage  to  genius  in  any  man,  and  especially  in  so  splendid  an 
instance  as  Davy,  what  must  he  have  thought,  had  he  read  his  pre- 
ceding remarks  ?     Magnus  aliquando  dormitat  Homerus I 

It  is  the  more  remarkable,  as  Sir  Humphry  actually  mentions  some 
species  of  this  very  tribe  as  having  probably  given  rise  to  some  of  the 
stories  about  mermaids.  And  as  to  mammce  and  hands,  to  which  he  also 
objects  if  in  company  with  the  fish's  tail,  we  must  here  again  have 
recourse  to  the  protection  of  Cuvier  against  our  mighty  assailant. 
"The  first  family"  (herbivorous  cetacea),  says  Cuvier,  "frequently 
emerge  from  the  water  to  seek  for  pasture  on  the  shore.  They  have  two 
mammae  on  the  breast,  and  hairs  like  mustachios,  two  circumstances 
which,  when  they  raise  the  anterior  part  of  the  body  above  water, 
give  them  some  resemblance  to  men  and  women,  and  have  probably 
occasioned  those  fables  of  the  ancients  concerning  Tritons  and  Syrens. 
Vestiges  of  claws  may  be  discovered  on  the  edges  of  their  fins,  which 
they  use  with  dexterity  in  creeping,  and  carrying  their  little  ones.  Tliis 
has  given  rise  to  a  comparison  of  these  organs  with  hands,  and  hence 
these  animals  have  been  called  manatis"  (or  lamantins). 

Thus  I  have  sketched  the  sort  of  creature  which  may  be  supposed  to 
exist :  nor  can  I  deem  it  unreasonable  to  expect  such  a  discovery, 
though  Davy,  after  saying,  "It  doubtless  might  please  God  to  make  a 
mermaid  ;  but  I  do  not  believe  God  ever  did  make  one  : " — somewhat 
arrogantly  pronounces  that  "such  an  animal,  if  created,  could  not  long 
exist,  and,  with  scarce  any  locomotive  powers,  would  be  the  prey  of 
other  fishes  formed  in  a  manner  more  suited  to  their  element." 

It  is  singular  that  a  writer  in  the  Enc.  Metropolitaua  should  have  con 

CHAP.  XIX.]       OF   MERMAIDS,    UNICOKxtS,    AND    OTHERS.        61 

upon  Ulysses.  Whicli  notwithstancfing  were  of  another  de- 
scription, containing  no  fishy  composure,  but  made  up  of 
man  and  bird :  the  himian  mediety  variously  placed  not  only 
above,  but  below,  according  unto  vElian,  Suidas,  Servius, 
Boccatius,  and  Aldrovandus,  who  hath  referred  their  descrip- 
tion unto  the  story  of  fabulous  birds ;  according  to  the  de- 
scription of  Ovid,  and  the  account  thereof  in  Hyginus,  that 
they  were  the  daughters  of  Melpomene,  and  metamorphosed 
into  the  shape  of  man  and  bird  by  Ceres. 

And  therefore  these  pieces,  so  common  among  us,  do 
rather  derive  their  original,  or  are  indeed  the  very  descrip- 
tions of  Dagon,  which  was  made  with  human  figiu-e  above, 
and  fishy  shape  below :  whose  stump,  or,  as  Tremellius  and 
our  margin  render  it,  whose  fishy  part  only  remained,  when 
the  hands  and  upper  part  fell  before  the  ark.  Of  the  shape 
of  Ai'tergates,  or  Derceto,  with  the  Phoenicians,  in  whose 

eluded  a  long  and  amusing  article  with  the  marginal  note,  "  mermaida 
impossible  animals  ;"  supported  solely  by  the  very  extraordinary  argu- 
ments of  Sir  Humphry. 

Those  who  are  desirous  of  seeing  an  enumeration  of  all  the  supposed 
mermaids  and  monsters,  which  have  at  various  times  amused  the  pub- 
lic, may  refer  to  the  article  just  quoted,  and  to  a  miscellaneous  volume, 
entitled  the  Worhing  Bee,  published  by  Fisher  and  Co.,  Newgate-street, 
in  which  is  an  Histwical  Memoir  of  Syrens  or  Mermaids. 

In  explanation  of  one  or  two  allusions  in  my  preceding  remarks,  I 
may  just  mention  that  in  the  Evangelical  Magazine,  for  Sept.  1822,  is 
inserted  part  of  a  letter  from  the  Rev.  Dr.  Philip,  dated  Cape  Town, 
April  20th,  1822.  The  Dr.  says,  he  had  just  seen  a  mermaid,  then 
exhibiting  in  that  town.  The  head  is  about  the  size  of  a  baboon's,  thinly 
covered  with  black  hair  ;  a  few  hairs  on  the  upper  lip.  The  forehead 
low,  but  with  better  proportioned  and  more  like  human  features  than 
any  of  the  baboons.  The  ears,  nose,  lips,  chin,  breasts,  fingers,  and 
nails,  resemble  the  human  subject.  Eight  incisores,  four  canine,  eight 
molares.  The  animal,  though  shrunk,  is  about  three  feet  long  ;  its  re- 
semblance to  a  man  having  ceased  immediately  under  the  mammce.  On 
the  line  of  separation,  and  immediately  under  the  breast,  are  two  fins. 
Below,  it  resembles  a  salmon.  It  is  covered  with  scales — but  which 
on  the  upper  part  are  scarcely  perceptible  :  it  was  caught  so;iiewhere 
on  the  north  of  China  by  a  fishennan,  who  sold  it  for  a  trifle.  At 
Batavia  it  was  bought  by  Capt.  Eades,  in  whose  possession  it  then  was. 
Tliis  very  specimen  Davy  pronounced  to  be  composed  of  the  head  and 
bust  from  two  apes,  fastened  to  the  tail  of  the  kipper  salmon, — salmo 

He  also  notices  another  instance  of  a  supposed  mermaid,  seen  off  the 
coast  of  Caithness,  which  turned  out  to  have  been  a  gentleman  bathing. 
He  is  asserted  to  have  intended  himself.     See  his  Salmonia. 

G^  OF    MERMAIDS,    rXICOENS,    AND    OTHEES.         [bOOK  V. 

fishy  and  feminine  mixture,  as  some  conceive,  -n-ere  implied 
the  moon  and  the  sea,  or  the  deity  of  the  waters  ;  and  there- 
fore, in  their  sacrifices,  they  made  oblation  of  fishes.  From 
whence  were  probably  occasioned  the  pictures  of  Nereides 
and  Tritons  among  the  Grecians,  and  such  as  we  read  in 
Macrobius,  to  have  been  placed  on  the  top  of  the  temple  of 

We  are  unwilling  to  question  the  royal  supporters  of 
England,  that  is,  the  approved  descriptions  of  the  lion  and 
the  unicorn.  Although,  if  in  the  lion  the  position  of  the 
pizzle  be  proper,  and  that  the  natural  situation,  it  will  be 
hard  to  make  out  their  retrocopulation,  or  their  coupling  and 
pissing  backward,  according  to  the  determination  of  Aj-istotle  ; 
all  that  urine  backward  do  copulate  TrvyrjCuv,  clunatim,  or 
aversely,  as  lions,  hares,  lynxes. 

As  for  the  unicorn,  if  it  have  the  head  of  a  deer  and  the 
tail  of  a  boar,  as  Vertomannus  describeth  it,  how  agreeable 
it  is  to  this  picture  every  eye  may  discern.  If  it  be  made 
bisulcous  or  cloven-footed,  it  agreeth  unto  the  description 
of  Vertomannus,  but  scarce  of  any  other ;  and  Aristotle 
supposeth  that  such  as  divide  the  hoof,  do  also  double  the 
horn ;  they  being  both  of  the  same  nature,  and  admitting 
division  together.  And  lastly,  if  the  horn  have  this  situa- 
tion and  be  so  forwardly  afiixed,  as  is  described,  it  wiU  not 
be  easily  conceived  how  it  can  feed  from  the  ground ;  and 
therefore  we  observe  that  nature,  in  other  cornigerous  ani- 
mals, hath  placed  the  horns  higher  and  reclining,  as  in  bucks  ; 
in  some  inverted  upwards,  as  in  the  rhinoceros,  the  Indian 
ass,  and  unicornous  beetles ;  and  thus  have  some  affirmed  it 
is  seated  in  this  animal. 

We  cannot  but  observe  that  in  the  picture  of  Jonah  and 
others,  whales  are  described  with  two  prominent  spouts  on 
their  heads  ;  whereas  indeed  they  have  but  one  in  the  fore- 
head, and  terminating  over  the  ^vindpipe.^  Nor  can  we 
overlook  the  picture  of  elephants  with  castles  on  their  backs, 
made  in  the  form  of  land  castles,  or  stationary  fortifications, 
and  answerable  unto  the  arms  of  Castile,  or  Sir  John  Old- 

^  two  prominent  poinU,  Ax. ^  The  cetacea  have  all  two  spiracles,  but 
on  some  they  are  considerably  remote  fi'om  each  other,  in  others  close 
together,  and  in  some  so  near  that  they  seem  to  unite  in  one  and 
the  same  opening. 

CHAP.  XIX. ]      OF   MEEMAIDS,   TJNICOENS,   AND    OTHERS.       63 

castle ;  whereas  the  towers  they  bore  were  made  of  wood, 
and  girt  unto  their  bodies,  as  is  delivered  in  the  books  of 
Maccabees,  and  as  they  were  appointed  in  the  army  of 

We  will  not  dispute  the  pictures  of  retiary  spiders,  and 
their  position  in  the  web,  which  is  commonly  made  lateral, 
and  regarding  the  horizon,  although,  if  observed,  we  shall 
commonly  find  it  downward,  and  their  heads  respecting  the 
centre.  AVe  will  not  controvert  the  picture  of  the  seven 
stars  ;  although  if  thereby  be  meant  the  Pleiades,  or  sub- 
constellation  upon  the  back  of  Taurus,  with  what  congruity 
they  are  described,  either  in  site  or  magnitude,  in  a  clear 
night  an  ordinary  eye  may  discover  from  Jidy  unto  ApriL 
We  will  not  question  the  tongues  of  adders  and  vipers,  de- 
scribed like  an  anchor,  nor  the  picture  of  the  fleur-de-lis : 
though  how  far  they  agree  unto  their  natural  draughts,  let 
every  spectator  determine. 

Whether  the  cherubims  about  the  ark  be  rightly  described 
in  the  common  picture,*  that  is,  only  in  human  heads,  with 
two  wings,  or  rather  in  the  shape  of  angels  or  young  men, 
or  somewhat  at  least  with  feet,  as  the  Scripture  seems  to 
imply.  Whether  the  cross  seen  in  the  air  by  Constantine, 
were  of  that  figure  wherein  we  represent  it,  or  rather  made 
out  of  X  and  P,  the  two  first  letters  of  Xpiorde.  AVhetliet 
the  cross  of  Clu-ist  did  answer  the  common  figure  ;  whether 
so  far  advanced  above  his  head  ;  whether  the  feet  were  so 
disposed,  that  is,  one  upon  another,  or  separately  nailed,  as 
some  wdth  reason  describe  it,  we  shall  not  at  all  contend. 
Much  less  w'hether  the  house  of  Diogenes  were  a  tub  framed 
of  wood,  and  after  the  manner  of  ours,  or  rather  made  of 
earth,  as  learned  men  conceive,  and  so  more  clearly  make 
out  that  expression  of  Juvenal.f  We  should  be  too  critical 
to  question  the  letter  Y,  or  bicornous  element  of  Pythagoras, 
that  is,  the  making  of  the  horns  equal ;''  or  the  left  less  than 
the  right,  and  so  destroying  the  symbolical  intent  of  the 

*  2  Chron.  iii.  13.  f  Dolia  magni  non  ardent  Cynici,  &c. 

'  the  letter  Y,  dtc]  An  allusion  to  this  letter,  in  Dr.  Donne's  ser- 
mon on  "Where  your  treasure  is,  there  will  your  heart  be  also,"  is 
mentioned  by  Dr.  Vicesimus  Knox  in  his  38th  Winter  Evening  ;  with 
some  exceJiSnt  observations  on  the  style  of  the   old  sermon  writera. 

.G4:       or   MEEMAIDS,   TJKICOENS,   AKD     OTHERS.  [bOOK  V. 

figure  ;  confounding  the  narrow  line  of  virtue  with  the  larger 
road  of  vice,  answerable  unto  the  narrow  door  of  heaven,  and 
the  ample  gates  of  hell,  expressed  by  our  Saviour,  and  not 
forgotten  by  Homer  in  that  epithet  of  Pluto's  house.^* 

Many  more  there  are  whereof  our  pen  shall  take  notice, 
nor  shall  we  urge  their  enquiry ;  we  shall  not  enlarge  with 
what  incongruity,  and  how  dissenting  from  the  pieces  of  anti- 
quity, the  pictm-es  of  their  gods  and  goddesses  are  described, 
and  how  hereby  their  symbolical  sense  is  lost ;  although 
herein  it  were  not  hard  to  be  informed  from  Phornutus,t 
PulgentiuSjJ  and  Albricus.§  "Whether  Hercules  be  more 
properly  described  strangling  than  tearing  the  lion,  as  Vic- 
torius  hath  disputed ;  nor  how  the  characters  and  figiu-es  of 
the  signs  and  planets  be  now  perverted,  as  Salmasius  hath 
learnedly  declared.  AVe  will  dispense  with  bears  with  long 
tails,  such  as  are  described  in  the  figiu-es  of  heaven ;  we  shall 
tolerate  flying  horses,  black  swans,  hydras,  centaurs,  har- 
pies, and  satyrs,  for  these  are  monstrosities,  rarities,  or  else 
poetical  fancies,^  whose  shadowed  moralities  requite  their 
substantial  falsities.  Wherein  indeed  we  must  not  deny  a 
liberty  ;  nor  is  the  hand  of  the  painter  more  restrainable  than 
the  pen  of  the  poet.  But  where  tlie  real  works  of  nature, 
or  veritable  acts  of  story  are  to  be  described,  digressions  are 
abberrations ;  and  art  being  but  the  imitator  or  secondary 
representor,  it  must  not  vary  from  the  verity  of  the  example, 
or  describe  things  otherwise  than  they  tridy  are,  or  have 
been.  For  hereby  introducing  false  ideas  of  things,  it  per- 
verts and  deforms  the  face  and  symmetry  of  truth. 

*    'EvpvTTvXrjg.  f  Phornut.  De  NatW'a  Deorum. 

X  Fuhj.  Mythologia.  §  Albric.  De  Deorum  Imagiyiions. 

*  Whether  the  cheruhims,  d-c]  This  paragraph  first  added  in  2nd 

^  flijii^O  horses,  <fec.]  Modern  discoveries  have  lessened  this  hst.  Tho 
black  swan,  though  vara  avis,  is  no  longer  a  poetical  fancy,  There  was 
a  time  when  the  camelopard  was  deemed  imaginary. 



Of  the  Hieroglyphical  Pictures  of  the  Egyptiouns. 

Cebtaiklt  of  all  men  that  suffered  from  the  confusion  of 
Babel,  the  Egyptians  found  the  best  evasion  ;  for,  though 
words  were  confounded,  they  invented  a  language''  of  things, 
and  spake  unto  each  other  by  common  notions  in  nature. 
"Wliereby  they  discoursed  in  silence,  and  were  intuitively 
understood  from  the  theory  of  their  expresses.  For  they 
assumed  the  shapes  of  animals  common  unto  all  eyes,  and 
by  their  conjunctions  and  compositions**  were  able  to  com- 
municate their  conceptions  unto  any  that  coapprehended  the 
syntaxes  of  their  natures.  This  many  conceive  to  have  been 
the  primitive  way  of  writing,  and  of  greater  antiquity  than 
letters  ;  and  this  indeed  might  Adam  well  have  spoken,  who 
understanding  the  nature  of  things,  had  the  advantage  of 
natural  expressions.  Which  the  Egyptians  but  taking  upon 
trust,  upon  their  own  or  common  opinion,  from  conceded 
mistakes  they  authentically  promoted  errors  ;  describing  in 
their  hierogiyphicks  creatures  of  their  own  invention,  or 
from  known  and  conceded  animals,  erecting  significations 
not  inferible  from  their  natures.^ 

'  a  language.']  A  common  language  might  possibly  bee  framed 
which  all  should  understand  under  one  character,  in  their  own  tongue, 
as  well  as  all  understand  in  astronomy  the  12  signes,  the  7  planets,  and 
the  several  aspects  ;  or  in  geometry,  a  triangle,  a  rhombe,  a  square,  a 
parallelogram,  a  helix,  a  decussation,  a  cross,  a  circle,  a  sector,  and 
such  like  very  many  :  or  the  Saracenicall  and  algebraick  characters  in 
arithmetick,  or  the  notes  of  weight  among  physitians  and  apothecaryes  : 
or  lastly,  those  marks  of  punctuations  and  qualityes  among  gramma- 
rians in  Hebrew  under,  in  Arabick  above,  the  words.  To  let  pass 
Paracelsus  his  particular  marks,  and  the  common  practice  of  all  trades. 
—  Wr. 

^  hy their  conjunctions,  tfcc]  More  clearly,  "by  the  conjunction  and 
composition  of  those  shapes  of  animals,  &c." 

^^  Which  the  Egyptians,  (fee]  How  little,  alas,  do  we  know  of  the 
picture-writing  of  the  Egyptians,  even  after  all  the  profound  researches 
of  Young,  ChampoUion,  Klaproth,  Akerblad,  De  Sacy,  and  others  :  and 
how  little  (we  may  perhaps  add)  can  we  hope  ever  to  see  effected.  We 
are  told  by  Clemens  Alexandrinus  (and  subsequent  researches  have  done 
ittle  more  than  enable  us  to  comprehend  his  meaning)  that  the  Egyp- 

VOL.  II.  F 


And  first,  although  there  were  more  things  in  nature,  than 
words  which  did  express  them,  yet  even  in  these  mute  and 

tians  used  three  modes  of  writing  ; — the  epistolographic  (called  demotic 
by  Herodotus  and  Diodorus,  and  enchorial  in  the  Rosetta  inscription), 
the  hieratic  (employed  by  the  sacred  scribes),  and  the  hieroglyphich, — 
consisting  of  the  hwriologic  (subsequently  termed  phonetic)  and  the  sym- 
bolic,  of  which  there  are  several  kinds  ; — one  representing  objects  joro- 
Jicrly,  another  metaphoi'ically,  a  third  enigmatically.  The  great  discovery 
made  by  Dr.  T.  Young,  from  the  Rosetta  inscription,  was  that  .some  of 
the  hieroglyphs  were  the  signs  of  sounds,  each  hieroglyph  signifying  the 
first  letter  of  the  Egyptian  name  of  the  object  represented.  Supposing 
all  their  picture-writing  to  be  symbolical,  then  it  would  be  manifestly 
impossible  to  hope  to  read  it.  For  example,  we  are  told  that  the  figure 
of  a  bee  expressed  the  idea  of  royalty  ;  but  who  could  have  guessed  this  ? 
Supposing  on  the  other  hand  that  the  hieroglyphs  were  entirely  phonetic 
(which  was  not  the  case,  nor  can  we  possibly  ascertain  in  what  propor- 
tion they  were  so),  supposing  them  also  to  be  certain  and  determinate 
signs  of  sounds,  one  and  the  same  sign  always  employed  to  represent 
one  and  the  same  sound  ; — supposing  in  short  that  "  we  could  spell 
syllables  and  distinguish  words  with  as  much  certainty  and  precision  as 
if  they  had  been  written  in  any  of  the  improved  alphabets  of  the  west, 
there  would  yet  always  remain  one  difficulty  over  which  genius  itself 
could  not  triumph  ;  namely,  to  discover  the  signification  of  the  words, 
when  it  is  not  known  by  tradition  or  otherwise  :" — when  the  original 
language  has  long  since  utterly  vanished  ; — and  when  the  only  instru- 
ment left  wherewith  we  can  labour  (the  Coptic)  is  but  the  mutilated  and 
imperfect  fragment  of  an  extinct  language,  itself  when  living  the  rem- 
nant only  of  that  elder  form  of  speech  which  we  are  seeking  to  decypher ; 
but  of  which,  alas  !  through  so  imperfect  a  medium,  but  slight  traces 
and  lineaments  can  be  here  and  there  faintly  reflected.  The  article, 
EGYPT,  in  the  Sup.  to  Ency.  Brit,  and  Hierogltphicks,  in  Ency.  Metrop. 
together  with  articles  in  the  45tli  and  57th  vols,  of  i\\Q Edinburgh  Reciew, 
will  give  those  disposed  to  go  further  into  the  subject  a  full  and  interest- 
ing view  of  all  that  has  hitherto  been  effected  in  this  most  difficult,  if 
not  hopeless,  field  of  labour. 

But  our  author's  special  object  in  this  chapter  is  to  bring  against  the 
Egyptians  the  twofold  charge  ;  first,  of  "  describing  in  their  hierogly- 
phicks  creatures  of  their  own  inventions;"  and  secondly,  of  "erecting, 
from  known  and  conceded  animals,  significations  not  inferible  from  their 
natures."  No  charge,  however,  can  be  fairly  entertained  till  it  has  been 
proved  ; — and  it  would  be  no  easy  matter  to  show  that  many    of  the 

monsters  enumerated,  were  really  Egyptian  : "Considering 

how  absurdly  and  monstrously  complicated  the  Egyptian  superstitions 
really  were,  it  becomes  absolutely  essential  to  separate  that  which  is 
most  fully  estabHshed  or  most  generally  admitted,  from  the  accidental 
or  local  varieties,  which  may  have  been  exaggerated  by  different  authors 
into  established  usages  of  the  whole  nation,  and  still  more  from  those 
which  have  been  the  fanciful  productions  of  their  own  inventive  f&cul- 
ties." — Dr.  Towng,  Egypt,  Sup.  Ency.  Brit.  iv.  43. 


silent  discourses,  to  express  complexed  significations,  they 
took  a  liberty  to  compound  and  piece  together  creatures  of 
allowable  forms  into  mixtures  inexistent.  Thus  began  the 
descriptions  of  grifl&ns,  basilisks,  phoenix,  and  many  more  ; 
which  emblematists  and  heralds  have  entertained  with  signi- 
fications answering  their  institutions ;  hieroglyphically  adding 
martegres,  wivernes,  Hon-fishes,  with  divers  others.  Pieces 
of  good  and  allowable  invention  unto  the  prudent  spectator, 
but  are  looked  on  by  vulgar  eyes  as  literal  truths  or  absurd 
impossibilities  ;  whereas  indeed  they  are  commendable  inven- 
tions, and  of  laudable  significations. 

Again,  beside  these  pieces  fictitiously  set  down,  and  having 
no  copy  in  nature,  they  had  many  imquestionably  drawn,  of 
inconsequent  signification,  nor  naturally  verifying  their  inten- 
tion. We  shall  instance  but  in  few,  as  they  stand  recorded 
by  Orus.  The  male  sex  they  expressed  by  a  vulture,^  because 
of  vultures  aU  are  females,  and  impregnated  by  the  wind ; 
which  authentically  transmitted  hath  passed  many  pens,  and 
became  the  assertion  of  -(Elian,  Ambrose,  Basil,  Isidore, 
Tzetzus,  Philes,  and  others.  "Wherein  notwithstanding 
what  injury  is  ofiered  unto  the  creation  in  this  confijiement 
of  sex,  and  what  disturbance  unto  philosophy  in  the  conces- 
sion of  windy  conceptions,  we  shaU  not  here  declare.  By 
two  drachms  they  thought  it  sufficient  to  signify  an  heart  ;2 
because  the  heart  at  one  year  weigheth  two  drachms,  that 
is,  a  quarter  of  an  ounce,  and  unto  fifty  years  annually  in- 
creaseth  the  weight  of  one  drachm,  after  which  in  the  same 
proportion  it  yearly  decreaseth ;  so  that  the  life  of  a  man 
doth  not  natiu-aUy  extend  above  an  hundred.      And  this 

The  authors  on  whom  Browne  relies,  especially  Pierius,  are  by  no 
means  to  be  received  without  the  caution  expressed  in  the  foregoing 

'  The  male  sex,  <f,-c.]  See  Pierius  Hieroglypldca,  fol.  1626,  Ixxiii. 
c.  1,  4.     Earapollo  (4to.  curd  Pauw),  No.  12. 

*  By  two  drachms,  etc.]  Pierius  says  that  the  Egyptians  used  the 
vulture  to  symbolize  two  drachms,  or  a  heart ;  and  he  gives  other 
reasons  for  the  adoption  of  the  symbol,  though  he  deems  that  mentioned 
by  Browne  the  most  probable  (Ibid.  1.  xviii.  c.  20).  Horapollo  says, 
they  used  the  vulture  to  represent  two  drachms,  because  unity  was 
expressed  by  two  lines  ;  and,  unity  being  the  beginning  of  numbers, 
most  fitly  doth  its  sign  express  a  vulture,  because,  like  unity,  it  is 
tingly  the  author  of  its  own  increase  (Ibid.  No.  12). 



-.vas  not  only  a  popular  conceit,  but  consentaneous  unto  the 
physical  principles,  as  Hernius  hath  accounted  it.* 

A  ATomao.  that  hath  but  one  child,  they  express  by  a  lion- 
ess ;  for  that  conceiveth  but  once.^  Fecundity  they  set  forth 
by  a  goat,  because  but  seven  days  old  it  beginneth  to  use 
coition."*  The  abortion  of  a  woman  they  describe  by  an  horse 
kicking  a  wolf;  because  a  mare  wiU  cast  her  foal  if  she 
tread  in  the  track  of  that  animal.*  Deformity  they  signify 
by  a  bear  ;^  and  an  unstable  man  by  a  hyaena,''  because  that 
animal  yearly  exchangeth  its  sex.  A  woman  delivered  of 
a  female  child  they  imply  by  a  bull  looking  over  his  left 
shoulder ;  ^  because  if  in  coition  a  bull  part  from  a  cow  on 
that  side,  the  calf  will  prove  a  female.^ 

All  whicli,  with  many  more,  how  far  they  consent  with 
truth  we  shall  not  disparage  our  reader  to  dispute  ;  and 
though  some  way  allowable  unto  wiser  conceits  who  could 
distinctly  receive  theii*  significations,  yet  carrying  the  majesty 
of  hieroglyphicks,  and  so  transmitted  by  autlaors,  they  crept 

*    In  his  Philosophia  Barbarica. 

^  A  woman,  <fcc.]   Pierius,  lib.  i.  c.  14,  HorapoUo,  No.  82. 

■*  Fecundity,  ttx.]     Pierius,  lib.  x.  c.  10,  HorapoUo,  No.  48. 

■''  Tlie  abortion,  Ac.'\     Pierius,  lib.  xi.  c.  9,  HorapoUo,  No.  45. 

Whether  the  tracke  of  the  wolfe  will  cause  abortion  in  a  mare  is 
liurd  to  bee  knowne  :  but  the  mare  does  soe  little  feare  the  wolfe,  that 
(as  I  have  heard  itt  from  the  mouth  of  a  gentleman,  an  eye-witness  of 
what  he  related)  as  soone  as  shee  perceaves  the  wolfe  to  lye  in  watch 
for  her  young  foale,  she  wiU  never  cease  hunting  with  open  mouth  till 
shee  drive  him  quite  away  :  the  wolfe  avoyding  the  gripe  of  her  teeth, 
as  much  as  the  stroke  of  her  heeles  :  and  to  make  up  the  probability 
hereof,  itt  is  certaine  that  a  generous  horse  will  fasten  on  a  dog  with 
his  teeth,  as  fell  out  anno  1653,  in  October,  at  Bletchinden  (Oxon),  a 
colt  being  bated  by  a  mastive  (that  was  set  on  by  his  master  to  drive 
him  out  of  a  pasture)  tooke  up  the  dog  in  his  teeth  by  the  back,  and  rann 
away  with  him,  and  at  last  flinging  him  over  his  head  lefte  the  dog  soe 
bruised  with  the  gripe  and  the  fall,  that  hee  lay  half  dead  ;  but  the 
generous  colte  leapt  over  the  next  hedge,  and  ran  home  to  his  own  pas- 
ture unhurt. —  Wr. 

*  Deformity,  <fcc.]  Pierius,  1.  xi.  c.  42.  HorapoUo,  No.  83,  says, 
"  Hominem,  qui  initio  quidem  informis  natus  sit,  sed  postea  formam 
acceperit,  innuunt  depicta  ursa  praegnante." 

''  an  unstable,  dr.]     Pierius,  1.  xi.  c.  24,  HorapoUo,  No.  69. 

*  A  woman,  d;c.]  Pierius,  1.  iii.  c.  6.  HorapoUo,  who  adds  alsff  the 
converse  of  the  proposition,  No.  43. 

*  female.^  I  have  heard  this  avowed  by  auncient  grave  farmers.—  Wr, 

CHAP.  XXI,]       OF    THE    PICTUEE    OF    HAMAN   HANGED.  GO 

into  a  belief  with  many,  and  favourable  doubt  with  most. 
And  thus,  I  fear,  it  hath  fared  with  the  hieroglyphical  sym- 
bols of  Scripture  ;  which,  excellently  intended  in  the  species 
of  things  sacrificed,  in  the  prohibited  meats,  in  the  dreams 
of  Pharaoh,  Joseph,  and  many  other  passages,  are  ofttimes 
racked  beyond  their  symbolizations',  and  enlarged  into  con- 
structions disparaging  their  true  intentions,' 


Of  the  Picture  of  Hainan  Hanged. 

In  common  draughts,  Hamau  is  hanged  by  the  neck  upon 
an  high  gibbet,  after  the  usual  and  now  practised  way  of 
suspension :  but  whether  this  description  truly  answereth 
the  original,  learned  pens  consent  not,  and  good  grounds 

'  intentions.']  Ross  despatches  the  16th,  17th,  18th,  19th  and  20th 
chapters  in  the  following  summary  remarks  : — 

"  In  some  subsequent  chapters  the  doctor  questions  the  pictures  of 
St.  Chnstopher  caiTying  Christ  over  the  river  :  of  St.  George  on  horse- 
back killing  the  dragon  ;  of  St.  Jerom  with  a  clock  hanging  by ;  of 
mermaids,  unicorns,  and  some  others  ;  with  some  hieroglyphick  pictures 
of  the  Egyptians.  In  this  he  doth  luctari  cum  larvis,  and  with  yEneas 
in  the  poet,  Irruit  et  frustra  ferro  diverberat  umbras.  He  wrestles  with 
shadows  ;  for  he  may  as  well  question  all  the  poetical  fictions,  all  the 
sacred  parables,  all  tropical  speeches  ;  also  escutcheons,  or  coats  of  arms, 
signs  hanging  out  at  doors — where  he  will  find  blue  boars,  white 
lions,  black  swans,  double-headed  eagles,  and  such  like,  devised  only  for 
distinction.  The  like  devices  are  in  military  ensigns.  Felix,  Prince  of 
Salernum,  had  for  his  device  a  tortoise  with  wings,  flying,  with  this 
motto,  amor  addidit ;  intimating,  that  love  gives  wings  to  the  slowest 
spirits.  Lewis  of  Anjou,  King  of  Naples,  gave  for  his  device,  a  hand 
out  of  the  clouds,  holding  a  pair  of  scales,  with  this  motto,  ^qua  durant 
semper.  Henry  the  First,  of  Portugal,  had  a  flying  horse  for  his  device. 
A  thousand  such  conceits  I  could  allege,  which  are  symbolical,  and 
therefore  it  were  ridiculous  to  question  them,  if  they  were  historical. 
As  for  the  cherubims,  I  find  four  diS"erent  opinions.  1.  Some  write 
they  were  angels  in  the  form  of  birds.  2.  Aben  Ezra  thinks  the  word 
cherub  signifieth  any  shape  or  form,  3,  Josephus  will  have  them  to  be 
winged  animals,  but  never  seen  by  any.  4.  The  most  received  opinion 
is,  that  they  had  the  shape  of  children  ;  for  rub  in  Hebrew,  and  rabe  in 
Chaldee,  signifieth  a  child  ;  and  che,  as  :  so  then,  cherub  signifieth  as  a 
child,  and  it  is  most  likely  they  were  painted  in  this  form." 

"  Chap,  xxi.]     The  whole  chapter  first  added  in  6th  edition. 

70  OF   THE    PICTUEE    OE   HAMAN   HAKGED.         [bOOK  T. 

there  are  to  doubt.  For  it  is  not  easily  made  out  that  this 
was  an  ancient  way  of  execution  in  the  public  punishment 
of  malefactors  among  the  Persians,  but  we  often  read  of  cru- 
cifixion in  their  stoines.  So  we  find  that  Orostes,  a  Persian 
governor,  crucified  Polycrates  the  Samian  tyrant.  And 
hereof  we  have  an  example  in  the  life  of  Artaxerxes,  King 
of  Persia  (whom  some  will  have  to  be  Ahasuerus  in  this 
story),  that  his  mother,  Pary satis,  flayed  and  crucified  her 
eunuch.  The  same  also  seems  implied  iu  the  letters 
patent  of  King  Cyrus :  Omnis  qui  hanc  onutaverit  jus- 
sionem,  tollatur  lignum  de  domo  ejus,  et  erigatur,  et  con- 
Jigatur  in  eo.* 

The  same  kind  of  punishment  was  in  use  among  the 
Romans,  Syrians,  Egv'ptians,  Carthaginians,  and  Grrecians. 
Por  though  we  find  in  Homer  that  Ulysses  in  a  fury  hanged 
the  strumpets  of  those  who  courted  Penelope,  yet  it  is  not 
so  easy  to  discover  that  this  was  the  public  practice  or  open 
course  of  justice  among  the  Grreeks. 

And  even  that  the  Hebrews  used  this  present  way  of 
hanging,  by  Ulaqueation  or  pendiilous  suflbcation,  in  public 
justice  and  executions,  the  expressions  and  examples  in 
Scriptm"e  conclude  not,  beyond  good  doubt. 

That  the  King  of  Hai  was  hanged,  or  destroyed  by  the 
common  way  of  suspension,  is  not  conceded  by  the  learned 
Masius  in  his  comment  upon  that  text ;  who  conceiveth 
thereby  rather  some  kind  of  crucifixion,  at  least  some  pati- 
bulary  affixion  after  he  was  slain,  and  so  represented  unto 
the  people  until  toward  the  evening. 

Though  we  read  in  our  translation  that  Pharaoh  hanged 
the  chief  baker,  yet  learned  expositors  understand  hereby 
some  kind  of  crucifixion,  according  to  the  mode  of  Egypt, 
whereby  he  exemplarUy  hanged  out  till  the  fowls  of  the  air 
fed  on  his  head  or  face,  the  first  part  of  their  prey  being  the 
eyes.  And  perhaps  according  to  the  signal  draught  hereof 
in  a  very  old  manuscript  of  Grenesis,  now  kept  in  the  Empe- 
ror's library  at  Vienna,  and  accordingly  set  down  by  the 
learned  Petrus  Lambecius,  in  the  second  tome  of  the  descrip- 
tion of  that  library. 

When  the  Gibeonites  hanged  the  bodies  of  those  of  the 

*  In  Ezra  vi. 

CHAP.  XXI.]      or   THE    PICTUEE    OF   HAMAN   HANGED.  71 

house  of  Saul,  thereby  was  intended  some  kind  of  crucifying,"' 
according  unto  good  expositors,  and  the  vulgar  translation  ; 
crucifixerunt  eos  in  monte  coram  domino.  Nor  only  these, 
mentioned  in  Holy  Scripture,  but  divers  in  human  authors, 
said  to  have  sviffered  by  vpay  of  suspension  or  crucifixion 
might  not  perish  by  immediate  crucifixion  ;"*  but  however 
otherwise  destroyed,  their  bodies  might  be  afterward  ap- 
pended or  fastened  unto  some  elevated  engine,  as  exemplary 
objects  unto  the  eyes  of  the  people.  So  sometimes  we  read 
of  the  crucifixion  of  only  some  part,  as  of  the  heads  of 
Julianus  and  Albinus,  though  their  bodies  were  cast  away.^ 
Besides,  all  crosses  or  engines  of  crucifixion  were  not  of 
the  ordinary  figure,  nor  compounded  of  transverse  pieces, 
which  make  out  the  name,  but  some  were  simple,  and  made 
of  one  arrectarium  serving  for  affixion  or  infixion,  either  fas- 
tening or  piercing  through  ;  and  some  kind  of  crucifixion  is 
the  setting  of  heads  upon  poles. 

That  legal  text  which  seems  to  countenance  the  common 
way  of  hanging,  if  a  man  hath  committed  a  sin  worthy  of 
death,  and  they  hang  him  on  a  tree,*  is  not  so  received  by 
Christian  and  Jewish  expositors.  And,  as  a  good  annotator 
of  ourst  deHvereth,  out  of  Maimonides  :  the  Hebrews  under- 
stand not  this  of  putting  him  to  death  by  hanging,  but  of 
hanging  a  man  after  he  was  stoned  to  death,  and  the  man- 
ner is  thus  described ;  after  he  is  stoned  to  death  they  fasten 
a  piece  of  timber  in  the  earth,  and  out  of  it  there  cometh  a 
piece  of  wood,  and  then  they  tie  both  his  hands  one  to 
another,  and  hang  him  unto  the  setting  of  the  sun. 

*  Deut.  xxi.  t  Ainsworth. 

'  ih£  Gibeonifes,  <&€.]  The  Jews,  as  is  just  afterwards  remarked,  in- 
flicted the  infamy  (rather  than  punishment)  of  hanging  after  death. 
And  so  might  these  Gibeonites.  But  they  were  not  Israelites,  as  Rev. 
T.  H.  Home  has  observed,  but  Canaanites,  and  probably  retained  their 
own  laws.  See  his  section  on  the  punishments  mentioned  in  Scripture  ; 
Introduction,  (tc.  part  ii.  ch.  iii.  §iv. 

■•  Nor  only,  <i:cf\  This  sentence  is  inserted,  in  MS.  SLOAN.  1827,  instead 
of  the  following  :  "  Many,  both  in  Scripture  and  human  writers,  might 
be  said  to  be  crucified,  though  they  did  not  perish  immediately  by  cru- 

*  cast  away.]  The  succeeding  sentence  was  added  from  MS.  SLOAN. 

72  OF   THE  PICTURE    OF    GOD   THE  FATHEE.         [bOOK  T. 

Beside,  the  original  word,  hahany,  determineth  not  the 
doubt.  For  that  by  lexicographers  or  dictionary  interpre- 
ters, is  rendered  suspension  and  crucifixion,  there  being  no 
Hebrew  word  peculiarly  and  fidly  expressing  the  proper  word 
of  crucifixion,  as  it  was  used  by  the  Eomans ;  nor  easy  to 
prove  it  the  custom  of  the  Jewish  nation  to  nail  them  by 
distinct  parts  unto  a  cross,  after  the  manner  of  om*  Saviour 
crucified ;  wherein  it  was  a  special  favour  indulged  unto 
Joseph  to  take  down  the  body. 

Lipsius  lets  fall  a  good  caution  to  take  off  doubts  about 
suspension  delivered  by  ancient  authors,  and  also  the  ambi- 
guous sense  of  Kpsfiuirai  among  the  Greeks.  Tale  apud 
Latinos  ipsum  suspendere,  quod  in  crucem  referendum  moneo 
juventutem ;  as  that  also  may  be  imderstood  of  Seneca, 
Latrocinittm  fecit  aliquis,  quid  ergo  meruit?  ut  suspendatur. 
And  this  way  of  crucifying  he  conceiveth  to  have  been  in 
general  use  among  the  Eomans,  until  the  latter  days  of  Con- 
stantine,  who  in  reverence  unto  our  Saviour  abrogated  that 
opprobrious  and  infamous  way  of  crucifixion.  Whereupon 
succeeded  the  common  and  now  practised  way  of  svispension. 

But  long  before  this  abrogation  of  the  cross,  the  Jewish 
nation  had  known  the  true  sense  of  crucifixion  :  whereof  no 
nation  had  a  sharper  apprehension,  while  Adrian  crucified 
five  hundred  of  them  every  day,  untd  wood  was  wanting  for 
that  service.  So  that  they  which  had  nothing  but  'crucify' 
in  their  mouths,  were  therewith  paid  home  in  their  own 
bodies  ;  early  suffering  the  reward  of  their  imprecations,  and 
properly  in  the  same  kind. 


Of  the  Picture  of  God  the  Father  ;  of  the  Sun,  Moon,  and  Winds, 
with  others. 

The  picture  of  the  Creator,  or  Grod  the  Father,  in  the  shape 

6  Chap,  xxii.]  The  first  and  second  subjects  of  this  chapter  were 
Nos.  14  and  15,  of  chapter  xxii.  in  editions  1672  and  16S6.  There  they 
were  obviously  out  of  their  place,  occurring  in  the  midst  of  a  very  dif- 
ferent class  of  observations.  I  have  therefore  removed  them  :  and  having 
found  (in  No.  1827  of  the  Sloanian  MSS.  in  the  British  Museum)  some 

CHAP.  XXII.]     OF   THE   PICTURE    OF    GOD   THE   FATHER.       73 

of  an  old  man,  is  a  dangerous  piece/  and  in  this  fecundity  of 
sects  may  revive  the  anthropomorphites.*  AVhich  altliough 
maintained  from  the  expression  of  Daniel,  "  I  beheld  where 
the  ancient  of  days  did  sit,  whose  hair  of  his  head  was  like 
the  pure  wool ;"  yet  may  it  be  also  derivative  from  the  hiero- 
glyphical  description  of  the  Egyptian's  ;  who  to  express  their 
eneph  or  Creator  of  the  world,  described  an  old  man  in  a 
blue  mantle,  with  an  egg  in  his  mouth,  which  was  the  emblem 
of  the  world.  Surely  those  heathens,  that  notwithstanding 
the  exemplary  advantage  in  heaven,  would  endure  no  pictures 
of  sun  or  moon,  as  being  visible  unto  all  the  world,  and  need- 
ing no  representation,  do  evidently  accuse  the  practice  of 
those  pencils  that  will  describe  invisibles.  And  he  that  chal- 
lenged the  boldest  hand  unto  the  picture  of  an  echo,  must 
laugh  at  this  attempt,  not  only  in  the  description  of  invisi- 
bility, but  circumscription  of  ubiquity,  and  fetching  under 
lines  incomprehensible  circularity. 

The  pictures  of  the  Egyptians  were  more  tolerable,  and  in 
their  sacred  letters  more  veniably  expressed  the  apprehen- 
sion of  divinity.  Eor  though  they  implied  the  same  by  an 
eye  upon  a  sceptre,  by  an  eagle's  head,  a  crocodile  and  the 
like,  yet  did  these  manual  descriptions  pretend  no  corporal 
representations,  nor  coidd  the  people  misconceive  the  same 
unto  real  correspondencies.  So,  though  the  cherub  carried 
some  apprehension  of  divinity,  yet  was  it  not  conceived  to 
be  the  shape  thereof;  and  so  perhaps,  because  it  is  meta- 
phorically predicated  of  God  that  he  is  a  consuming  fire,  he 
may  be  harmlessly  described  by  a  flaming  representation. 

*  Certain  hereticks  who  ascribed  human  figure  unto  God,  after  which 
they  conceived  he  created  man  in  his  likeness. 

additional  instances  of  mistakes  in  "pictural  draughts,"  I  have  formed 
the  two  transplanted  numbers,  together  with  the  hitherto  unpublished 
matter,  into  a  new  chapter. 

''  piece.]  This  is  a  very  just  and  worthy  censure,  and  well  followed 
•with  scorne  in  the  close  of  this  paragraph.  St.  Paul  saw  things  in  a 
vision  which  himself  could  not  utter  :  and  therefore  they  are  verye  bold 
with  God,  who  dare  to  picture  him  in  any  shape  visible  to  the  eye  of 
mortality,  which  Daniel  himself  behelde  not,  but  in  a  rapture  and  an 
extatical  vision  :  unlesse  they  can  answere  that  staggering  question, 
"To  what  will  you  liken  me  ?" — Wj: 

St.   Avgustine  censures  this  impropriety  ;  Ep.  cxxii. 


Yet  if,  as  some  will  have  it,  all  mediocrity  of  folly  is  foolish, 
and  because  an  unrequitable  evil  may  ensue,  an  indifferent 
convenience  must  be  omitted,  we  shall  not  urge  such  repre- 
sentments ;  we  could  spare  the  Holy  Lamb  for  the  picture 
of  our  Saviour,  and  the  dove  or  fiery  tongues  to  represent 
the  Holy  Ghost. 

2.  The  sun  and  moon  are  usually  described  with  human 
faces ;  whether  herein  there  be  not  a  Pagan  imitation,  and 
those  visages  at  first  implied  Apollo  and  Diana,  we  may 
make  some  doubt ;  and  we  find  the  statue  of  the  sun  was 
framed  with  rays  about  the  head,  which  were  the  in  deciduous 
and  unshaven  locks  of  Apollo.  We  should  be  too  iconomical* 
to  question  the  pictures  of  the  winds,  as  commonly  drawTi  in 
human  heads,  and  with  their  cheeks  distended ;  which  not- 
withstanding we  find  condemned  by  Minutius,  as  answering 
poetical  fancies,  and  the  Gentile  description  of  -Solus, 
Boreas,  and  the  feigned  deities  of  winds. 

3.^  In  divers  pieces,  and  that  signal  one  of  Testa,^  describ- 
ing Hector  dragged  by  Achilles  about  the  walls  of  Troy,  we 
find  him  drawn  by  cords  or  fastenings  about  both  his  ancles  ; 
which  notwithstanding  is  not  strictly  answerable  unto  the 
account  of  Homer,  concerning  this  act  upon  Hector,  but 
rather  applicable  unto  that  of  Hippothous  drawing  away 
the  body  of  Patroclus,  according  to  the  expression  of 
Homer : 

Hippothous  pede  trahebat  in  forti  pugna  per  acrem  pugnam. 
Ligatum  lore  ad  malleolum  circa  tendines. — Horn.  II.  xvii.  289. 

*  Or  quarrelsome  with  pictures.  Dion.  Ep.  7,  a,  ad  Policar.  et  Pet. 
Hall.  not.  in  vit.  S.  Dionys. 

*  §  3.]  The  rest  of  this  chapter  is  now  first  printed  ; — from  MS.  SLOAN* 
1827,  3  ; — where  it  is  thus  prefaced  : — "Though  some  things  we  have 
elsewhere  delivered  of  the  impropriety,  falsity,  or  mistakes,  in  pictural 
draughts,  yet  to  awaken  your  curiosity,  these  may  be  also  considered. 
— In  divers  pieces,  &c." 

9  Testa.]  Pietro  Testa,  a  painter  of  Lucca  and  Rome,  drowned  1632, 
in  the  Tyber,  endeavouring  to  save  his  hat,  which  had  been  blown  off  hy 
a  gust  of  wind. — 0/r. 

CHAP.  XXII.]        POTIPHAe's   WIFE,      MOSES   PEATING.  75 

For  that  act  performed  by  Acliilles  upon  Hector  is  mor& 
particolarly  described : 

Amborum  retro  pedum  perforavit  tendines 

Ad  taluin  usque  a  calce,  bubulaque  innexuit  lora 

De  curruque  ligavit ;  caput  vero  trahi  sivit. — Horn.  II.  xjui.  396. 

So  that  he  bound  not  these  ties  about  his  feet,  but  made  a 
perforation  behind  them,  through  which  he  ran  the  thongs, 
and  so  dragged  him  after  his  chariot :  which  was  not  hard 
to  effect ;  the  strength  of  those  tendons  being  able  to  hold 
in  that  tracture  ;  and  is  a  common  way  practised  by  butchers, 
thus  to  hang  their  sheep  and  oxeu.^ 

This,  though  an  unworthy  act,  and  so  delivered  by  Homer, 
yet  somewhat  retaliated  the  intent  of  Hector  himself  towards 
the  body  of  Patroclus,  the  intimate  of  Achilles  ;  and  stands 
excused  by  Didymus  upon  the  custom  of  the  Thessalians,  to 
drag  the  body  of  the  homicide  unto  the  grave  of  their  slain 
friends ;  and  the  example  of  Simon  the  Thessalian,  who  thus 
dealt  with  the  body  of  Eurodamus,  who  had  before  slain  his 

4.  But,  not  to  amuse  you  with  pictures  derived  from 
G-entile  histories,  the  draught  of  Potiphar's  lady  lying  on  a 
bed,  and  drawing  Joseph  unto  her,  seems  additional  unto  the 
text,  nor  strictly  justifiable  from  it ;  wherein  it  is  only  said, 
that,  after  some  former  temptation,  when  Joseph  came  home 
to  despatch  or  order  his  affairs,  and  there  was  no  man  of  the 
house  then  within,  or  with  him,  that  she  laid  hold  of  his 
garment  and  said,  "lye  vnth  me,"  without  such  apt  prepara- 
tions either  of  nakedness,  or  being  in  her  bed,  or  the  like 
opportunities,  which  pictures  thereof  have  described. 

5.  The  picture  of  Moses,  praying  between  Hur  and  Aaron, 
seems  to  have  miscarried  in  some  draughts  ;  while  some  omit 
the  rod  which  he  should  hold  up  in  his  hand ;  and  others 
describe  him  on  his  knees,  with  his  hands  supported  by  them : 
whereas  it  is  plainly  said  in  the  text,  that,  when  Moses  was 
weary  of  standing,  he  sat  down  upon  the  rock.  And  there- 
fore, for  the  whole  process,  and  fuU  representation,  there 
must  be  more  than  one  draught ;  the  one  representing  him 

'  oxen.]  In  the  royal  library  at  Turin  is  a  curious  volume,  containing 
the  Iliad,  illustrated  by  the  monks.  One  of  the  illuminations  represents 
the  burial  of  Hector,  and  a  train  of  Benedictines  assisting  in  the  funeral 

76  JAEL   ASD    SISEEA.      JOHN   THE   BAPTIST.       [bOOK  T. 

in  station,  tlie  other  in  session,  another  in  genuflexion.  And 
though  ill  this  piece  Aaron  is  allowed  to  be  present  on  the 
hill  at  Eephidim,  yet  may  he  also  challenge  a  place  in  the 
other  piece  of  mount  Sinai  (wherein  he  is  often  omitted), 
according  to  the  command  of  God  unto  Moses  :  "  Thou  shalt 
come  up,  thou  and  Aaron  ivitli  thee  ;  but  let  not  the  priests 
nor  the  people  break  through,  to  come  up  unto  the  Lord." 

6.  The  picture  of  Jael  nailing  the  head  of  Sisera  unto  the 
ground,  seems  questionable  in  some  draughts  ;  while  Sisera 
is  made  to  lie  in  a  prone  posture,  and  the  nail  driven  into 
the  upper  part  of  the  head ;  whereas  it  is  plainly  delivered 
that  Jael  struck  the  naU  through  his  temples,  and  fastened 
him  to  the  ground:  and  which  was  the  most  proper  and 
penetrable  part  of  the  skull ;  such  as  a  woman's  hand  might 
pierce,  driving  a  large  nail  through,  and  longer  than  the 
breadth  of  a  head,  according  to  the  description, — that  she 
took  no  ordinary  naU,  but  such  as  fastened  her  tent,  and 
pierced  his  head,  and  the  ground  under  it. 

7.  An  improper  spectacle  at  a  feast,  and  very  incongruous 
unto  the  birth-day  of  a  prince,  a  time  of  pardon  and  relaxa- 
tion, was  the  head  of  John  the  Baptist.  More  properly,  in 
the  noble  picture  thereof,  the  hand  of  Eeuben  hath  left  out 
the  person  of  Herodias,  who  was  not  in  the  room,  agreeably 
unto  the  delivery  of  St.  Mark;  that,  after  Herod  had 
promised  to  grant  her  daughter  whatever  she  woidd  ask, 
she  went  out  to  enquire  of  her  mother,  Herodias,  what  she 
should  demand.  And  that  Salome,  or  her  daughter,  bi'ought 
in  the  head  of  John  unto  Herod,  as  he  was  sitting  at  the 
table,  though  it  well  sets  off"  the  picture,  is  not  expressed  in 
the  text ;  wherein  it  is  only  said  that  she  brought  it  imto 
her  mother. 

8.  That  King  Ahasuerus  feasted  apart  from  the  queen,  is 
conlirmable  from  Scripture  account.  Whether  the  queen 
were  present  at  the  fatal  feast  of  Belshazzar  seems  of  greater 
doubt ;  forasmuch  as  it  is  said  in  the  text,  that,  upon  the 
fright  and  consternation  of  the  king,  when  none  of  the  Chal- 
deans could  read  the  hand-writing  on  the  wall,  the  queen 
came  in,  and  recommended  Daniel  unto  him.  But  if  it  be 
only  meant  and  understood  of  the  queen-mother,  the  draught 
may  hold,  and  the  licentia  pictoria  not  cidpable  in  that 
notable  piece  of  Tiiitoret  or  Bassano  describing  the  feast  of 

CHAP.  XXII.']  OUR   SAVIOUR   IN   THE    SHIP.  77 

Belshazzar,  wherein  the  queen  is  placed  at  the  table  with  the 

9.  Thougli  some  hands  have  failed,  yet  the  draught  of  St. 
Peter  in  the  prison  is  properly  designed  by  Rubens,  sleeping 
between  two  soldiers,  and  a  chain  on  each  arm ;  and  so 
illustrateth  the  text,  that  is,  with  two  chains  fastened  unto 
his  arms,  and  the  one  arm  of  each  of  the  soldiers,  according 
to  the  custom  of  those  times,  to  fasten  the  prisoner  unto  his 
guard  or  keeper ;  and  after  which  manner  St.  Paul  is  con- 
ceived to  have  had  the  liberty  of  going  about  Rome. 

10.  In  the  picture  of  our  Saviour  sleeping  in  the  ship, 
while  in  many  draughts  he  is  placed  not  far  from  the  middle, 
or  in  the  prow  of  the  vessel,  it  is  a  variation  from  the  text, 
which  distinctly  saith  "  at  the  poop,"  which  being  the 
highest  part,  was  freest  from  the  billows.  Again,  in  some 
pieces  he  is  made  sleeping  with  his  head  hanging  down  ;  in 
others,  on  his  elbow  ;  which  amounteth  not  mito  the  textual 
expression,  "  upon  a  pillow,"  or  some  soft  support,  or  at 
least  (as  some  conceive  that  emphatical  expression  may 
imply)  some  part  of  the  ship  convenient  to  lean  down  the 
head.  Besides,  this  picture  might  properly  take  in  the  con- 
current account  of  the  Scripture,  and  not  describe  a  single 
ship,  since  the  same  delivereth  that  there  went  off  other 
naviculce,  or  small  vessels  with  it. 

11.  Whilst  the  text  delivereth  that  the  tempter  placed 
our  Saviour  (as  we  read  it)  upon  the  jnnnacle  of  the  temple, 
some  draughts  do  place  him  upon  the  point  of  the  highest 
turrets ;  which,  notwithstanding,  Josephus  describeth  to 
have  been  made  so  sharp  that  birds  might  not  Hght  upon 
them ;  and  the  word  ivrepvyiov  signifying  a  pinna^  or  some 
projecture  of  the  building,  it  may  probably  be  conceived  to 
have  been  some  plain  place  or  jetty,  from  whence  he  might 
well  cast  himself  dovni  upon  the  groimd,  not  faUing  upon 
any  part  of  the  temple ;  if  there  were  no  wing  or  prominent 
part  of  the  building  peculiarly  called  by  that  name. 

12.  That  piece  of  the  three  children  in  the  fiery  furnace, 
in  several  draughts,   doth  not  conform  unto  the  historical 

^  the  word,  cfcc]  Unquestionably  it  could  not  have  been  any  thing 
like  a  turret  or  pinnacle.  Some  commentators  (Le  Clerc)  consider  it  a 
projecting  portion  of  the  building  outside  the  parapet.  Others  (R<sen- 
miiller)  call  it  the  flat  roof  of  a  portico. 

78  THE   riEET   FUEIfACE.  [bOOK  V. 

accounts :  wliile  in  some  thej  are  described  naked  and  bare- 
headed ;  and  in  others  with  improper  coverings  on  their 
heads.  Whereas  the  contrary  is  delivered  in  the  text,  under 
all  learned  languages,  and  also  by  our  own,  with  some 
expositions  in  the  margin :  not  naked  in  their  bodies, 
(according  to  their  figure  in  the  JRoma  Sotterranea  of  Bosio,^ 
among  the  sepulchral  figures  iu  the  monument  of  St.  Pris- 
cdla),  but  having  a  loose  habit,  after  the  Persian  mode, 
upon  them,  whereby  it  might  be  said  that  their  garments 
did  not  so  much  as  smell  of  the  fire  ;  nor  bare  on  their  heads, 
as  described  in  the  first  chamber  of  the  cemetery  of  PriscUla^ 
but  having  on  it  a  tiara,  or  cap,  after  the  Persian  fashion, 
made  somewhat  reclining  or  falling  agreeable  unto  the  third 
table  of  the  fifth  cemetery,  and  the  mode  of  the  Persian  sub- 
jects ;  not  a  peaked,  acuminated,  and  erected  cap,  proper 
unto  their  kings,  as  is  set  down  in  the  medal  of  Antoninus, 
with  the  reverse,  Annenin.  A  standard  direction  for  this 
piece  might  probably  be  that  ancient  description  set  down 
in  the  calendar  used  by  the  Emperor  Basilius  Porphyro- 
genitus,  and  by  Pope  Paid  the  Fifth,  given  unto  the  Vatican, 
where  it  is  yet  conserved."* 

'  Roma,  <fcc.]  Jacques  Bosio,  Roma  Sotterranea;  left  imperfect  by 
him,  but  publi.shed  by  his  executor,  Aldrovandini,  fol.  1632  ;  since 
translated  into  Latin,  and  reprinted  several  times,  with  additions. — Or. 

■•  Numerous  additions  might  yet  further  be  made  to  our  author's  collec- 
tion of  pictorial  inaccuracies,  if  such  were  fairly  within  our  province.  It 
may  be  allowed  to  us,  at  least,  to  give  one  or  two  references  to  such 
additions.  John  Interian  de  Avala,  a  Spanish  monk,  who  died  at  Madrid, 
in  1770,  published  a  work  on  the  errors  of  painters  in  representing 
religious  subjects  ;  it  is  entitled  P/rtor  Christiamis  Eruditiis,  tol.  1720. 

In  the  European  Magazine,  for  1786,  vol.  ix.  p.  241,  is  noticed  a  very 
curious  work  (little  known),  by  M.  Phil.  Rohr,  entitled  Pictor  Errans, 
■which  was  abridged  by  Mr.  W.  Bowyer.  Mr.  Singer,  in  his  Anecdotes 
ofSpence,  and  Mr.  D'Israeli,  in  his  Curiosities  of  Literature,  have  given 
some  very  amusing  collectanea  of  the  kind.  In  the  Monthly  Magazine 
for  1812,  are  noticed  several  singular  absurdities  in  costume  ;  and  un- 
doubtedly many  other  such  examples  would  reward  a  diligent  forage 
through  our  numerous  periodical  publications  : — but  it  is  only  requi- 
site to  compare  the  Illustratiuns  which  are  constantly  issuing  from  the 
hands  of  our  artists,  with  the  works  they  are  intended  to  illustrate,  ia 
order  to  be  frequently  reminded  of  the  proverl^ial  conclusion  of  the 
whole  matter  ; — "  it  is  even  as  pleaseth  thepainter," 

CHAP.  XXIII.]     OP  AN  HaUE    CEOSSING   THE   HIOHWAT.       79 


Compendiously  of  many  popular  Customs,  Opinions,  <Sec.  viz.  of  an  Hare 
crossing  the  High-way  ;  of  the  ominous  appearing  of  Owls  and  Ravens  ; 
of  the  falling  of  Salt ;  of  breaking  the  Egg-shell :  of  the  True  Lovers^ 
Knot ;  of  the  Cheek  Burning  or  Ear  Tingling  ;  of  speaking  under  tite 
Hose;  of  Smoke  following  the  Fair ;  of  Sitting  cross-legged  ;  of  hair 
upon  Moles  ;  of  the  set  time  of  pairing  of  Nails  ;  of  I/ions'  heads  upon 
Spouts  and  Cisterns  ;  of  the  saying,  Ungirt,  Unhlest ;  of  the  Svm  dcmc- 
img  on  Easter-day  ;  of  the  Silly-how  ;  of  being  Drunk  once  a  Month  ; 
of  the  appeanng  of  the  Devil  with  a  Cloven  hoof. 

If  an  hare  cross  the  high-way,^  there  are  few  above  three- 
score years  that  are  not  perplexed  thereat ;  which  not- 
withstanding is  but  an  augurial  terror,  according  to  that 
received  expression,  Inauspicatum  dat  iter  oblatus  lepus. 
And  the  groimd  of  the  conceit  was  probably  no  greater  than 
this,  that  a  fearful  animal  passing  by  us,  portended  unto  us 
something  to  be  feared  :  as  upon  the  like  consideration,  the 
meeting  of  a  fox  presaged  some  future  imposture  ;  which 
was  a  superstitious  observation  prohibited  unto  the  Jews,  as 
is  expressed  in  the  idolatry  of  Maimonides,  and  is  referred 
unto  the  sin  of  an  observer  of  fortunes,  or  one  that  abuseth 
events  vmto  good  or  bad  signs  ;  forbidden  by  the  law  of 
Moses ;  which  notwithstanding  sometimes  succeeding,  ac- 
cording to  fears  or  desires,  have  left  impressions  and 
timorous  expectations  in  credulous  minds  for  ever. 

2.  That  owls  and  ravens^  are  ominous  appearers,  and  pre- 

*  hare^  When  a  hare  crosseth  us,  wee  thinke  itt  ill  lucke  shee  should 
8oe  neerely  escape  us,  and  we  had  not  a  dog  as  neere  to  catch  her. —  Wr. 

*  ravens?\  The  raven,  by  his  accute  sense  of  smelling,  discerns  the 
savour  of  the  dying  bodyes  at  the  tops  of  chimnies,  and  that  makes 
tliem  flutter  about  the  windows,  as  they  use  to  doe  in  the  searche  of  a 
carcasse.  Now  bycause  whereever  they  doe  this,  itt  is  an  evident  signe 
that  the  sick  party  seldome  escapes  deathe  :  thence  ignorant  people 
counte  them  ominous,  as  foreboding  deathe,  and  in  some  kind  as  causing 
deathe,  whereof  they  have  a  sense  indeed,  but  are  noe  cause  at  all.  Of 
owles  there  is  not  the  same  opinion,  especially  in  country-men,  who 
thinke  as  well  of  them  in  the  Same  as  of  the  cat  in  the  house  :  but  in 
great  cityes  where  they  are  not  frequent,  their  shriking  and  horrid 
note  in  the  night  is  offensive  to  women  and  children,  and  such  as  are 
weake  or  sicklye. —  Wr. 

On  the  owl,  as  an  ominous  bird,  see  Tlie  Queen  Bee,  ii.  22. — Jef. 

80  OWLS  AKD  EAYE^rS.      FALLING  Or  SALT.         [BOOK  V, 

eiguifying  unlucky  events,  as  Christians  yet  conceit,  was  also 
an  augurial  conception.  Because  many  ravens  were  seen 
when  Alexander  entered  Babylon,  they  were  thought  to 
preominate  his  death  ;  and  because  an  owl  appeared  before 
the  battle,''  it  presaged  the  ruin  of  Crassus.  Which,  though 
decrepit  superstitions,  and  such  as  had  their  nativity  in  times 
beyond  all  history,  are  fresh  in  the  observation  of  many 
heads,  and  by  the  credulous  and  feminine  party  still  in  some 
majesty  among  us.  And  therefore  the  emblem  of  super- 
stition was  well  set  out  by  Eipa,*  in  the  picture  of  an  owl, 
an  hare,  and  an  old  woman.  A_nd  it  no  way  confirmeth  the 
augurial  consideration  that  an  owl  is  a  forbidden  food  in  the 
law  of  Moses  ;  or  that  Jerusalem  was  threatened  by  the  raven 
and  the  owl,  in  that  expression  of  Isa.  xxxiv. ;  that  it  should 
be  "  a  court  for  owls,  that  the  cormorant  and  the  bittern 
should  possess  it,  and  the  owl  and  the  raven  dwell  in  it;" 
for  thereby  was  only  implied  their  ensuing  desolation,  as  is 
expounded  in  the  words  succeeding ;  "  He  shall  draw  upon 
it  the  line  of  confusion,  and  the  stones  of  emptiness."^ 

3.  The  foiling  of  salt^  is  an  authentic  presagement  of  ill- 
luck,  nor  can  every  temper  contemn  it ;  from  whence  not- 

*  Iconologia  de  Ccesare, 

'  the  battle.]     With  the  Parthians  near  Charrse. 

*  emptinens.]  It  is  rather  singular  that  the  cuckoo  is  not  honoured 
with  a  place  here.  "  Plinie  writeth  that  if,  when  you  first  hear  the 
cuckoo,  you  mark  well  where  your  right  foot  standeth,  and  take  up  of 
that  earth,  the  fleas  will  by  no  means  breed,  either  in  your  house  or 
chamber,  where  any  of  the  same  earth  is  thrown  or  scattered  ! "  HilVs 
Natural  and  Artificial  Conclusions,  1650.  In  the  North,  and  perhaps 
all  over  England,  it  is  vulgarly  accounted  an  unlucky  omen,  if  you  have 
no  money  in  your  pocket,  when  you  hear  the  cuckoo  for  the  first  time 
in  a  seasoa.     Queen  Bee,  ii.  20. — Jeff. 

It  would  perhaps  be  rather  difiicult  to  say  under  what  circumstances 
most  people  would  not  consider  such  a  state  of  pocket  an  "  unlucky 

It  is  a  still  more  common  popular  divination,  for  those  who  are 
unmarried  to  count  the  number  of  years  yet  allotted  to  them  of 
single  blessedness,  by  the  number  of  the  cuckoo's  notes  which  they  count 
when  first  they  hear  it  in  the  spring. 

3  salt.']  Where  salt  is  deare,  'tis  as  ill  caste  on  the  ground  as  bread. 
And  soe  itt  is  in  France,  where  they  pay  for  every  bushel  40s.  to  the 
king  ;  and  cannot  have  itt  elsewhere  :  and  soe  when  a  glass  is  spilt  'tiH 
ill  lucke  to  loose  a  good  cup  of  wine. —  Wr. 


withstanding  nothing  can  be  naturally  feared  ;  nor  was  the 
same  a  general  prognostick  of  future  evil  among  the  ancients, 
but  a  particular  omihation  concerning  the  breach  of  friend- 
ship. For  salt,*  as  incorruptible,  was  the  symbol  of  frieml- 
ship,  and,  before  the  other  service,  was  offered  unto  their 
guests ;  which,  if  it  casually  fell,  wiis  accounted  ominous, 
and  their  amity  of  no  duration.  But  whether  salt^  were  not 
only  a  symbol  of  friendship  with  man,  but  also  a  figure  of 
amity  and  reconciliation  with  God,  and  was  therefore 
observed  in  sacrifices,  is  an  higher  speculation."^ 

4.  To  break  the  egg-shell  after  the  meat  is  out,  we  are 
taught  in  our  childhood,  and  practise  it  all  our  lives  ;  which 
nevertheless  is  but  a  superstitious  relique,  according  to  the 
judgment  of  Pliny ;  Hue  ■pertinet  ovorum,  tit  exsorhuerit 
quisqiie  calices  protinus  frangi,  aut  eosdem  cocltlearibus  per- 
forari ;  and  the  intent  hereof  was  to  prevent  witchcraft;"* 

'  For  salt,  ^c.'\  The  hospitality  most  liberally  shown  by  Mr.  Ackennan 
of  the  Strand,  to  the  Cossack  veteran,  Alexander  Zemlenuten,  in  1815, 
waa  highly  estimated  by  the  stranger,  who  in  describing  his  generous 
reception  used  the  exclamation,  "He  gave  me  bread  and  salt."  This 
is  mentioned  in  the  41st  vol.  oi  the  Monthli/  Magazine — and  illustrated 
by  a  sketch  of  the  opinions  and  feelings  of  the  ancients  respecting  this 
"incorruptible  symbol  of  friendship." — Leonardo  da  Vinci,  in  his  pic- 
ture of  the  last  supper,  has  represented  Judas  Iscariot  as  having  over- 
turned the  salt. — Jeff- 

Captain  M'Leod,  in  his  voyage  of  the  Alceste,  says  that  in  an  island 
near  the  straits  of  Gaspar,  "  salt  was  received  with  the  same  horror  as 

^  But  wltether  salt,  dx.]     First  added  in  2nd  edition. 

•*  also  a  figure,  <£'c.]  In  the  first  vol.  o{  Blacl-woocV s  Magazine  ^\\\  he 
found  a  paper  on  the  symbolical  uses  of  salt,  p.  579.  In  the  same  volume 
also  occur  several  papers  on  the  use  made  formerly  of  the  salt-cellar 
(which  was  often  large,  ornamented  and  valuable,  and  placed  in  the 
centre  of  the  table)  as  a  point  of  separation  between  guests  of  higher 
and  lower  degree. — To  drinh  helow  the  salt  was  a  condescension  ;  to  attain 
a  seat  above  it,  an  object  of  ambition. — See  Bishop  Hall's  Satires,  No.  vi. 
b.  28. 

Among  the  regalia  used  at  the  king's  coronation,  is  the  salt  of  state, 
to  be  placed  in  the  centre  of  the  dinner  table,  in  the  fonii  of  a  castle  with 
towers,  richly  embellished  with  various  coloured  stones,  elegantly 
chased,  and  of  silver,  richly  gilt.  This,  it  is  said,  was  prese-_.ted  to 
King  Charles  II.  by  the  City  of  Exeter.— /c/. 

''  to  prevent  witchcraft.]  "To  keep  the  fairies  out,"  as  they  say  iu 
Cumbei  land.— Jeff. 

TTOL.  II.  Q 


for  lest  witclies^  should  draw  or  prick  their  names  herein, 
and  veneficiously  mischief  their  persons,  they  broke  the 
shell,  as  Dalecampius  hath  observed. 

5.  The  true  lovers'  knot^  is  very  much  magnified,  and 
still  retained  in  presents  of  love  among  us  ;  which  though  in 
all  points  it  doth  not  make  out,  had  perhaps  its  original  from 
the  nodus  Herculanus,  or  that  which  was  called  Hercules  his 
knot,  resembling  the  snaky  complication  in  the  caduceiis  or 
rod  of  Hermes ;  and  in  which  form  the  zone  or  woollen 
girdle  of  the  bride  was  fastened,  as  Turnebus  observeth  in 
his  Adveisaria. 

6.  When  our  cheek  burnetii  or  ear  tingleth,^  we  usually 
say  that  somebody  is  talking  of  us,  which  is  an  ancient  con- 
ceit, and  ranked  among  superstitious  opinions  by  Pliny  ; 
Absentes  tinnitu  aurium  prcesentire  sermones  de  se,  receptum 
€i,t ;  according  to  that  distich  noted  by  Dalecampius  ; 

GaiTula  quid  totis  resonas  mihi  noctibus  auris  ? 
Nescio  quetu  dicis  nunc  meminisse  mei. 

Which  is  a  conceit  hardly  to  be  made  out  without  the 
concession  of  a  signifying  genius,  or  universal  Mercury,  con- 
ducting sounds  unto  their  distant  subjects,  and  teaching  us 
to  hear  by  touch. 

7.  AVhen  we  desire  to  confine  our  words,  we  commonly 
say  they  are  spoken  under  the  rose  ;^  which  expression  is 

*  lest  witches.]  Least  they  perchance  might  use  them  for  boates  (as 
they  thought)  to  .sayle  in  by  night. —  Wr. 

^  lovers'  knot.]  The  true  lovers'  knot  is  magnified,  for  the  moral  sig- 
nification not  esily  untyed  ;  and  for  the  naturall, — bycause  itt  is  a  knot 
both  wayes,  that  is,  two  knots  in  one. —  Wr. 

'  t'mgleth.]  The  singing  of  the  eare  is  frequent  upon  the  least  cold 
seizing  on  the  braine  :  but  to  make  construction  hereof,  as  yf  itt  were 
the  silent  humme  of  some  absent  friendly  soule  (especially  falling  most 
to  bee  observed  in  the  night,  when  few  friends  are  awake)  is  one  of  the 
dotages  of  the  heathen. —  Wr, 

*  rose.]  Of  those  that  commonlye  use  this  proverb  few,  besides  the 
learned,  can  give  a  reason  why  they  use  itt :  itt  is  sufficient  that  all 
men  knowe  what  wee  meane  by  that  old  forme  of  speeche,  thoughe  (as 
of  raanye  other  such  like)  they  know  not  the  originall. —  Wr. 

Warburton  (says  Brand)  commenting  on  that  passage  of  Shakspeare 
in  Henry  VI.  : — 

"  From  off  this  briar  pluck  a  white  rose  with  me," 
flupposes  the  present  saying  to  have  originated  in  the  struggle  between 


commendable,  if  the  rose  from  any  natural  property  may  be 
the  symbol  of  silence,  as  Nazianzen  seems  to  imply  in  these 
translated  verses  ; 

Utque  latet  Rosa  verna  suo  putamine  clausa, 
Sic  OS  vincla  ferat,  validisque  arctetur  habenis, 
Indicatque  suis  prolixa  silentia  labris  : 

And  is  also  tolerable,  if  by  desiring  a  secrecy  to  words 
spoken  under  the  rose,  we  only  mean  in  society  and  compo- 
tation,  from  the  ancient  custom  in  symposiack  meetings,  to 
wear  chaplets  of  roses  about  their  heads  :  and  so  we  con- 
demn not  the  German  custom,  which  over  the  table 
describeth  a  rose  in  the  ceiling.  But  more  considerable  it 
is,  if  the  original  were  such  as  Lemnius  and  others  have 
recorded,  that  tlie  rose  was  the  flower  of  Venus,  which  Cupid 
consecrated  unto  Harpocrates  the  God  of  silence,  and  was 
therefore  an  emblem  thereof,  to  conceal  the  pranks  of  venery, 
as  is  declared  in  this  tetrastich : 

Est  rosa  flos  "Veneris,  cujus  qu5  facta  laterent, 

Harpocrati  matris,  dona  dicavit  amor  ; 
Inde  rosam  meusis  hospes  suspendit  amicis, 

Convivse  ut  sub  ea  dicta  tacenda  sciant.^ 

8.  That  smoke  doth  follow  the  fairest,^  is  an  usual  saymg 
with  us,2  and  in  many  parts  of  Europe  ;  whereof  although 
there  seem  no  natural  ground,  yet  is  it  the  continuation  of  a 
very  ancient  opinion,  as  Petrus,  Victorius,  and  Casaubon 
have  observed  from  a  passage  in  Athenseus  ;  wherein  a  para- 
site thus  describeth  himself: 

the  two  houses  of  York  and  Lancaster  ;  in  which  secrecy  must  veiy 
often  have  been  enjoined,  on  various  occasions,  and  probably  was  so 
"  under  the  rose." 

In  Pegge's  Anonymiana ,  the  symbol  of  silence  is  referred  to  the  rose 
on  a  clergynian's  hat,  and  derived  from  the  silence  which  popish  priests 
kept  as  to  the  confessions  of  their  people. — Jeff. 

^  sciant.]  The  discourses  of  the  table  among  true  loving  friendes  re- 
quire as  stricte  silence,  as  those  of  the  bed  between  the  married. —  Wr. 

'  fairest.]  The  fairest  and  tenderest  complexions  are  soonest 
offended  with  itt :  and  therefore  when  they  complain,  men  use  this 
suppling  proverb. —  Wr. 

-  an  usual  saying  with  us.]  An  observation  of  Brand  {Pojmlar 
Antiquities)  seems  to  imply  that  he  considered  the  saying  to  have  be- 
come extinct  since  the  days  of  Browne.  This  is  by  no  means  the  case. 
It  is  stil/  very  common  in  Norfolk. 


84  TO    SIT    CEOSS-LEGGED.  [bOOZ  T, 

To  every  table  first  I  come, 

Whence  porridge  I  am  call'd  by  some  , 

A  Capaneus  at  stairs  I  am, 

To  enter  any  room  a  ram  ; 

Like  whips  and  thongs  to  all  I  ply, 

Like  smoke  unto  the  fair  I  fly. 

9.  To  sit  cross-legged,^  or  with  our  fingers  pectinated  or 
sliut  together,  is  accounted  bad,  and  friends  will  persuade  us 
from  it.  The  same  conceit  religiously  possessed  the  ancients 
as  is  observable  from  Pliny  ;  poplites  alternis  genihus  impo- 
oiere  nefas  olim  :  and  also  from  Athenseus,  that  it  was  an  old 
veneficious  practice,  and  Juno  is  made  in  this  posture  to 
hinder  the  delivery  of  Alcmsena.  And  therefore,  as  Pierius 
observeth,  in  the  medal  of  Julia  Pia,  the  right-hand  of  Venus 
was  made  extended  with  the  inscription  of  Yenus  G-enitrix ; 
for  the  complication  or  pectination  of  the  fingers  was  an 
liieroglyphick  of  impediment,  as  in  that  place  he  declareth. 

10.  The  set  and  statary  times  of  pairing  of  nails,  and 
cutting  of  hair,'*  is  thouglit  by  many  a  point  of  consideration  ; 
which  is  perhaps  but  the  continuation  of  an  ancient  super- 
stition. For  piaculous^  it  was  unto  the  Romans  to  pare 
their  nails  upon  the  Nundinae,  observed  every  ninth  day  ; 
and  was  also  feared  by  others  in  certain  days  of  the  week  ; 
according  to  that  of  Ausonius,  Ungues  llercitrio,  Barham 
Jove,  Cypride  Crines ;  and  was  one  part  of  the  wickedness 
that  filled  up  the  measure  of  Manasses,  when  'tis  delivered 
that  he  observed  times.* 

11.  A  common  fashion  is  to  nourish  hair  upon  the  moles 
of  the  face ;  which  is  the  perpetuation  of  a  very  ancient 

*  1  Chron.  xxxv. 

^  To  sit  cross-legged.']  There  is  more  incivilitye  in  this  forme  of 
sitting,  then  malice  or  superstition  ;  and  may  sooner  move  our  spleen  to 
a  smile  then  a  chafe. —  Wr. 

■•  Art/?'.]  They  that  would  encrease  the  haire  maye  doe  well  to  ob- 
serve the  increasing  moone  at  all  times,  but  especially  in  Taurus  or 
Cancer :  they  that  would  hinder  the  growthe,  in  the  decrease  of  the 
moone,  especially  in  Capricornus  or  Scorpio  :  and  this  is  soe  far  from 
superstitious  folly  that  it  savours  of  one  guided  by  the  rules  of  the 
wise  in  physic.  And  what  is  sayd  of  the  haire  may  bee  as  fitly  applied 
to  the  iiaylea. —  Wr.     Oh  !  Mr.  Dean  ! 

*  piaculous.'\     Kequiring  expiation. 

CHA.P.  XXIIT.]  OF    CUTTING   THE    HAIR.  85 

custom :  and,  thougli  innocently  practised  among  us,  may- 
have  a  supei'stitious  original,  according  to  that  of  Pliny  : 
Ncevos  in  facie  tondere  religiosum  liabent  nunc  multi.  From 
the  like  might  pi'oceed  the  fears  of  polling  elvelocks^  or 
complicated  hairs  off  the  heads,  and  also  of  locks  longer 
than  the  other  hair ;  they  being  votary  at  first,  and  dedi- 
cated upon  occasion  ;  preserved  with  great  care,  and  accord- 
ingly esteemed  by  others,  as  appears  by  that  of  Apuleius, 
adjuro  per  dulcem  capilli  tui  nodulum. 

12.  A  custom  there  is  in  some  parts  of  Europe  to  adorn 
aqueducts,  spouts  and  cisterns  with  lions'  heads ;  which 
though  no  illaudable  ornament,  is  of  an  Egyptian  genealogy, 
who  practised  the  same  under  a  symbolical  illation.  For 
because,  the  sun  being  in  Leo,  the  flood  of  Nilus  was  at  the 
full,  and  water  became  conveyed  into  every  part,  they  made 
the  spouts  of  their  aqueducts  through  the  head  of  a  lion.^ 
And  upon  some  celestial  respects  it  is  not  improbable  the 
great  Mogul  or  Indian  king  both  bear  for  his  arms  the  lion 
and  the  sun.® 

13.  Many  conceive  there  is  somewhat  amiss,  and  that  as 
we  usually  say,  they  are  unblest,  until  they  put  on  their 
girdle.  AVherein  (although  most  know  not  what  they  say) 
there  are  involved  unknown  considerations.  Eor  by  a  girdle 
or  cincture  are  symbolically  implied  ti*uth,  resolution,  and 
readiness  unto  action,  which  are  parts  and  virtues  required 
in  the  service  of  Grod.  According  whereto  we  find  that  the 
Israelites  did  eat  the  paschal  lamb  with  their  loins  girded  y* 

*  Isa.  xi. 

'  dvelocks.^  Such  is  the  danger  of  cutting  a  haire  in  the  Hungarian 
knot  that  the  blood  will  flow  out  of  itt,  as  by  a  quill,  and  will  not  bee 
stanched.  And  thence  perhaps  the  custome  first  sprange,  though  since 
abused. —  Wr. 

''  lion.']  Architects  practise  this  forme  still,  for  noe  other  reason 
then  the  beautye  of  itt. —  Wr. 

*  sun.']  These  two  are  the  emblems  of  majestye :  the  sonne  signify- 
ing singularity  of  incommunicable  glory  :  the  lyon  sole  soveraintye,  or. 
monarchall  power  ;  and  therefore  most  sutable  to  their  grandour. —  Wr. 

*  girded.]  I  suppose  this  innocent  custome  is  most  comely  and  most 
Christian,  partly  in  observation  of  the  old  precept  of  St.  Paule 
[Ephes.  vi.  14],  and  partly  in  imitation  of  him  in  the  first  of  the  reve- 
lation, who  is  described  doubly  girt,  about  the  paps,  and  about  the 
loyns.  See  the  Icon  of  St.  Paul  before  his  Epistles,  in  the  Italian  Tes- 
tament, at  Lions,  1556. —  Wr. 


and  the  Almighty  challenging  Job,  bids  him  gird  up  his 
loins  like  a  man.  So  runneth  the  expression  of  Peter, 
"  Gird  up  the  loins  of  your  minds,  be  sober  and  hope  to  the 
end;"  so  the  high  priest  was  girt  with  the  girdle  of  fine 
linen ;  so  is  it  part  of  the  holy  habit  to  have  our  loins  girt 
about  with  truth ;  and  so  is  it  also  said  concerning  our 
Saviour,  "  Eighteousness  shall  be  the  girdle  of  his  loins,  and 
faithfulness  the  girdle  of  his  reins." 

Moreover  by  the  girdle,  the  heart  and  parts  which  God 
requires  are  divided  from  the  inferior  and  concupiscential 
organs  ;  implying  thereby  a  memento,  unto  purification  and 
cleanness  of  heart,  which  is  commonly  defiled  from  the  con- 
cupiscence and  affection  of  those  parts  ;  and  therefore  unto 
this  day  the  Jews  do  bless  themselves  when  they  put  on 
their  zone  or  cincture.  And  thus  may  we  make  out  the 
doctrine  of  Pythagoras,  to  offer  sacrifice  with  our  feet  naked, 
that  is,  that  our  inferior  parts,  and  farthest  removed  from 
reason,  might  be  free,  and  of  no  impediment  unto  us.  Thus 
Achilles,  though  dipped  in  Styx,  yet,  having  his  heel  un- 
touched by  that  water,  although  he  were  fortified  elsewhere, 
he  was  slain  in  that  part,  as  only  vulnerable  in  tlie  iixferior 
and  brutal  part  of  man.  This  is  that  part  of  Eve  and  her 
posterity  the  devil  still  doth  bruise,  that  is,  that  part  of  the 
soul  which  adhereth  unto  earth,  and  walks  in  the  path 
thereof.  And  in  this  secondary  and  s\Tnbolical  sense  it  may 
be  also  iinderstood,  when  the  priests  in  the  law  washed  their 
feet  before  the  sacrifice  ;  when  our  Saviour  washed  the  feet 
of  his  disciples,  and  said  imto  Peter,  "  If  I  wash  not  thy  feet, 
thou  hast  no  part  in  me."  And  thus  is  it  symbolically 
explainable,  and  implieth  purification  and  cleanness,  when 
in  the  burnt-off"erings  the  priest  is  commanded  to  wash  the 
inwards  and  legs  thereof  in  water  ;  and  in  the  peace  and  sin- 
offerings,  to  burn  the  two  kidneys,  the  fat  which  is  about 
the  flanks,  and  as  we  translate  it,  the  caul  above  the  liver. 
But  whether  the  Jews,  when  they  blessed  themselves,  had 
any  eye  unto  the  words  of  Jeremy,  wherein  God  makes  them 
his  girdle ;  or  had  therein  any  reference  unto  the  girdle, 
which  the  prophet  was  commanded  to  hide  in  the  hole  of  the 

The  Israelites  ate  the  paschal  lamb  with  their  loin&  girt,  as  being  in 
readiness  to  take  their  journey  (from  Egypt). 


rock  of  Euphrates,  and  whicli  was  the  type  of  their  captivity, 
we  leave  unto  higher  conjecture. 

14.  We  shall  not,  I  hope,  disparage  the  resurrection  of 
our  Redeemer,  if  we  say  tlie  sun  doth  not  dance  on  Easter- 
day.  And  though  we  would  willingly  assent  unto  any  sym- 
pathetica! exvdtation,  yet  cannot  conceive  therein  any  more 
than  a  tropical  expression.  "Whether  any  such  motion  there 
were  in  that  day  wherein  Christ  arose,  Scripture  hath  not 
revealed,  which  hatli  been  punctual  in  other  records  con- 
cerning solary  miracles  ;  and  the  Areopagite,  that  was  amazed 
at  the  eclipse,  took  no  notice  of  this.  And  if  metaphorical 
expressions  go  so  far,  we  may  be  bold  to  affirm,  not  only  that 
one  sun  danced,  but  two  arose  that  day  : — that  light  appeared 
at  his  nativity,  and  darkness  at  his  death,  and  yet  a  light  at 
both  ;  for  even  that  darkness  was  a  light  unto  the  Gentiles, 
illuminated  by  that  obscurity : — that  it  was  the  first  time 
the  sun  set  above  the  horizon : — that  although  there  were 
darkness  above  the  earth  there  was  light  beneath  it ;  nor 
dare  we  say  that  hell  was  dark  if  he  were  in  it. 

15.  Great  conceits  are  raised  of  the  involution  or  mem- 
branous covering,  commonly  called  the  silly-how,  that  some- 
times is  found  about  the  heads  of  children  upon  their  birth, 
and  is  therefore  preserved  with  great  care,  not  only  as  medi- 
cal in  diseases,  but  effectual  in  success,  concerning  the  infant 
and  others,  which  is  surely  no  more  than  a  continued  super- 
stition. For  hereof  we  read  in  the  Life  of  Antoninus, 
delivered  by  Spartianus,  that  children  are  born  sometimes 
with  this  natural  cap ;  which  midwives  were  wont  to  sell 
unto  credulous  lawyers,  who  had  an  opinion  it  advantaged 
their  promotion. ^ 

'  •promotion?^  By  making  them  gracious  in  pleadinge  :  to  whom  I 
thinke  itt  was  sufficient  punishment,  that  they  bought  not  wit,  but  folly 
so  deare. —  Wr. 

Even  till  recently  the  opinion  has  been  held,  that  a  child's  caul  (silly- 
how)  would  preserve  a  person  from  drowning  !  In  the  Times  of  May  6, 
1814,  were  three  advertisements  of  fine  cauls  to  be  sold  at  considerable 
prices  specified.  The  following  appear  at  subsequent  dates  : — "  To 
voyagers.  A  child's  caul  to  be  sold  for  15  guineas.  Apply,  &c." 
Tivies,  Dec.  8th,  1819. 

Another  for  16  guineas  :   Times,  Dec.  16,  1829. 

"  A  child's  caul  to  be  disposed  of.  The  efficacy  of  this  wonderful 
production  of  nature,  in  preserving  the  possessor  from  all  accidents  by 
Bea  and  land,  has  long  been  experienced,  and  is  universally  acknow- 

88  OF   BEING   DRUNK   ONCE   A   MONTH.  [bOOK  V, 

tat  to  speak  strictly,  the  effect  is  natural,  and  tlius  may 
be  conceived  :  animal  conceptions  have  (largely  taken)  three 
teguments,  or  membranous  films,  which  cover  them  in  the 
womb :  that  is,  the  chorion,  amnios  and  allantois.  The 
cTiorion  is  the  outward  membrane,  wherein  are  implanted  the 
veins,  arteries,  and  umbilical  vessels,  whereby  its  nourish- 
ment is  conveyed.  The  allantois  is  a  thin  coat  seated  imder 
the  chorion,  wherein  are  received  the  waterj^  separations 
conveyed  by  the  urachus,  that  the  acrimony  thereof  should 
not  offend  the  skin.  The  amnios  is  a  general  investment, 
containing  the  sudorous  or  thin  serocity  perspirable  through 
the  skin.  Xow  about  the  time  when  the  infant  breaketh 
these  coverings,  it  sometimes  carrieth  with  it,  about  the 
head,  a  part  of  the  amnois  or  nearest  coat ;  which,  saith 
Spigelius,*  either  proceedeth  from  the  toughness  of  the 
membrane,  or  weakness  of  the  infant  that  cannot  get  clear 
thereof.  And  therefore,  herein  significations  are  natural 
and  concluding  upon  the  infant,  but  not  to  be  extended  unto 
magical  signalities,  or  any  other  person. 

16.  That  it  is  good  to  be  drunk  once  a  month,  is  a  com- 
mon flattery  of  sensuality,  supporting  itself  upon  physick, 
and  the  healthful  effects  of  inebriation.-     This  indeed  seems 

*  De  Formate  Fcetu. 

ledged  :  the  present  phenomenon  was  produced  on  the  4th  of  March 
inst.  and  covered  not  only  the  head,  but  the  whole  body  and  limbs  of  a 
fine  female  infant,  the  daughter  of  a  respectable  master  tradesman. 
Apply  at  No.  49,  Gee-street.  Goswell-street,  where  a  reference  will  be 
oiven  to  the  eminent  physician  who  officiated  at  the  birth  of  the  child." 
Times,  March  9th,  1820.  Another  advertised,  £Q,  Times,  Sept.  5th, 
1820.  Anotherfor  12  guineas,  di«o,  Jan.  23rd,  1824.  See  New  Monthly 
Mag.,  May,  July,  Aug.  1814.    _ 

Intellect,  surely,  was  not  yet  in  full  march  at  this  period. 

2  inebriation.]  Noe  man  could  more  properlye  inveighe  against  this 
beastly  sinu,  then  a  grave  and  learned  physitian,  were  itt  for  noe  more 
but  the  acquitting  his  noble  faculty  from  the  guilt  of  countenancinge 
a  medicine  soe  lothsome  and  soe  odious.  -  Certainlye  itt  cannot  but 
mao-nifiehis  sober  spirit,  that  does  make  his  own  facultye  (as  Hagar  to 
Sarah)  vayle  to  divinity,  the  handmayd  to  her  lady  and  mistresse  : 
especially  seeinge  the  naturall  man  cannot  but  confesse  that  itt  is  base, 
unworthye  the  divine  offspring  of  the  human  soule,  which  is  immortal!, 
to  put  of  itself  for  a  moment,  or  to  assume  the  shape,  or  much  less  the 
guise  of  (the  uglyest  beast)  a  swine,  for  any  supposable  benefit  accruing 
thereby  to   this  outward  carcasse,    especially  when  itt  may  bee  iai 

CHAP.  XXIIl  J        OF    BEING   DllUNK    OlfCE    A    MONTH.  89 

plainly  affirmed  by  Avicenna,  a  physician  of  great  authority, 
and  whose  religion,  prohibiting  wine,  could  less  extenuate 
ebriety.  But  Averroes,  a  man  of  his  own  faith,  was  of  an- 
other belief;  restraining  his  ebriety  unto  hilarity,  and  in  effect 
making  no  more  thereof  than  Seneca  commendeth,  and  was 
allowable  in  Cato  ;  that  is,  a  sober  incalescence  and  regulated 
sestuation  from  wine ;  or,  what  may  be  conceived  between 
Joseph  and  his  brethren,  when  the  text  expresseth  they  were 
merry,  or  drank  largely  ;  and  whereby  indeed  the  conunodi- 
ties  set  down  by  Avicenna,  that  is,  alleviation  of  spirits,  reso- 
lution of  superfluities,  provocation  of  sweat  and  urine,  may 
also  ensue.  But  as  for  dementation,  sopition  of  reason  and 
the  diviner  particle,  from  drink  ;  though  American  religion 
approve,  and  Pagan  piety  of  old  hath  practised  it,  even  at 
their  sacrifices,  Christian  morality  and  the  doctrine  of  Christ 
will  not  allow.  And  surely  that  religion  which  excuseth  the 
fact  of  Noah,  in  the  aged  surprisal  of  six  hundred  years,  and 
unexpected  inebriation  from  the  unknown  effects  of  wine, 
will  neither  acquit  ebriosity-^  nor  ebriety,  in  their  known  and 
intended  perversions. 

And  indeed  although  sometimes  effects  succeed  which  may 
relieve  the  body,  yet  if  they  carry  mischief  or  peril  unto  the 
soul,  we  are  therein  restrainable  by  divinity,  which  circum- 
scribeth  physick,  and  circumstantially  determines  the  use 
thereof.  From  natural  considerations  physick  commendeth 
the  use  of  venery  ;  and  haply  incest,  adultery,  or  stupration, 
may  prove  as  physically  advantageous  as  conjugal  copulation; 
which  notwithstanding  must  not  be  drawn  into  practice. 
And  truly  effects,  consequents,  or  events  which  we  commend, 
arise  ofttimes  from  ways  which  we  all  condemn.  Thus  from 
the  fact  of  Lot  w^e  derive  the  generation  of  Euth  and  blessed 
nativity  of  our  Saviour  ;  which  notwithstanding  did  not  ex- 
tenuate the  incestuous  ebriety  of  the  generator.  And  if,  as 
is  commonly  urged,  we  think  to  extenuate  ebriety  from  the 
benefit  of  vomit  oft  succeeding,  Egyptian  sobriety  will  con- 
better  relieved  by  soe  many  excellent,  easie,  warrantable  wayes  of 
physick. —  Wr. 

"  Drunkenness  (methinks)  can  neither  become  a  wise  philosopher  to 
prescribe,  nor  a  virtuous  man  to  practise." — Bp.  Hall,  Heaven  upon 
Earth,  §  3. 

^  ebiiosity.]     Habitual  drunkennesB. 

90         THE  DETIL  HAS  A  CLOTEX  HOOF      [BOOK  T. 

demn  us,  whicli  purged  both  ways  twice  a  month  without  this 
perturbation  ;  and  we  foolishly  contemn  the  liberal  hand  of 
God,  and  ample  field  of  medicines  which  soberly  produce 
that  action. 

17.  A  conceit  there  is,  that  the  devil  commonly  appeareth 
with  a  cloven  hoof:^  wherein,  although  it  seem  excessively 
ridiculous,  there  may  be  somewhat  of  truth  ;  and  the  ground 
thereof  at  first  might  be  his  frequent  appearing  in  the  shape 
of  a  goat,  which  answers  that  description.  This  was  the 
opinion  of  ancient  Christians  concerning  the  apparition  of 
Panites,  fauns,  and  satyrs ;  and  in  this  form  we  read  of  one 
that  appeared  unto  Antony  in  the  wilderness.  The  same 
is  also  confirmed  from  expositions  of  Holy  Scriptures ;  for 
whereas  it  is  said,*  "  Thou  shalt  not  offer  unto  devils,"  the 
original  word  is  seglininm,  that  is,  rough  and  hairy  goats, 
because  in  that  shape  the  devil  most  often  appeared ;  as  is 
expounded  by  the  Ilabbins,  and  Tremellius  hath  also  ex- 
plained ;  and  as  the  word  Ascimah,  the  god  of  Emath,  is  by 
some  conceived.  jSTor  did  he  only  assume  this  shape  in  elder 
times,  but  commonly  in  latter  times,  especially  in  the  place 
of  his  worship,  if  there  be  any  truth  in  the  confession  of 
witches,  and  as  in  many  stories  it  stands  confirmed  by  Bodi- 
nus.f  And  therefore  a  goat  is  not  improperly  made  the 
hieroglyphick  of  the  devil,  as  Pierius  hath  expressed  it.  So 
might  it  be  the  emblem  of  sin,  as  it  was  in  tlie  sin-offering ; 
and  so  likewise  of  wicked  and  slnfid  men,  according  to  the 
expression  of  Scripture  in  the  method  of  the  last  distribu- 
tion ;  when  our  Saviour  shall  separate  the  sheep  from  the 
goats,  that  is,  the  sons  of  the  Lamb  from  the  children  of  the 

*  Levit.  xvii.  f  In  his  Dcemonomania. 

''  hoof.'\  'Tis  remarkable  that  of  all  creatures  the  devil  chose  the 
cloven-footed,  wherein  to  appeare,  as  satyrs,  and  goatishe  monsters : 
the  swine  whereon  to  worke  his  malice  :  and  the  calves  wherein  to  bee 
worshiped  as  at  Dan  and  Bethel.  For  which  cause  the  Spirit  of  God 
cald  those  calves  (raised  by  Jeroboam  for  worship)  devils  :  2  Chron.  xi. 
15.  And  that  he  chose  his  priests  of  the  lowest  of  the  people  was  very 
enitable.  For  where  their  god  was  a  calfe,  'twas  not  improper  that  a 
butcher  should  be  the  preiste. —  Wr. 



Of  Popular  Customs,  Opinions,  d'C. ;  of  the  Prediction  of  the  Tear  ensuing 
from  the  Insects  in  Oak  Apples  ;  that  C'hilcb'cn  would  naturally  speak 
Hebrew;  of  refraining  to  kill  Swallows;  of  Lights  burning  dim  at  the 
Apparition  of  Spirits  ;  of  the  wearing  of  Coral  ;  of  Moses'  Mod  in  the 
Discovery  of  Mines  ;  of  discovering  doibtful  matters  ly  Book  or  Staff. 

1.  That  temperamental  dignotions,  and  conjecture  of 
prevalent  humours,  may  be  collected  from  spots  in  our  nails, 
we  are  not  averse  to  concede ;  but  yet  not  ready  to  admit 
sundry  divinations  vulgularly  raised  upon  them.  Nor  do  we 
observe  it  verified  in  others,  what  Cardan  *  discovex'ed  as  a 
property  in  himself ;  to  have  found  therein  some  signs  of 
most  events  that  ever  happened  unto  him.  Or  that  there  is 
much  considerable  in  that  doctrine  of  clieiromancy,  that  spots 
in  the  top  of  the  nails  do  signify  things  past ;  in  the  middle, 
tilings  present ;  and  at  the  bottom,  events  to  come.  That 
white  specks  presage  our  felicity ;  blue  ones  our  misfor- 
tunes. That  those  in  the  nail  of  tlie  thumb  have  significa- 
tions of  honour  ;  those  in  the  forefinger,  of  riches ;  and  so 
respectively  in  other  fingers  (according  to  planetical  relations, 
from  whence  they  receive  their  names),  as  Tricassus  t  hath 
taken  up,  and  Picciolus  well  rejecteth.^ 

We  shall  not  proceed  to  query  what  truth  there  is  in 
palmistry,  or  divination  from  those  lines  in  our  hands,  of 
high  denomination.  Although  if  any  thing  be  therein,  it 
seems  not  confinable  unto  man ;  but  other  creattu-es  are  also 
considerable ;  as  is  the  forefoot  of  the  mole,  and  especially 
of  the  monkey,  wherein  we  have  observed  the  table-line,  that 
of  life  and  of  the  Hver. 

2.  That  children  committed  unto  the  school  of  nature, 
without  institution,  would  naturally  speak  the  primitive  lan- 
guage of  the  world,  was  the  opinion  of  ancient  heathens,  and 

*  De  Varietate  Herum.  f  De  Inspectione  ManOs. 

"  spots,  (fcc]  This  saying  has  remained  to  the  present  day.  Such 
superstitions  will  only  cease  when  the  ignorance  of  the  lower  orders, 
through  whom  they  find  their  way  into  the  nursery,  shall  have  given 
place  to  the  general  diffusion  of  Knowledge — especially  of  religioug 


continued  since  by  Christians  ;  wlio  will  have  it  our  Hebrew 
tongue,  as  being  the  language  of  Adam.  That  this  were 
true,  were  much  to  be  desired,  not  only  for  the  easy  attain- 
ment of  that  useful  tongue,  but  to  determine  the  true  and 
primitive  Hebrew.  For  whether  the  present  Hebrew  be  the 
unconfounded  language  of  Babel,  and  that  which,  remaining 
in  Heber,  was  continued  by  Abraham  and  his  posterity  ; ''  or 

^  Fw  whether  the  present  Hehrexv,  ttr.]  On  the  subject  of  this  passage, 
patient  and  learned  ingenuity  has  been  exercised  in  successive  ages  to 
afford  us — only  hypothesis  and  conjectures.  And  though  it  must  be 
admitted  that  nothing  more  satisfactory  can,  in  the  nature  of  things,  be 
expected,  yet  is  it  certain,  that  in  order  to  constitute  a  thorowjh  com- 
petency to  propose  even  these,  nothing  less  would  suffice  than  the  most 
profound  acquaintance  with  history  and  geography  from  their  remotest 
traces  ;  and  an  erudition  competent  to  the  analysis  and  classification,  not 
only  of  the  languages  of  antiquity,  but  of  those  living  tongues  and  dialects 
which  now  cover  the  earth,  and  to  which  modern  discoveries  are  daily 
making  additions.  On  the  question,  whether  the  confusion  of  tongues 
left  one  section  or  family  of  the  existing  population  in  possession  of  the 
pure  and  unadulterated  antediluvian  language,  I  cannot  perceive  the 
materials  for  constructing  even  a  conjecture.  As  to  the  theory  here 
proposed,  on  which  Abraham  might  understand  those  nations  among 
whom  he  sojourned,  by  his  o%\'n  means  of  philological  approximation, 
I  cannot  help  feeling  that  it  is  almost  like  claiming  for  the  patriarch  an 
exemption  from  the  operation  of  the  confusion  of  tongues.  Among  the 
most  recent  works  on  this  general  class  of  questions,  is  Mr.  Beke's 
Origines  Bihlicw,  a  work  in  which  some  novel  hypotheses  have  called 
down  on  their  author  the  criticism  of  those  who  differ  from  him  ;  while 
at  the  same  time  the  tribute  of  praise  has  not  been  denied  to  the  ability 
he  has  displayed,  and  especially  to  that  spirit  of  reverence  for  scriptural 
authority  which  pervades  his  work. 

Mr.  Beke  first  states  his  opinion, — in  opposition  to  the  more  usual 
hypothesis  which  considers  the  languages  of  the  Jews,  Arabians,  and 
other  nations  of  similar  character,  to  be  the  Semitic  or  Shemitish  family 
of  languages, — that  this  origin  may  more  probably  be  assigned  to  those 
of  Tibet,  China,  and  all  those  nations  of  the  east  and  south-east  of  Asia, 
•which  are  manifestly  distinct  from  the  Japhthitish  Hindoos  and 
Tartars  ;  including  the  islands  of  the  Indian  Archipelago  and  the  South 
Seas.  He  subsequently  gives  the  following  reasons  for  attributing  to 
the  usually-called  Semitic  languages  (namely,  Hebrew,  Chaldee,  Syriac, 
Arabic,  and  Ethiopic  of  Abyssinia),  "  a  Mitzrite,  and  therefore  Hamitish 
origin."  " 'WTien  the  Almighty  was  pleased  to  call  Abraham  from  his 
native  country,  the  land  of  the  Arphaxidites,  or  Chaldees,  first  into  the 
country  of  Aram,  and  afterwards  into  that  of  Canaan,  one  of  two  things 
must  necessarily  have  had  place  ;  either  that  the  inhabitants  of  these  lat- 
ter countries  spoke  the  same  language  as  himself,  or  else  that  he  acquired 
the  knowledge  of  the  foreign  tongues  spoken  by  these  people  during  his 
residence  in  the  countriot?  in  which  they  were  vernacular.     That  they 

CHAP.  XXIV.]      CniLDEEN    NATL'EALLT    SPEAK   HEBREW.      93 

rather  the  language  of  Phoenicia  and  Canaan,  wherein  he 
lived,  some  learned  men  I  perceive  do  yet  remain  unsatisfied. 

all  made  use  of  the  same  language  cannot  be  imagined.  Even  if  it  be 
assumed  that  the  descendants  of  Arphaxad,  Abraham's  ancestor,  and 
the  Aramites,  in  whose  territories  Terah  .and  his  family  first  took  up 
their  residence,  spoke  the  same  language,  or,  at  the  furthest,  merely 
dialects  of  the  same  original  Shemitish  tongue,  we  cannot  suppose  that 
this  language  would  have  resembled  those  which  were  spoken  by  the 
Hamitish  Canaanites,  and  Philistines,  in  whose  countries  Abraham 
afterwards  sojourned,  unless  we  at  the  same  time  contend  that  the  con- 
fusion of  tongues  at  Babel  was  practically  inoperative  ;  a  conclusion,  I 
apprehend,  in  which  we  should  be  directly  opposed  to  the  exjiress  words 
of  Scripture  :  Gen.  xi.  1 — 9. 

"  We  have  no  alternative,  therefore,  as  it  would  seem,  but  to  con- 
sider (as,  in  fact,  is  the  plain  and  obvious  interpretation  of  the  circum- 
stances), that  Abraham  having  travelled  from  his  native  place  (a  dis- 
tance of  above  600  miles)  to  the  'south  country,'  the  land  of  the  Philis- 
tines, where  he  'sojourned  many  days,'  he  and  his  family  would  have 
acquired  the  language  of  the  people  amongst  whom  they  thus  took  up 
their  residence.  But  it  may  be  objected  that  Abraham  and  his 
descendants,  although  living  in  a  foreign  country,  and  necessarily 
speaking  the  language  of  that  country  in  their  communications  with  its 
inhabitants,  would  also  have  retained  the  Aramitiah  tongue  spoken  in 
Haran,  and  that  the  intercourse  between  the  two  countries  having  been 
kept  up,  first  by  the  marriage  of  Isaac  with  his  cousin  Rebekah,  and 
subsequently  by  that  of  Jacob  also  with  his  cousins  Leah  and  Rachel, 
and  more  especially  from  the  circumstance  of  Jacob's  having  so  long  re- 
sided in  Padan-Aram,  and  of  all  his  children,  with  the  exception  of 
Benjamin,  having  been  born  there,  the  family  language  of  Jacob,  at  the 
time  of  his  return  into  the  '  south  country,'  must  indisputably  have  beec 
the  Aramitish.  It  may  be  argued  farther,  that  although  for  the  pur- 
pose of  holding  communication  with  the  Canaanities  and  the  Philistines, 
it  was  necessary  to  understand  their  languages  also,  yet  that  the  lan- 
guage most  familiar  to  Jacob  and  his  household  continued  to  be  the 
Aramitish,  until  the  period  when  they  all  left  Canaan  to  go  down  into 
Mitzraim  ;  and  hence  it  might  be  coutended  that  no  good  reason  exists 
for  opposing  the  generally  received  opinion,  that  the  Hebrew  is  the 
same  Aramitish  tongue  which  was  taken  by  the  Israelites  into  Mitz- 
raim, it  being  only  necessary  to  suppose  that  the  language  was  preserved 
substantially  without  corruption  during  the  whole  time  of  their  sojourn- 
ing in  that  country. 

"  But  even  admitting  this  argument,  which  however  I  am  far  from 
allowing  to  be  conclusive  ;  how  are  we  to  explain  the  origin  of  the 
Arabic  language  ?  This  is  clearly  not  of  Aramitish  derivation.  It  is 
the  language  which  was  spoken  by  the  countrymen  of  Hagar,  amongst 
whom  Ishmael  was  taken  by  her  to  reside,  and  with  whom  he  and  his 
descendants  speedily  became  mixed  up  and  completely  identified. 
Among  these  people  it  is  not  possible  that  the  slightest  portion  of  the 


Although  I  confess  probability  stands  fairest  for  the  former ;' 
nor  are  they  without  all  reason,  who  think  that  at  the  confu- 
sion of  tongues,  there  was  no  constitution  of  a  new  speech  in 
every  family,  but  a  variation  and  permutation  of  the  old  ;  out 
of  one  common  language  raising  several  dialects,  the  primi- 
tive tongue  remaining  still  entire  ;  which  they  who  retained, 
might  make  a  shift  to  uiiderstand  most  of  the  rest.  By 
virtue  whereof  in  those  primitive  times  and  greener  confu- 

Aramitish  tongue  of  Abraham  .should  have  existed  before  the  time  of 
Ishuiael ;  nor  can  it  be  conceived  that  the  Mitzritish  descendants  of  the 
latter  would  have  acquired  that  language  through  him,  even  supposing 
(though  I  consider  it  to  be  far  from  an  .established  fact)  that  the 
Aramitish  had  continued  to  be  the  only  language  which  was  spoken  by 
Abraham's  family  during  the  whole  of  his  residence  in  the  south 
country  among  the  Canaanites  and  Philistines  ;  and  supposing,  also, 
that  Ishmael  acquired  a  perfect  knowledge  of  that  language,  and  of  no 
otlier  (which,  however,  is  very  im^irobable,  his  mother  being  a  Mitzrite), 
from  the  circumstance  of  his  childhood  having  been  passed  in  his  father's 

"  I  apprehend,  indeed,  that  the  Mitzritish  origin  of  the  Arabic  lan- 
guage is  a  fact  which  cannot  be  disputed  ;  and  if  this  fact  be  conceded, 
there  remains  no  alternative  but  to  admit^indeed  it  is  a  mere  truism  to 
8ay — that  the  Hebrew,  which  is  a  cognate  dialect  with  the  Arabic,  must 
be  of  common  origin  with  that  language,  and  consequently  of  Mitz- 
ritish derivation  also The  fact  of  the  striking  coinci- 
dences which  may  be  found  in  the  language  of  the  Berbers,  in  Northern 
Africa,  with  the  languages  of  cognate  origin  with  the  Hebrew,  is  in 
the  highest  degree  confirmatory  of  the  Hamitish  origin  which  I  attri- 
bute to  the  whole  of  them  ;  and  it  becomes  the  more  particularly  so,  on 
the  consideration  that  I  derive  the  Berbers  themselves  directly  from 
the  country  where  I  conceive  the  Israelites  to  have  acquired  their  lan- 

As  to  the  nature  and  degree  of  change  which  took  place  in  the  exist- 
i?ig  language  at  its  confusion,  Mr.  Beke  contends,  "  that  the  idea  of  an 
absolute  and  permanent  change  of  dialect  is  more  strictly  in  accordance 
with  the  literal  meaning  of  the  scriptural  account  of  the  confusion  of 
tongues,  than  the  supposition  that  the  consequences  of  that  miraculous 
occurrence  were  of  a  temporary  nature  onlj',  and  that  the  whole  of  the 
present  diversities  in  the  languages  of  the  world  are  to  be  referred  to  the 
gradual  operation  of  subsequent  causes." 

In  the  foregoing  sentence,  and  still  more  in  the  disquisition  which 
precedes  it,  Mr.  Beke's  opinion  is  in  opposition  to  a  very  high  authority 
both  as  a  natural  historian  and  a  philologist, — the  Rev.  W.  D.  Cony- 
beare,  who  supports  (in  his  Elementary  Course  of  Lectures,  on  the  Criti- 
cism, Intcrpretatii  n,  and  Leading  Doctrines  of  the  Bible),  the  more  usually 
received  opinion,  ihat  Hebrew,  and  the  cognate  languages,  axe  of  Shem« 
itish  origin. 

CHAP.  XXIV. J     IIEFRAINING    FEOM    KILtll^G    SWALLOWS.       95 

fiions,  Abraliam,  of  the  family  of  Heber,  was  able  to  converse 
with  the  Chaldeans,  to  understand  Mesopotamians,  Canaan- 
ites,  Philistines,  and  Egyptians :  whose  several  dialects  he 
could  reduce  unto  the  original  and  primitive  tongue,  and  so 
be  able  to  understand  them. 

3.  Though  useless  unto  us,  and  ratlier  of  molestation,^  we 
commonly  refrain  from  killing  swallows,  and  esteem  it  un- 
lucky ^  to  destroy  them  :  whether  herein  there  be  not  a 
Pagan  relick,  we  have  some  reason  to  doubt.  For  we  read 
in  ^lian,  that  these  birds  were  sacred  unto  the  Penates  or 
household  gods  of  the  ancients,  and  therefore  were  pre- 
served.* The  same  they  also  honoured  as  the -nuncios  of  tlie 
spring  ;  and  we  find  in  Athenaeus  that  the  Ehodians  had  a 
solemn  song  to  welcome  in  the  swallow. 

4.  That  candles  and  lights  burn  dim  and  blue  at  the  ap- 
parition of  spirits,  may  be  true,  if  the  ambient  air  be  fidl  of 
sulphureous  spirits,  as  it  happeneth  ofttimes  in  mines,  where 
damps  and  acid  exhalations  are  able  to  extinguish  them. 
And  may  be  also  verified,  when  spirits  do  make  themselves 
visible  by  bodies  of  such  eflluviums.  But  of  lower  consi- 
deration is  the  common  foretelling  of  strangers,  from  the 
fungous  parcels  about  the  wicks  of  candles  ;  which  only  sig- 
nifieth  a  moist  and  pluvious  air  about  them,  hindering  the 
avolation  of  the  light  and  favillous  particles ;  whereupon 
they  are  forced  to  settle  iipon  the  snast.^ 

5.  Though  coral  doth  properly  preserve  and  fasten  the 
teeth  in  men,  yet  is  it  used  in  children  to  make  an  easier 
passage  for  them :  and  for  that  intent  is  worn  about  their 

*  The  same  is  extant  in  the  8th  of  Athenseus. 

'  useless,  (tc]  This  is  a  most  undeserved  censure.  The  swallows  are 
very  useful  in  destroying  myriads  of  insects,  which  would  be  injurious. 

*  and  esteem  it  unlucky,  d-c.]  A  similar  superstition  attaches  to  the 
robin  and  the  wren  ; — the  tra,dition  is,  that  if  their  nests  are  robbed, 
the  cows  will  give  bloody  milk ; — schoolboys  rarely  are  found  hardy 
enough  to  commit  such  a  depredation  on  these  birds,  of  which  the  com- 
mon people  in  some  parts  of  England  have  this  legend — 

Robinets  and  Jenny  Wrens, 

Are  God  Almighty's  cocks  and  hens. 

^  snast.']  The  Norfolk  (and  perhaps  other  folk's)  vulgar  term,  signi- 
fying the  burnt  portion  of  the  wick  of  the  candle  ;  which,  when  sufiB- 
ciently  lengthened  by  want  of  snuffing,  becomes  crowned  with  a  cap  of 
the  purest  lamp-black,  called  here,  "  the  fungous  parcels,"  &c. 

96  OF   WEAEING    COEAL,      MOSEs'    EOD.  [BOOK  V. 

necks.  But  whether  this  custom  were  not  superstitiously 
founded,  as  presumed  an  amulet  or  defensative  against  fasci- 
nation, is  not  beyond  all  doubt.  For  the  same  is  delivered 
by  Pliny  ;*  Aruspices  religiosum  coralli  gestameii  amoliendis 
'periculis  arhitrantur ;  et  surculi  infantia  alligati,  tutelam 
habere  creduntur} 

6.  A  strange  kind  of  exploration  and  peculiar  way  of  rhab- 
domancy  is  that  which  is  used  in  mineral  discoveries  ;  that 
is,  with  a  forked  hazel,  commonly  called  Moses'  rod,  which 
freely  held  forth,  will  stir  and  play  if  any  mine  be  under  it. 
And  though  many  there  are  who  have  attempted  to  make  it 
good,  yet  until  better  information,  we  are  of  opinion  with 
Agricolat,  that  in  itself  it  is  a  fruitless  exploration,^  strongly 
scenting  of  Pagan  derivation,  and  the  virgula  divma,  prover- 
bially magnified  of  old.  The  ground  whereof  were  tlie  magi- 
cal rods  in  poets,  that  of  Pallas  in  Homer,  that  of  Mercury 
that  charmed  Argus,  and  that  of  Circe  which  transformed 
the  followers  of  Ulysses.  Too  boldly  usurping  the  name  of 
Moses'  rod,  from  which  notwithstanding,  and  that  of  Aaron, 
were  probably  occasioned  the  fables  of  all  the  rest.  For  that 
of  Moses  must  needs  be  famous  unto  the  Egyptians ;  and 
that  of  Aaron  unto  many  other  nations,  as  being  preserved 
in  the  ark,  until  the  destruction  of  the  temple  built  by 

*  Lib.  xxxii.  t  D^  -^c  Metallica,  lib.  ii. 

'  That  temperamental,  tOc]  The  first  five  sections  of  this  chapter 
were  first  added  in  the  2nd  edition. 

^  €xploration.'\  This  is  worthy  of  note  bycause  itt  is  averred  by  many  j 
authors  of  whom  the  world  hath  a  great  opinion. —  Wr. 

From  a  paper  by  Mr.  Wm.  Philips,  in  T'dloclts Philosophical  Mac/aziiie, 
vol.  xiii.  p.  309,  on  the  divining  rod,  it  appears  that  it  was  ably  advocated 
by  De  Tliouvenel,  in  France,  in  the  18th  century,  and  soon  after — in  our 
own  country — by  a  philosopher  of  unimpeachable  veracity,  and  a  chemist, 
Mr.  WilHam  Cook  worthy,  of  Plymouth.  Pryce  also  informs  us,  p.  123, 
of  his  Mineralogia  Cornuhiensis,  that  many  mines  have  been  discovered 
by  means  of  the  rod,  and  quotes  several  ;  but,  afte  ■  a  long  account  of 
the  mode  of  cutting,  tying,  and  using  it,  iuterspersci^  with  observations 
on  the  discriminating  faculties  of  constitutions  and  persons  in  its  use, 
altogether  rejects  it,  because  "  Cornwall  is  so  plentifully  stored  with 
tin  and  copper  lodes,  that  some  accident  every  week  discovers  to  us  a 
fresh  vein,"  and  because  "  a  grain  of  metal  attracts  the  rod  as  strongly 
as  a  pound,"  for  which  reason  "  it  has  been  found  to  dip  equally  to  a 
poor  as  to  a  rich  lode." — See  Trans.  Geol.  Soc.  ii.  123. 


7.  A  practice  there  is  among  us  to  determine  doubtful 
matters,  by  the  opening''  of  a  book,  and  letting  fall  a  staft", 
which  notwithstanding  are  ancient  fragments  of  Pagan 
divinations.  The  first  an  imitation  of  sortes  Homericce,  or 
Virgiliance,'^  drawing  determinations,  from  verses  casually 
occurring.     The  same  was  practised  by  Severus,  who  enter- 

^  opening.'\  For  the  casual  opening  of  a  Bible,  see  Cardan,  de  Va- 
rietate,  p.  1040.— IFr. 

"*  Virgilia^ia;.]  King  Charles  I.  tried  the  sortes  Virgiliance,  as  is 
related  by  Welwood  in  the  following  passage  : — 

"The  king  being  at  Oxford  during  the  civil  wars,  went  one  day  to 
see  the  public  library,  where  he  was  showed  among  other  books,  a  Virgil 
nobly  printed,  and  exquisitely  bound.  The  Lord  Falkland,  to  divert 
the  king,  would  have  his  majesty  make  a  trial  of  his  fortune  by  the 
sortes  Virgiliance,  which  every  body  knows  was  an  usual  kind  of  augury 
.some  ages  past.  Whereupon  the  king  opening  the  book,  the  period 
which  happened  to  come  up,  was  that  part  of  Dido's  imprecation  against 
iEneas  ;  which  Mr.  Dryden  translates  thus  : — 

Yet  let  a  race  untamed,  and  haughty  foes. 
His  peaceful  entrance  vnth  dire  arms  oppose. 
Oppress'd  with  numbers  in  th'  unequal  field, 
His  men  discouraged  and  himself  expell'd. 
Let  him  for  succour  sue  from  place  to  place, 
Torn  from  his  subjects,  and  his  son's  embrace, 
First  let  him  see  his  friends  in  battle  slain. 
And  their  untimely  fate  lament  in  vain  : 
And  when  at  length  the  cruel  war  shall  cease, 
On  hard  conditions  may  he  buy  his  peace  ; 
Nor  let  him  then  enjoy  supreme  command. 
But  fall  untimely  by  some  hostile  hand, 
And  lie  unburied  in  the  common  sand. 
It  is  said  King  Charles  seemed  concerned  at  this  accident ;  and  that 
the  Lord  Falkland  observing  it,  would  likewise  try  his  own  fortune  in 
the  same  manner ;  hoping  he  might  fall  upon  some  passage  that  could 
have  no  relation  to  his  case,   and  thereby  divert  the  king's  thoughts 
from  any  impression  the  other  might  have  upon  him.    But  the  place 
that  Falkland  stumbled  upon  was  yet  more  suited  to  his  destiny  than 
the  other  had  been  to  the  king's  ;  being  the  following  expressions  of 
Evander,  upon  the  untimely  death  of  his  son  Pallas,  as  they  are  trans- 
lated by  the  same  hand  : — 

0  Pallas  !  thou  hast  fail'd  thy  plighted  word. 
To  fight  with  reason  ;  not  to  tempt  the  sword. 

1  wam'd  thee  but  in  vain,  for  well  I  knew 
What  perils  youthful  ardour  would  pursue  ; 
That  boiling  blood  would  cari-y  thee  too  far, 
Young  as  thou  wert  in  dangers,  raw  to  war. 
0  curst  essay  of  arms,  disastrous  doom. 
Prelude  of  bloody  fields  and  fights  to  come. 

VOL.  IT.  H 


tained  ominous  hopes  of  the  empire,  from  that  verse  in  Virgil, 
Tu  regere  imperio  populos,  Somane,  memento  ;  and  Gordia- 
nus,  who  reigned  but  few  days,  was  discouraged  by  another ; 
that  is,  Ostendunt  ierris  hune  tantum  fata,  nee  ultra  esse 
sinunt.^  Nor  was  this  only  performed  in  heathen  authors,  but 
upon  the  sacred  text  of  Scripture,  as  Gregorius  Tiu-onensis 
hath  left  some  account ;  and  as  the  practice  of  the  Emperor 
Heraclius,  before  his  expedition  into  Asia  Minor,  is  delivered 
by  Cedrenus. 

As  for  the  divination  or  decision  from  the  staff,  it  is  an 
augurial  relick,  and  the  practice  thereof  is  accused  by  God 
himself;  "My  people  ask  counsel  of  their  stocks,  and  their 
staff  declareth  unto  tliem."*  Of  this  kind  of  rhabdomancy 
was  that  practised  by  Nebuchadnezzar  in  that  Chaldean  mis- 
cellany, delivered  by  Ezekiel ;  "  The  King  of  Babylon  stood 
at  the  parting  of  the  way,  at  the  head  of  two  ways  to  use 
divination,  he  made  his  arrows  bright,  he  consulted  with 
iuuiges,  he  looked  in  the  liver :  at  the  right  hand  were  the 
divinations  of  Jerusalem."  t  That  is,  as  Estius  expounded 
it,  the  left  way  leading  unto  Eabbah,  the  chief  city  of  the 
Ammonites,  and  the  right  unto  Jerusalem,  he  consulted  idols 
and  entrails,  he  threw  up  a.  bundle  of  arrows  to  see  which 
way  they  would  light,  and  falling  on  the  right  hand  he 
marched  towards  Jerusalem.  A  like  way  of  belomancy  or 
divination  by  arrows  hath  been  in  request  with  Scythians, 
Alanes,  Germans,  with  the  Africans  and  Turks  of  Algier. 
But  of  another  nature  was  that  which  was  practised  by 
Elisha,;^  when,  by  an  arrow  shot  from  an  eastern  window, 
he  presignified  the  destruction  of  Syria  ;  or  when,  according 
unto  the  three  strokes  of  Joash,  with  an  arrow  upon  the 
ground,  he  foretold  the  number  of  his  victories.  For  thereby 
the  Spirit  of  God  pai"ticulared  the  same,  and  determined 
the  strokes  of  the  king,  unto  three,  which  the  hopes  of  the 
prophet  expected  in  twdce  that  number.^ 

*  Hosea  iv.  f  Ezek.  xxiv.  ^  2  Kings  xiii.  15. 

*  sinunt.]  Of  all  other,  I  cannot  but  admire  that  ominous  dreame  of 
Constans,  the  emperor,  the  sonne  of  Heracleonas,  and  father  of  Pogo- 
natus,  anno  imperii  13,  who  beinge  to  fight  with  barbarians  the  next 
niorne,  near  Thessalonica,  thought  hee  heard  one  cryinge  Big  aXXy 
Niic»)j',  which  the  next  day  prov-ed  too  true. —  Wr. 

*  As  for  ike  divination,  <i-c.'\  This  paragraph,  and  the  three  following, 
were  first  added  in  the  second  edition. 

CHAP.  XXIY.]       THE  DAYS  OF  THE  WEEK.  91* 

8.  We  cannot  omit  to  observe  the  tenacity  of  ancient 
customs,  in  the  nominal  observation  of  the  several  days  of 
the  week,  according  to  Grentile  and  Pagan  appellations  ;* 
for  the  original  is  very  high,  and  as  old  as  the  ancient 
Egyptians,  who  named  the  same  according  to  the  seven 
planets,  the  admired  stars  of  heaven,  and  reputed  deities 
among  them.  Unto  every  one  assigning  a  several  day  ;  not 
according  to  their  celestial  order,  or  as  they  are  disposed  in 
heaven,  but  after  a  diatesseron  or  musical  foiu'th.  For  be- 
ginning Saturday  with  Saturn,  the  supremest  planet,  they 
accounted  by  Jupiter  and  Mars  unto  Sol,  making  Sunday. 
From  Sol  in  like  manner  by  Venus  and  Mercury  unto  Luna, 
making  Monday :  and  so  through  all  the  rest.  And  the 
same  order  they  confirmed  by  numbering  the  hours  of  the 
day  unto  twenty-four,  according  to  the  natural  order  of  the 
planets.  For  beginning  to  account  from  Saturn,  Jupiter, 
Mars,  and  so  about  unto  twenty-four,  the  next  day  will  fall 
unto  Sol ;  whence  accounting  twenty-four,  the  next  will 
happen  unto  Luna,  making  Monday  ;  and  so  with  the  rest, 
according  to  the  account  and  order  observed  still  among  us. 

The  Jews  themselves,  in  their  astrological  considerations, 
concerning  nativities  and  planetary  hours,  observe  the  same 
order  upon  as  witty  foundations.  Because,  by  an  equal  inter- 
val, they  make  seven  triangles,  the  bases  whereof  are  the 
seven  sides  of  a  septilateral  figure,  described  within  a  circle. 
That  is,  if  a  figure  of  seven  sides  be  described  in  a  circle,  and 
at  the  angles  thereof  the  names  of  the  planets  be  placed  in 
their  natural  order  on  it ;  if  we  begin  with  Saturn,  and  suc- 
cessively draw  lines  from  angle  to  angle,  until  seven  equi- 
crural  triangles  be  described,  whose  bases  are  the  seven  sides 
of  the  septilateral  figure  ;  the  triangles  will  be  made  by  this 
order.f  The  first  being  made  by  Saturn,  Sol,  and  Luna, 
that  is,  Saturday,  Sunday,  and  Monday ;  and  so  the  rest  in 
the  order  still  retained. 

But  thus  much  is  observable,  that  however  in  celestial 
considerations  they  embraced  the  received  order  of  the 
planets,  yet  did  they  not  retain  either  characters  or  names 
in  common  use  amongst  us ;  but  declining  human  denomi- 

*  Dion.  Cassii  lib.  xxxvii. 

t  Cwjus  icon  apud  Doct.  Gaffarel,  cap.  ii.  el  Fabrit.  Pad. 

100  OF    THE    KEMOTAL    OE    WAETS.  [uOOK  \. 

nations,  they  assigned  them  names  from  some  remarkable 
qualities  :  as  is  very  observable  in  their  red  and  splendent 
planets,  that  is,  of  Mars  and  Yenus.  But  the  change  of 
their  names  *  disparaged  not  the  consideration  of  their 
natures ;  nor  did  they  thei'eby  reject  all  memory  of  these 
remarkable  stars,  which  God  himself  admitted  in  his  taber- 
nacle, if  conjecture  will  hold  concerning  the  golden  candle- 
stick, whose  shaft  resembled  the  sun,  and  six  branches  the 
nlanets  about  it. 

9.  We  are  unwilling  to  enlarge  concerning  many  other ; 
only  referring  unto  sober  examination,  what  natural  effects 
can  reasonably  be  expected,  when  to  prevent  the  epliicdtes 
or  night-mare,  we  hang  up  an  hollow  stone  in  oiu-  stables  ; 
when  for  amulets  against  agues  we  use  the  chips  of  gallows 
and  places  of  execution/  When  for  warts  we  rub  our  hands 
*  Maadim  Noyah. 

''  execution.]  See  what  the  Lord  St.  Alban's  sayes  for  the  cert»'-tye 
of  this  expermiente  made  upon  himself  in  his  natural  historye,  ceniurye 
10th,  and  997  experiment. —  Wr. 

"  The  sympathy  of  individuals,  that  have  been  entire,  or  have  touched, 
is  of  all  others  the  incredible  ;  yet  according  unto  our  faithful 
manner  of  examination  of  nature,  we  will  make  some  little  mention  of 
it.  Tlie  taking  away  of  warts,  by  rubbing  them  with  somewhat  that 
afterwards  is  put  to  waste  and  consume,  is  a  common  experiment  ;  and 
I  do  apprehend  it  the  rather  because  of  my  own  experience.  I  had 
from  my  childhood  a  wart  upon  one  of  my  fingers  :  afterward.s,  when  1 
was  about  sixteen  years  old,  being  then  at  Paris,  there  grew  upon  both 
my  hands  a  number  of  warts  at  the  least  an  hundred,  in  a  month's 
space.  The  English  ambassador's  lady,  who  was  a  woman  far  from 
.superstition,  told  me  one  day,  she  would  help  me  away  with  my  warts: 
whereupon  she  got  a  piece  of  lard  with  the  skin  on,  and  ru):)bed  the 
warts  all  over  with  the  fat  side  ;  and  amongst  the  rest,  that  wart  which 
I  had  had  from  my  childhood  :  then  she  nailed  the  piece  of  lard,  with 
the  fat  towards  the  sun,  upon  a  post  of  her  chamber  window,  which 
was  to  the  south.  The  success  was,  that  within  five  weeks'  space  all 
the  warts  went  quite  away  :  and  that  wart  which  I  had  so  long  endured, 
for  company.  But  at  the  rest  I  did  little  marvel,  because  they  came  in 
a  short  time,  and  might  go  away  in  a  short  time  again  :  but  the  going 
away  of  that  which  had  stayed  so  long  doth  yet  stick  with  me.  They 
say  the  like  is  done  by  the  rubbing  ot  warts  with  a  gieen  elder  stick 
and  then  burying  the  stick  to  rot  in  muck.  It  would  be  tried  with 
corns  and  wens,  and  such  other  excrescences.  I  would  have  it  also 
tiied  with  some  parts  of  living  creatures  that  are  nearest  the  nature 
of  excrescences ;  as  the  combs  of  cocks,  the  spurs  of  cocks,  the 
horns  of  beasts,  &c.  And  I  would  have  it  tried  both  way.?  ;  both  by 
-ubbing  those  parts  with  lard,  or  elder,  as  before ;  and  by  cutting  off 

cnAr.  sxiy."!  of  the  removal  of  wartb.  I  Jl 

before  the  moon,^  or  commit  any  maculated  part  unto  the 
touch  of  the  dead.  What  truth  there  is  in  those  common 
female  doctrines,  that  the  first  rib  of  roast  beef  powdered,  is 
a  peculiar  remedy  against  fluxes ; — that  to  urine  upon  earth 
newly  cast  up  by  a  mole,  bringeth  down  the  menses  in 
women ; — that  if  a  child  dieth,  and  the  neck  becometh  not 
stiff,  but  for  many  hours  remaineth  lithe  and  flaccid,  some 
other  in  the  same  house  will  die  not  long  after ; — that  if  a 
woman  with  child  looketh  upon  a  dead  body,  her  child  will 
be  of  a  pale  complexion  ;^ — our  learned  and  critical  philo- 
sophers might  illustrate,  whose  exacter  performances  our 
adventures  do  but  solicit :  meanwhile,  I  hope  they  will 
plausibly  receive  our  attempts,  or  candidly  correct  our  mis- 

Disce,  sed  ira  naso,  rugosaque  sanna, 
Duin  veteres  avias  tibi  de  pulmone  revello. 

some  piece  of  those  parts,  and  laying  it  to  consume  :  to  see  whether  it 
will  work  any  effect  towards  the  consumption  of  that  part  whicli  was 
once  joined  with  it." — Natural  History,  Cent.  x.  No.  997. 

*  When  for  warts  loe  rub  our  hands,  <tc.'\  Hear  what  Sir  Kenelnie 
Digby  says  of  this  matter  in  his  Late  Discourse,  &c.  Touching  the  Cure 
of  wounds  hy  the  Poiver  of  Sympathy^  &c.  12mo.  1658. 

"  I  cannot  omit  to  add  hereunto  another  experiment,  which  is,  that 
we  find  by  tlie  effects,  how  the  rays  of  llie  moon  are  cold  and  moist. 
It  is  without  controversy,  that  the  luminous  parts  of  those  rays  come 
from  the  sun,  the  moon  having  no  light  at  all  within  her,  as  her  eclipses 
bear  witness,  which  happen  when  the  earth  is  opposite  betwixt  her  and 
the  sun  ;  which  interposition  suffers  her  not  to  have  light  from  his  rays. 
The  beams  then  which  come  fi'om  the  moon,  are  those  of  the  sun, 
whicli  glancing  upon  her,  reflect  upon  us,  and  so  bring  with  them  the 
atoms  of  that  cold  and  humid  star,  which  participates  of  the  source 
whence  they  come  :  therefore  if  one  should  expose  a  hollow  bason,  or 
glass,  to  assemble  them,  one  shall  find,  that  whereas  those  of  the  sun 
do  burn  by  such  a  conjuncture,  these  clean  contrary  do  refresh  and 
moisten  in  a  notable  manner,  leaving  an  aquatic  and  viscous  glutining 
kind  of  sweat  upon  the  glass.  One  would  think  it  were  a  folly  that  one 
should  offer  to  wash  his  hands  in  a  well-polished  silver  bason,  wherein 
there  is  not  a  drop  of  water,  jet  this  may  be  done  by  the  reflection  of 
the  moonbeams  only,  which  will  afford  a  competent  humidity  to  do  it ; 
but  they  who  have  tried  this,  have  found  their  hands,  after  they  are 
wiped,  to  be  much  moister  than  usually  :  hut  this  is  an  infallible  way  to 
take  away  vartsfrom  the  hands,  if  it  he  often  used." 

^  What  truth  there  is,  tfcc]  This  sentence  was  first  added,  and  the 
arrangement  of  the  paragraphs  in  the  chapter  altered,  in  the  6th  edit. 

'  7nisconjectures.]     The  perusal  of  the  two  preceding  chapters,  calls 


102  OF    THE    SFPEKSTITIOL'S.  [bOOK  Y. 

powerfully  to  mind  the  following  lively  and  eloquent  "  character  of  the 
s-uj^erstitious,"  drawn  by  our  author's  pious  and  learned  friend.  Bishop 

"  Superstition  is  godless  religion,  devout  impiety.  The  superstitious 
is  fond  in  oVjservation,  servile  in  fear  :  he  worships  God,  but  as  he  lists: 
he  gives  God  what  he  asks  not,  more  than  he  asks,  and  all  but  what  he 
should  give  ;  and  makes  more  sins  than  the  ten  commandments.  This 
man  dares  not  stir  forth,  till  his  breast  be  crossed,  and  his  face  sprinkled. 
If  but  a  hare  cross  him  the  way,  he  returns  ;  or,  if  his  journey  began, 
unawares,  on  the  dismal  day,  or  if  he  stumbled  at  the  threshold.  If  he 
see  a  snake  unkilled,  he  fears  a  mischief:  if  the  salt  fall  towards  him, 
he  looks  pale  and  red  ;  and  is  not  quiet,  till  one  of  the  waiters  has 
poured  wine  on  his  lap  :  and  when  he  sneezeth,  thinks  them  not  his 
friends  that  uncover  not.  In  the  morning  he  listens  whether  the  crow 
crieth  e\en  or  odd  ;  and,  by  that  token,  presages  of  the  weather.  If 
he  hear  but  a  raven  croak  from  the  next  roof,  he  makes  his  will  ;  or  if 
a  bittour  fly  over  his  head  by  night :  but  if  his  troubled  fancy  shall 
second  his  thoughts  with  the  dream  of  a  fair  garden,  or  green  rushes, 
or  the  salutation  of  a  dead  friend,  he  takes  leave  of  the  world,  and  says 
he  cannot  live.  He  will  never  set  to  sea  but  on  a  Sunday  ;  neither 
ever  goes  without  an  eira  j^dter  in  his  pocket.  St.  Paul's  day,  and  St. 
Swithin's,  with  the  twelve,  are  his  oracles ;  which  he  dares  believe 
against  the  almanack.  When  he  lies  sick  on  his  death-bed,  no  sin 
troubles  him  so  much,  as  that  he  did  once  eat  flesh  on  a  Friday :  no 
repentance  can  expiate  that ;  the  rest  need  none.  There  is  no  dream 
of  his,  without  an  interpretation,  without  a  prediction  ;  and,  if  the 
event  answer  not  his  exposition,  he  expounds  it  according  to  the  event. 
Every  dark  grove  and  pictured  wall  strikes  him  with  an  awful  but 
carnal  devotion.  Old  wives  and  stars  are  his  counsellors  :  his  night- 
spell  is  his  guard,  and  charms,  his  physicians.  He  wears  Paracelsian 
characters  for  the  tooth-ache  :  and  a  little  hallowed  wax  is  his  antidote 
for  all  evils.  This  man  is  strangely  credulous  ;  and  calls  impossible 
things,  miraculous :  if  he  hear  that  some  sacred  block  speaks, 
moves,  weeps,  smiles,  his  bare  feet  carry  him  thither  with  an  oSering ; 
and,  if  a  danger  miss  him  in  the  way,  his  saint  hath  the  thanks.  Some 
ways  he  will  not  go,  and  some  he  dares  not ;  either  there  are  bugs,  or 
he  feigneth  them  :  every  lantern  is  a  ghost,  and  every  noise  is  of  chains. 
He  knows  not  why,  but  his  custom  is  to  go  a  little  about,  and  to  leave 
the  cross  still  on  the  right  hand.  One  event  is  enough  to  make  a  rule  : 
out  of  these  rules  he  concludes  fashions  proper  to  himself ;  and  nothing 
can  turn  him  out  of  his  own  course.  If  he  have  done  his  task,  he  is 
safe  :  it  matters  not  wiuii  ^hat  afiection.  Finally,  if  God  would  let 
him  be  the  carver  of  his  own  obedience,  he  could  not  have  a  better 
subject :  as  he  is,  he  cannot  have  a  worse," — Bishop  Hall's  ChavacteiB 
of  Vices;   Worls  by  Pratt,  vol.  vii.  102. 





Covicerning  the  ieginning  of  the  World,  that  the  time  thereof  is  not 
'precisely  known,  as  commonly  it  is  presumed. 

CoNCEENiNG  the  world  and  its  temporal  circumscriptions, 
wlioever  shall  strictly  examine  both  extremes,  wiU  easily 
perceive,  there  is  not  only  obscurity  in  its  end,  but  its 
beginning  ;  that  as  its  period  is  inscrutable,  so  is  its  nati- 
vity indeterminable ;  that  as  it  is  presumption  to  enquire 
after  the  one,  so  is  there  no  rest  or  satisfactory  decision  in 
the  other.  And  hereunto  we  shall  more  readily  assent,  if 
we  examine  the  information,  and  take  a  view  of  the  several 
difficulties  in  this  point ;  which  we  shall  more  easily  do,  if 
we  consider  the  different  conceits  of  men,  and  duly  perpend 
the  imperfections  of  their  discoveries. 

And  first,  the  histories  of  the  GrentUes  afford  us  slender 
satisfaction,  nor  can  they  relate  any  story,  or  affix  a  pro- 
bable point  to  its  beginning.^  For  some  thereof  (and  those 
of  the  wisest  amongst  them)  are  so  far  from  determining 
its  beginning,  that  they  opinion  and  maintain  it  never  had 
any  at  all ;  as  the  doctrine  of  Epicurus  implieth,  and  more 
positively  Aristotle,  in  his  books  De  Ccelo,  declareth. 
Endeavouring  to  confirm  it  with  arguments  of  reason,  and 
those  appearingly  demonstrative ;  wherein  his  labours  are 
'  its  ieginning .'\    The  beginning  of  the  world. 

iO  t  THE    BEGI>^]SriNG   OF    THE    WORLD.  [bOOK  TI.. 

rational,  and  uncontrollable  upon  the  grounds  assumed,  tliat 
is,  of  physical  generation,  and  a  primary  or  first  matter, 
beyond  which  no  other  hand  was  apprehended.  But  herein 
we  remain  sufficiently  satisfied  from  Moses,  and  the  doc- 
trine delivered  of  the  creation ;  that  is,  a  production  of  all 
things  out  of  nothing,  a  formation  not  only  of  matter,  but 
ot  form,  and  a  materiation  even  of  matter  itself. 

Others  are  so  far  from  defining  the  original  of  the  world 
or  of  mankind,  that  they  have  held  opinions  not  only  re- 
pugnant unto  chronology,  but  pliilosophy ;  that  is,  that 
they  had  their  beginning  in  the  soil  where  they  inhabited ; 
assuming  or  receiving  appellations  conformable  unto  such 
conceits.  So  did  the  Athenians  term  themselves  avTo^dovec: 
or  Aborigines,  and  in  testimony  thereof  did  wear  a  golden 
insect  on  their  heads :  tlie  same  name  is  also  given  unto  the 
Inlanders,  or  Midland  inhabitants  of  this  island,  by  Csesar. 
But  this  is  a  conceit  answerable  unto  the  generation  of  the 
giants ;  not  admittable  in  philosophy,  much  less  in  divinity, 
which  distinctly  informeth  we  are  all  the  seed  of  Adam,  that 
the  whole  world  perished,  unto  eight  persons  before  the 
flood,  and  was  after  peopled  by  the  colonies  of  the  sons  of 
Noah.  There  was  therefore  never  any  autoclitlwn'^  or  man 
arising  from  the  earth,  but  Adam ;  for  the  woman  being 
formed  out  of  the  rib,  was  once  removed  from  earth, 
and  framed  from  that  element  under  incarnation.  And  so 
although  her  production  were  not  by  copulation,  yet  was  it 
in  a  manner  seminal :  for  if  in  every  part  from  whence  the 
seed  doth  flow,  there  be  contained  the  idea  of  the  whole ; 
there  was  a  seminality  and  contracted  Adam  in  the  rib, 
which,  by  the  information  of  a  soul,  was  individuated  unto 
Eve.  And  therefore  this  conceit  applied  unto  the  original 
of  man,  and  the  beginning  of  the  world,  is  more  justly 
appropriable  unto  its  end ;  for  then  indeed  men  shall  rise 
out  of  the  earth :  the  graves  shall  shoot  up  tlieir  concealed 
seeds,  and  in  that  great  autunni,  men  shtill  spring  up,  and 
awake  from  their  chaos  again. 

*  autocltihmii]  Autochthon  [rising  himselfe  from  the  earthe],  which 
was  not  to  bee  granted  of  the  first ;  who  did  not  spring  [as  plants  now 
doe]  of  himselfe.  For  Adam  was  created  out  of  the  dust  by  God.  The 
second  Adam  might  bee  trulyer  called  Autochthon,  in  a  mystical  sense, 
not  only  in  respect  of  his  birthe,  but  of  his  resurrection  alsoe. —  Wr. 

C'UAP.  I.]  THE    BEGINNING    OF    THE   WORLD.  10i> 

Others  have  been  so  blind  in  deducing  the  original  of 
things,  or  delivering  their  own  beginnings,  that  when  it 
hath  fallen  into  controversy,  they  have  not  recurred  unto 
chronology  or  the  records  of  time  ;  but  betaken  themselves 
unto  probabilities,  and  the  conjectiiralities  of  philosophy.* 
Thus  when  the  two  ancient  nations,  Egyptians  and  Scy- 
thians, contended  for  antiquity,  the  Egyptians  pleaded  their 
antiquity  from  the  fertility  of  their  soil,  inferring  that  men 
there  first  inhabited,  where  they  were  with  most  facility 
sustained  ;  and  such  a  laud  did  they  conceive  was  Egypt. 

The  Scythians,  although  a  cold  and  heavier  nation,  urged 
more  acutely,  deducing  their  arguments  from  the  two 
active  elements  and  principles  of  all  things,  fire  and  water. 
Eor  if  of  all  things  there  was  first  an  union,  and  that  fire 
over-ruled  the  rest,  surely  that  part  of  earth  which  was 
coldest  would  first  get  free,  and  afford  a  place  of  habitation : 
but  if  all  the  earth  were  first  involved  in  water,  those  parts 
would  surely  first  appear,  which  were  most  high,  and  of 
most  elevated  situation,  and  such  was  theirs.  These 
reasons  carried  indeed  the  antiquity  from  the  Egyptians, 
but  confirmed  it  not  in  the  Scythians :  for,  as  Herodotus 
relateth,  from  Pargitaus  their  first  king  unto  Darius,  they 
accounted  but  two  thousand  years. 

As  for  the  Egyptians,  they  invented  another  way  of 
trial;  for  as  the  same  author  relateth,  Psammitichus  their 
king  attempted  this  decision  by  a  new  and  unknown  expe- 
riment ;  bringing  up  two  infants  with  goats,  and  where 
they  never  heard  the  voice  of  man ;  concluding  that  to  be 
the  ancientest  nation,  whose  language  they  should  first 
deliver.^  But  herein  he  forgot,  that  speech  was  by  instruc- 
tion not  instinct ;  by  imitation,  not  by  nature  ;  that  men  do 
speak  in  some  kind  but  like  parrots,  and  as  they  are  in- 
structed, that  is,  in  simple  terms  and  words,  expressing  the 
open  notions  of  things ;  which  the  second  act  of  reason 
compoimdeth  into  propositions,  and  the  last  into  syllogisms 
and  forms  of  ratiocination.     And  howsoever  the  account  of 

*  Diodor.  Justin. 

^  As  for  the  Egyptians,  tfcc]  "  It  is  said  that  after  they  were  two  years 
old,  one  of  the  boys  cried  hecchus,  which  in  the  Phrygian  language  sig- 
nifyeth  '  bread/  whence  it  was  conjectured  that  the  Phrj^iaus  were  the 
first  people." — Jeff. 

106  THE  beginni:ng  of  the  woeld.        [book  ti. 

Manethon  the  Egyptian  priest  run  very  high,  and  it  be 
evident  that  Mizrair..  peopled  that  country  (whose  name 
with  the  Hebrews  it  beareth  unto  this  day),  and  there  be 
many  thmgs  of  great  antiquity  related  in  Holy  Scripture, 
yet  was  their  exact  account  not  very  ancient ;  for  Ptolemy 
their  countryman  beginneth  his  astronomical  compute  no 
higher  than  Nabonasser,  who  is  conceived  by  some  the 
same  with  Salmanasser.  As  for  the  argument  deduced 
from  the  fertility  of  the  soil,  duly  enquired  it  rather  over- 
throweth  than  promoteth  their  antiquity ;  if  that  country 
whose  fertility  they  so  advance,  was  in  ancient  times  no 
firm  or  open  land,  but  some  vast  lake  or  part  of  the  sea, 
aud  became  a  gained  ground  by  the  mud  and  limous  matter 
brought  down  by  the  river  Nilus,  which  settled  by  degrees 
into  a  fii'm  land, — according  as  is  expressed  by  Strabo,  and 
more  at  large  by  Herodotus,  both  from  the  Egyptian  tradi- 
tion and  probable  inducements  from  reason  ;  called  there- 
fore Jluvii  donum,  an  accession  of  earth,  or  tract  of  land 
acquired  by  the  river. 

Lastly,  some  indeed  there  are,  who  have  kept  records  of 
time,  and  a  considerable  duration,  yet  do  the  exactest 
thereof  afford  no  satisfaction  concerning  the  beginning  of 
tlie  world,  or  any  way  point  out  the  time  of  its  creation. 
The  most  authentick  records  and  best  approved  antiquity 
are  those  of  the  Chaldeans ;  yet  in  the  time  of  Alexander 
the  Great  they  attained  not  so  high  as  the  flood.  For  as 
Simplicius  relateth,  Aristotle  required  of  Calisthenes,  who 
accompanied  that  worthy  in  his  expedition,  that  at  his 
arrival  at  Babylon,  he  would  enquire  of  the  antiquity  of 
their  records  ;  and  those  upon  compute  he  found  to  amount 
unto  1903  years,  which  account  notwithstanding  arisetli  no 
higher  than  ninety-five  years  after  the  flood.  The  Arca- 
dians, I  confess,  were  esteemed  of  great  antiquity,  and  it 
was  usually  said  they  were  before  the  moon  ;  according 
unto  that  of  Seneca ;  sidus  post  veferes  Arcades  edifitm, 
and  that  of  Ovid,  lu7id  gens  prior  iUa  fuit.  But  this,  as 
Censorinus  observeth,  must  not  be  taken  grossly,  as  though 
they  were  existent  before  that  luminary ;  but  were  so 
esteemed,  because  they  observed  a  set  course  of  year, 
before  the  Greeks  conformed  their  year  unto  the  course  and 
motion  of  the  moon 

CUAP.  I.j  THE    BEGINNING     OF    THE    WORLD.  10/ 

Thus  the  heathens  affording  no  satisfaction  herein,  they 
are  most  likely  to  manifest  this  truth,  who  have  been 
acquainted  with  Holy  Scripture,  and  the  sacred  chronology 
delivered  by  Moses,  who  distinctly  sets  down  this  account, 
computing  by  certain  intervals,  by  memorable  aeras,  epochs 
or  terms  of  time  :  as,  from  the  creation  unto  the  flood,  from 
hence  unto  Abraham,  from  Abraham  unto  the  departure 
from  Egypt,  &c.  Now  in  this  number  have  only  been 
Samaritans,  Jews,  and  Christians. 

For  the  Jews ;  they  agree  not  in  their  accounts,  as 
Bodine  in  his  method  of  history  hath  observed,  out  of 
Baal  Seder,  Rabbi  Nassom,  Gersom,  and  others ;  in 
whose  compute  the  age  of  the  world  is  not  yet  5400 
years.  The  same  is  more  evidently  observable  from  two 
most  learned  Jews,  Philo  and  Josephus ;  who  very  much 
differ  in  the  accoimts  of  time,  and  variously  sum  up  these 
intervals  assented  unto  by  all.  Thus  Philo,  from  the  de- 
parture out  of  Egypt  unto  the  building  of  the  temple, 
accounts  but  920  years ;  but  Josephus  sets  down  1062 : 
Philo,  from  the  building  of  the  temple,  to  its  destruction, 
440 ;  Josephus,  470 :  Philo,  from  the  creation  to  the 
destruction  of  the  temple,  3373 ;  but  Josephus,  3513 : 
Philo,  from  the  deluge  to  the  destruction  of  the  temple, 
1718 ;  but  Josephus,  1913.  In  which  computes  there  are 
manifest  disparities,  and  such  as  much  divide  the  concord- 
ance and  harmony  of  times. 

For  the  Samaritans  ;  their  account  is  different  from  these 
or  any  others  ;  for  they  account  from  the  creation  to  the 
deluge  but  1802  years ;  which  cometh  to  pass  upon  the 
different  account  of  tlie  ages  of  the  patriarchs  set  down 
when  they  begat  children.  For  whereas  the  Hebrew, 
Greek,  and  Latin  texts  account  Jared  162  when  he  begat 
Enoch,  they  account  but  sixty-two :  and  so  in  others. 
Now  the  Samaritans  were  no  incompetent  judges  of  times 
and  the  chronology  thereof;  for  they  embrace  the  five 
books  of  Moses,  and  as  it  seemeth,  preserve  the  text  with 
far  more  integrity  than  the  Jews :  who,  as  Tertullian, 
Chrysostom,  and  others  observe,  did  several  ways  corrupt 
the  same,  especially  in  passages  concerning  the  prophecies 
of  Christ.  So  that,  as  Jerome  professeth,  in  his  translation 
he  was  fain  sometime  to  relieve  himself  by  the  Samaritan 

108  THE   BEGINNING   OF    THE   WOELD.  [bOOE  TI. 

Pentateuch ;  as  amongst  others  in  that  text,  Deutero- 
nomy xxvii.  26 ;  Maledictus  omnis  qui  non  permanserit  in 
omnibus  qtice  scripta  sunt  in  libro  legis.  From  hence 
Saint  Paul  (Gal.  iii.  10)  inferreth  there  is  no  justification 
by  the  law,  and  urgeth  the  text  according  to  the  Septuagint. 
IS'ow  the  Jews,  to  afford  a  latitude  imto  themselves,  in  their 
copies  expunged  the  word  bo  or  syncategorematical  term 
omnis :  wherein  lieth  the  strength  of  the  law,  and  of  the 
apostle's  argument ;  but  the  Samaritan  Bible  retained  it 
right,  and  answerable  unto  what  the  apostle  had  urged.'* 

As  for  Christians,  from  whom  we  should  expect  the 
exactest  and  most  concurring  account,  there  is  also  in  them 
a  manifest  disagreement,  and  such  as  is  not  easily  recon- 
ciled. For  first,  the  Latins  accord  not  in  their  account ; 
to  omit  the  calculation  of  the  ancients,  of  Austin,  Bede, 
and  others,  the  chronology  of  the  moderns  doth  manifestly 
dissent.  Josephus  Scaliger,  wliom  Helvicus  seems  to  fol- 
low, accounts  the  creation  in  765  of  the  Julian  period ;  and 
from  thence  unto  the  nativity  of  our  SaA^our  alloweth  3947 
years  ;  but  Dionysius  Petavius,  a  learned  chronologer,  dis- 
senteth  from  this  compute  almost  forty  years  ;  placing  tlic 
creatioii  in  the  730th  of  tlie  Julian  period,  and  from  tlience 
unto  the  incarnation  accounteth  3983  years.  For  the 
Greeks ;  their  accounts  are  more  anomalous  :  for  if  we 
recur  unto  ancient  computes,  we  shall  find  that  Clemens 
Alexandrinus,  an  ancient  father  and  preceptor  unto  Origen, 
accoimted  from  the  creation  unto  our  Saviour,  5664  years  ; 
for  in  the  first  of  his  Sfromaticks,  he  collecteth  the  time 
from  Adam  unto  the  death  of  Commodus  to  be  5858  years  ; 
now  the  death  of  Connnodus  he  placeth  in  the  year  after 
Christ  194,  which  number  deducted  from  the  former,  there 
remaineth  5664.  Theophilus,  bishop  of  Antioch,  accounteth 
unto  the  nativity  of  Christ  5515,  deducible  from  the  like  way 
of  compute;  for  in  his  first  book  adAutoIz/oJium,  he  accounteth 
from  Adam  unto  Aurelius  Verus  5695  years ;  now  that 
emperor  died  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  180,  which  deducted 
from  the  former  sum,  there  remaineth  5515.     Julius  Afri- 

*  the  Samaritan,  tf'c]  It  is  also  preserved  in  six  MSS.  in  the  collec- 
tions of  Dr.  Kennicott,  and  De  Rossi,  L  several  copies  of  the  Chaldee 
Targum,  and  in  the  LXX. — Jtff. 

CHAP,  r.]      THE  BEGINNING  OF  THE  WORLD.        ]09 

canus,  an  ancient  chronologer,  accounteth  somewhat  less, 
that  is,  5500.  Eusebius,  Orosius,  and  others  dissent  not 
much  from  this,  but  all  exceed  five  thousand. 

The  latter  compute  of  the  Greeks,  as  Petavius  observeth, 
hath  been  reduced  unto  two  or  three  accounts.  The  fii'st 
accounts  unto  our  Saviour  5501,  and  this  hath  been  ob- 
served by  Nicephorus,  Theophanes,  and  Maximus.  Tht 
other  accounts  5509 ;  and  this  of  all  at  present  is  generally 
received  by  the  church  of  Constantinople,  observed  also  by 
the  Moscovite,  as  I  have  seen  in  the  date  of  the  emperor's 
letters  ;  wherein  this  year  of  ours,  1645,  is  from  the  year 
of  the  world  7154,  which  doth  exactly  agree  unto  this  last 
account  5509 :  for  if  unto  that  sum  be  added  1645,  the 
product  will  be  7154 ;  by  this  chronology  are  many  Greek 
authors  to  be  undei'stood :  and  thus  is  Martinus  Crusius  to 
be  made  out,  when  in  his  Turco-grecian  history  lie  delivers, 
the  city  of  Constantinople  was  taken  by  the  Turks  in  the 
year  (ttOEci  that  is,  6961 .  Now  according  unto  these  chrono- 
logists,  the  prophecy  of  Elias  the  rabbin,  so  much  in  request 
with  the  Jews,  and  in  some  credit  also  with  Christians,  that 
the  world  should  last  but  six  thousand  years  ;  unto  these 
I  say,  it  hath  been  long  and  out  of  memory  disproved ;  for 
the  sabbatical  and  7000th  year  wherein  the  world  should 
end  (as  did  the  creation  on  the  seventh  day)  mito  them  is 
long  ago  expired ;  they  are  proceeding  in  the  eighth  thou- 
sandth year,  and  numbers  exceeding  those  days  which  men 
have  made  the  types  and  shadows  of  these.  But  certainly 
what  Marcus  Leo  the  Jew  conceiveth  of  the  end  of  the 
heavens,  exceedeth  the  account  of  all  that  ever  shall 
be ;  for  though  he  conceiveth  the  elemental  frame  shall  end 
in  the  seventh  or  sabbatical  millenary,  yet  cannot  he  opi- 
nion tlie  heavens  and  more  durable  part  of  the  creation 
shall  perish  before  seven  times  seven  or  forty-nine,  that  is, 
the  quadrant  of  the  other  seven,  and  perfect  jubilee  of 

*  Marcus  Leo  the  Jeto.]  The  text  convinceth  this  dotage  of  the  Jew  : 
St.  Paule  sayd  loOO  years  agoe,  that  the  ends  of  the  world  were  then 
coming,  which  was  spoken  not  of  hundreds  of  yeares  but  of  thousands. 
Yf  then  Christ  were  borne  in  the  4000th  yeare  of  the  world,  as  the  late 
learned  Armachanus  (Abp.  Usher)  opines  (not  without  excellent  and 
undeniable  reasons  easie  to  bee  made  good),  wee  must  divide  the  age  of 

110  THE    BEGINNIJfG    OF    THE    WOULD.  [bOOK  VI. 

Thus  may  we  observe  the  difference  and  wide  dissent  of 
men's  opinions,  and  thereby  the  great  incertainty  in  this 
establishment.  The  Hebrews  not  only  dissenting  from  the 
Samaritans,  the  Latins  from  the  Greeks,  but  every  one 
from  another.  Insomuch  that  all  can  be  in  the  right  it 
is  impossible  that  any  one  is  so,  not  with  assiu'anee  deter- 
minable. And  therefore,  as  Petavius  confesseth,  to  effect 
the  same  exactly  without  inspiration,  it  is  impossible,  and 
beyond  the  arithmetick  of  any  but  God  himself.  And 
therefore  also,  what  satisfaction  may  be  obtained  from 
those  violent  disputes,  and  eager  enquiries,  in  what  day  of 
the  mouth  the  world  began,  either  of  March  or  October ; 
likewise  in  what  face  or  position  of  the  moon,  whether  at 
the  prijne  or  full,  or  soon  after,  let  our  second  and  serious 
considerations  determine. 

Now  the  reason  and  ground  of  this  dissent  is  the  im- 
happy  difference  between  the  Greek  and  Hebrew  editions 
of  the  bible,  for  unto  these  two  languages  have  all  transla- 
tions conformed  ;  the  Holy  Scripture  being  first  delivered 
in  Hebrew,  and  first  translated  into  Greek.  For  the 
Hebrew  ;  it  seems  the  primitive  and  surest  text  to  rely  on, 
and  to  preserve  the  same  entire  and  uncorrupt  there  hath 
been  used  the  highest  caution  humanity  coidd  invent. 
For,  as  H.  Ben  Maimon  hath  declared,  if  in  the  copying 
thereof  one  letter  were  written  twice,  or  if  one  letter  but 
touched  another,  that  copy  was  not  admitted  into  their 
synagogues,  but  only  allowable  to  be  read  in  schools 
and  private  families.  Neither  were  they  careful  only  in 
the  exact  number  of  their  sections  of  the  law,  but  had  also 
the  curiosity  to  number  every  word,  and  affixed  the  account 
unto  their  several  books.  Notwithstanding  all  which,  divers 
corruptions  ensued,  and  several  depravations  slipt  in, 
arising  from  many  and  manifest  grounds,  as  hath  been 
exactly  noted  by  Morinus  in  his  preface  unto  the  Sep- 

the  world  into  3  partes.  The  beginning  of  the  world  must  bee  counted 
as  the  first  2000  yeares :  the  midste  4000  :  and  the  end  6000  or  perhaps 
not  soe  much  :  for  our  Saviour  sayes  evidently  there  shall  be  an  abbre- 
viation, viz.,  in  the  last  parte ;  but  when  that  shall  bee  Deus  novit. —  Wr. 
Our  Lord's  prediction  is  usually  applied  to  the  destruction  of  Jeru- 


As  for  the  Septuagiut,  it  is  the  first  and  most  ancient 
translation  ;  and  of  greater  antiquity  than  the  Chaldee  ver- 
sion ;  occasioned  by  the  request  of  Ptolemeus  Philadelphua 
king  of  Egypt,  for  the  ornament  of  his  memorable  library, 
unto  whom  the  high  priest  addressed  six  Jews  out  of  every 
tribe,  which  amounteth  unto  72  ;  and  by  these  was  effected 
that  translation  we  usually  term  the  Septuagint,  or  transla- 
tion of  seventy.  "Which  name,  however  it  obtain  from  the 
number  of  their  persons,  yet  in  respect  of  one  common  spirit, 
it  was  the  translation  but  as  it  were  of  one  man ;  if,  as  the 
story  relateth,  although  they  were  set  apart  and  severed 
froui  each  other,  yet  were  their  translations  found  to  agree  in 
every  point,  according  as  is  related  by  Philo  and  Josephus ; 
although  we  find  not  the  same  in  Aristfeas,*  who  hath  ex- 
pressly treated  thereof.  But  of  the  Greek  compute  there 
have  passed  some  learned  dissertations  not  many  years  ago, 
wherein  the  learned  Isaac  Vossius*  makes  the  nativity  of  the 
world  to  anticipate  the  common  account  one  thousand  four 
hundred  and  forty  years. 

This  translation  in  ancient  times  was  of  great  authority. 
By  this  many  of  the  heathens  received  some  notions  of  the 
creation  and  the  mighty  works  of  God.  This  in  express 
terms  is  often  followed  by  the  evangelists,  by  the  apostles, 
and  by  our  Saviour  himself  in  the  quotations  of  the  Old 
Testament.  This  for  many  years  was  used  by  the  Jews 
themselves,  that  is,  such  as  did  Hellenize  and  dispersedly 
dwelt  out  of  Palestine  with  the  Greeks ;  and  this  also  the 
succeeding  Christians  and  ancient  fathers  observed ;  although 
there  succeeded  other  Greek  versions,  that  is,  of  Aquila, 
Theodosius,  and  Symmachus.  Por  the  Latin  translation  of 
Jerome  called  now  the  vulgar,  was  about  800  years  after 
the  Septuagint ;  although  there  was  also  a  Latin  translation 
before,  called  the  Italic  version,  which  was  after  lost  upon 
the  general  reception  of  the  translation  of  Jerome.  Which 
notwithstanding  (as  he  himself  acknowledgethf)  had  been 
needless,  if  the  Septuagint  copies  had  remained  pure,  and  as 

*  Aristceas  ad  Philociatorem  de  7'2  interpi-etihus. 
t  Prcefat.  in  Paralipom. 

*  Isaac  Vossius.]  He  contended  for  the  inspiration  of  the  Septua* 
Rint. — Jeff. 

112  THE    BEGINNING   OF   THE   "WOEl/D.  [BOOK  VT. 

they  were  first  translated.  But  (beside  that  different  copies 
were  used,  that  Alexandria  and  Egypt  followed  the  copy  of 
Hesychius,  Antiocli  and  Constantinople  that  of  Lucian  the 
martyr,  and  others  that  of  Origen)  the  Septuagint  was  much 
depraved,  not  only  from  the  errors  of  scribes,  and  the  emer- 
gent corruptions  of  time,  but  malicious  contrivance  of  the 
Jews ;  as  Justin  Martyr  hath  declared  in  his  learned  dia- 
logue with  Tryphon,  and  Morinus*  hath  learnedly  shown 
from  many  confii-mations7 

"Whatsoever  interpretations  there  have  been  since  have 
been  especially  eftected  with  reference  unto  these,  that  is,  the 
Greek  and  Hebrew  text ;  the  translators  sometimes  follow- 
ing the  one,  sometimes  adhering  imto  the  other,  according 
as  they  found  them  consonant  unto  truth,  or  most  corre- 
spondent unto  the  rules  of  faith.  IS^ow,  however  it  cometh 
to  pass,  these  two  are  very  different  in  the  enumeration  of 
genealogies,  and  particular  accounts  of  time  :  for  in  the 
second  interval,  that  is,  between  the  flood  and  Abraham, 
there  is  by  the  Septuagint  introduced  one  Cainan^  to  be  the 
son  of  Arphaxad  and  father  of  Salah  ;  whereas  in  the  Hebrew 
there  is  no  mention  of  such  a  person,  but  Arphaxad  is  set 
down  to  be  the  father  of  Salah.  But  in  the  first  interval, 
that  is,  from  the  creation  unto  the  flood,  their  disagreement 
is  more  considerable  ;  for  therein  the  Greek  exceedeth  the 
Hebrew  and  common  account  almost  600  years.  And  'tis 
indeed  a  thing  not  very  strange,  to  be  at  the  difference  of  a 
third  part,  in  so  large  and  collective  an  account,  if  we  con- 
sider how  differently  they  are  set  forth  in  minor  and  less 
mistakable  numbers.  So  in  the  prophecy  of  Jonah,  both  in 
the  Hebrew  and  Latin  text,  it  is  said,  "  Yet  forty  days  and 
Nineveh  shall  be  overthro-mi ; "  but  the  Septuagint  saith 
plainl}',  and  tliat  in  letters  at  length,  Tpe'iQ  //yutpac,  that  is, 

*  De  Hebroei  et  Greed  tcxtus  sinceritate. 

'  wMcli  was  after  lost,  ttr.]  Tliis  concluding  sentence  was  first  added 
in  the  2nd  edition. 

*  Cainan.l  How  this  second  Cainan  was  foisted  into  the  translation 
of  the  Septuagint,  see  that  learned  tract  in  Gregoi-ye's  Postkuma,  p.  77, 
which  hee  calls  Kawdv  cti'Ttpog.  Hoe  [meaning  Sir  Thomas]  might 
have  called  him  '^'fvfoicaii'ov  ;  which  had  been  most  satable  to  this 
learned  worke,  of  discovering  comon  errors. —  Wr. 

See  also  Dr.  Hales's  New  Analt/sis,  vol.  i.  pp.  90 — 94. 

CHAP.  1.]  THE   BEGINNING   OF   THl;   WORLD.  113 

"  Yet  three  days  and  Nineveh  shall  be  destroyed."  Which 
is  a  difference  not  newly  crept  in,  but  an  observation  very 
ancient,  discussed  by  Austin  and  Theodoret,  and  was  con- 
ceived an  error  committed  by  the  scribe.^  Men  therefore 
have  raised  different  computes  of  time,  according  as  they  have 
followed  their  different  texts ;  and  so  have  left  the  history 
of  times  far  more  perplexed  than  chronology  hath  reduced. 

Again,  however  the  texts  were  plain,  and  might  in  their 
numerations  agree,  yet  were  there  no  small  difficulty  to  set 
down  a  determinable  chronology  or  establish  from  hence  any 
fixed  point  of  time.     For  the  doubts  concerniug  the  time  of 
the  judges  are  inexplicable ;  that  of  the  reigns  and  succes- 
sion of  kings  is  as  perplexed ;  it  being  uncertain  whether 
the  years  both  of  tlieir  lives  and  reigns  ought  to  be  taken  as 
complete,  or  in  then"  beginning  and  but  current  accoimts. 
Nor  is  it  vuireasonable  to  make  some  doubt  whether  in  the 
first  ages  and  long  lives  of  our  fathers,  Moses  doth  not  some- 
time account  by  full  and  round  numbers,  whereas  strictly 
taken  they  might  be  some  few  years  above  or  under  :  as  in 
the  age  of  Noah,  it  is  delivered  to  be  just  five  hundred  when 
he  begat  Sem  ;   whereas   perhaps  he  might  be  somewhat 
above  or  below  that  roimd  and  complete  number.     For  the 
same  way  of  speech  is  usual  in  divers  other  expressions : 
I  thus  do  we  say  the  Septuagint,  and  using  the  full  and  arti- 
!  culate  number,  do  write  the  translation  of  seventy ;  whereas 
I  we  have  shown  before  the  precise  number  was  seventy-two.- 
1  So  is  it  said  that  Christ  was  three  days  in  the  grave  ;  accord- 
j  ing  to  that  of  Matthew,  "  As  Jonas  was  three  days  and  three 
'  nights  in  the  whale's  belly,  so  shall  the  Son  of  man  be  three 
,  days  and  three  nights  in  the  heart  of  the  earth  :"  which  not- 
1  withstanding  must  be  taken  synecdochically,  or  by  xmder- 
\  standing  a  part  for  a  whole  day ;  for  he  remained  but  two 
'  nights  in  the  grave :  for  he  was  buried  in  the  afternoon  of 
I  the  first  day,  and  arose  very  early  in  the  morning  on  the 
!  third ;  that  is,  he  was  interred  in  the  eve  of  the  sabbath,  and 
I  arose  the  morning  after  it.^ 

^  scribe.]  Writing  y  for  jx,  which  might  easily  bee,  not  in  the  origi 
naJ,  but  in  the  second  transcript. —  Wr. 

'  after  it.]  Before  day :  the  whole  being  scarce  .34  houres  while  he 
was  in  the  grave,  which  is  not  the  one  halfe  of  three  days  and  three 
nights,  nor  can  be  salved  synechdochicallye. 

TOL.  11.  I 

114  THE    BEaiNNTNG   OF   THE   WOELB.  [bOOK  VI. 

Moreover,  although  the  number  of  years  be  determined 
and  rightly  understood,  and  there  be  without  doubt  a  certain 

'Tis  strange  to  see  how  all  the  nation  of  expositors,  since  Christe,  as 
yf  they  were  infected  with  a  disease  of  supinity,  thinke  they  have 
abundantly  satisfied  the  texte,  by  telling  us,  that  speech  of  Christe 
comparinge  himself  to  Jonas,  must  be  understood  synechdochically, 
which  is  :  1.  not  only  a  weak  interpretation  ;  2.  but  ridiculous  to  Jews, 
Turks,  and  Infidels  ;  3.  and  consequently  derogatory  to  the  trueth ; 
who  expressly  puts  in  the  reddition,  3  dayes  and  3  nights,  by  an  em- 
phaticail  expression.  Which  as  itt  was  punctually  fortold,  the  express 
time  of  3  dayes  and  3  nights  ;  soe  itt  was  as  punctually  performed 
(usque  ad  apices)  for  as  Jonas  was  3  days  and  3  nights  in  the  whale, 
which  admits  noe  synechdoche ;  soe  the  sonn  of  man  was  in  the  grave  3 
dayes  and  3  nights  without  any  abatement  of  a  moment.  That  which 
begat  this  error  was,  a  mistake  of  the  dayes  and  nights,  spoken  ol 
Jonas.  And  from  thence  not  only  unwan-antably  but  untnily  applyed 
to  Christ's  stay  in  the  grave.  Wee  must  therefore  distinguish  of  dayes 
and  nights,  and  take  them  either  in  Moses'  sense,  for  the  whole  revo- 
lution of  the  0  to  the  eastern  pointe  after  24  houres  :  which  most  men 
by  like  contagion  of  error,  call  the  natural  day,  wheras  itt  is  rather  to 
bee  cald  artificiall,  as  being  compounded  of  a  day  and  a  night,  wheras 
the  night  is  properly  noe  parte  univocall  of  a  day,  but  a  contradistinct 
member  thereto.  Now  in  this  sense  yf  the  days  and  nights  bee  con- 
ceived ;  itt  is  impossible  to  make  good  the  one  halfe  of  3  dayes  and  3 
nights  by  any  figurative  or  synechdochical  sense  :  for  from  the  time  of 
his  enterring,  very  neer  6  at  even  on  Friday  to  6  at  even  on  Saturday 
are  but  24  houres  :  to  which  adde  from  6  at  even  to  3  or  4  next  mome 
(for  itt  was  yet  darke,  when  Mary  Magd.  came  and  saw  the  stone  re- 
mooved),  viz.  10  houres  more,  they  will  make  in  all  but  thirty  foure 
houres,  that  is  but  1^  day  and  night  of  equinoctial  revolution.  Or 
else  in  our  Saviour's  sense,  Jo.  xi.  9,  where  by  the  day  Christe  under- 
stands, the  very  day-light,  or  natural  day,  caused  by  the  presence  of 
the  sun  ;  to  the  which  night  is  always  opposed  as  contradistinct,  as  is 
manifest  from  that  very  place.  For  as  itts  alwayes  midday  directly 
imder  the  0,  soe  there  is  midnight  alwayes  opposite  to  midnoone 
through  the  world.  And  these  2  have  runn  opposite  round  the  world, 
simul  et.  semel  every  24  houres  since  the  creation,  and  soe  shall  doe, 
while  time  shall  bee  noe  more.  I  say  therefore  that  thoughe  in  respect 
of  Jesus'  grave  in  the  garden  he  lay  but  36  houres  in  the  earthe,  yet  in 
respect  of  the  world  for  which  he  suS'ered,  there  were  3  distincte  dayes 
and  nights  actually  in  being,  while  hee  lay  in  the  bowels  of  the  earthe 
(which  IS  to  be  distinctly  noted  to  justifie  of  him,  who  did  not,  could  not, 
iequivocate) :  Friday  night  in  Judaea,  and  a  day  opposite  therto  in  the 
other  hemisphere,  just  12  houres  ;  Saturday  12  houres  in  Judtea,  and 
the  opposite  night  12  hours  ;  Saturday  night  in  Judaea,  and  the  oppo- 
site day  elsewhere  at  the  same  time.  And  hee  that  denyes  this,  hath 
lost  his  sense  :  for  I  ask  were  there  not  actually  3  essentiall  dayes  and 
3  nights  {sitb  coelo)  during  his  sepulture.     And  yf  this  cannot  be  denyed 

CHAP.  I.]  THE   BEGINNTHa   Or   THE   WORLD.  115 

truth  herein,  yet  the  text  speaking  obscurely  or  dubiously, 
there  is  ofttimes  no  slender  difficulty  at  what  point  to  begin 
or  terminate  the  account.  So  when  it  is  said,  Exod.  xii.,  the 
sojourning  of  the  children  of  Israel  who  dwelt  in  Egypt  was 
430  years,  it  cannot  be  taken  strictly,  and  from  their  first 
arrival  into  Egypt,  for  their  habitation  in  that  land  was  far 

by  any  but  a  madman,  I  aske  againe  did  Christe  suffer  for  Judaea  only, 
or  for  the  whole  world  ?  least  of  all  for  Judaea,  which  for  his  unjust 
death  was  exterminate  and  continues  accursed.  Soe  that  henceforth 
wee  shall  need  no  synechdoche  to  make  good  the  prophetick  speech  of 
him  that  could  not  lie  :  who  sayde,  sic  erit  Pilius  hominis  in  corde  terrcB 
tribus  diebus  et  trihits  noctibus :  and  this  was  truly  fulfilled  usque  ad 
momenta,  and  therefore  I  dare  believe  it,  and  noe  Jew  or  Turk  can  con- 
tradict itt.  (Hee  that  made  the  several  natures  of  day  and  night  in 
this  sense  ;  sayd  hee  would  lye  in  the  grave  3  of  these  dayes  and  3 
nights.) — Wr. 

This  is  ingenious,  and  to  its  author  it  seems  abundantly  satisfactory, 
proceeding  on  the  hypothesis  that  as  our  Lord  suffered  for  the  whole 
world,  the  duration  of  his  suffering  must  be  understood  with  reference 
to  the  whole  earth.  The  Dean  adds  to  the  two  nights  and  one  day 
which  elapsed  in  Palestine, — the  corresponding  two  days  and  one  night, 
which  elapsed  at  the  antipodes  of  Judea.  But  this  is  liable  to  objection. 
It  is  just  as  truly  synechdochical  as  the  interpretation  of  Sir  Thomas  : — 
only  that  it  takes  two  points  on  the  earth's  surface  instead  of  one  for  the 
whole.  Besides  the  ingenuity  is  needless.  The  Jews  were  in  the  habit 
of  speaking  synechdochically  in  that  very  respect  that  they  speak  of  each 
part  of  a  day  and  night  (or  of  24  hours)  as  a  day  and  night — vvKOt^jxipa. 
So  that  if  Jonah  was  in  the  deep  during  less  than  48  hours,  provided 
that  period  comprised,  in  addition  to  one  entire  24  hours,  a  portion  of 
the  preceding  and  of  the  following  24  hours, — then  the  Jews  would  say 
that  he  had  been  in  the  deep  3  day-nights  or  3  days  and  3  nights.  As  if 
we  should  say  of  a  person  who  had  left  home  on  Fiiday  afternoon  and 
returned  on  Sunday  morning,  that  he  was  from  home  Friday,  Saturday, 
and  Sunday — this  might  be  thought  to  imply  considerable  portions  of 
the  day  of  Friday  and  of  Sunday — but  certainly  it  would  not  be  necessary 
to  the  accuracy  of  such  a  report  that  he  should  have  started  immediately 
after  midnight  of  Thursday,  and  I'eturned  at  the  same  hour  on  Sunday. 
And  yet  he  would  otherwise  not  have  been  from  home  on  Friday,  Saturday, 
and  Sunday — but  only  during  parts  of  those  days.  With  the  Jews  com- 
mon parlance  would  only  require  that  our  Redeemer  should  have  been  in 
the  heart  of  the  earth,  from  the  eve  of  the  (Jewish)  sabbath,  however  late, 
to  the  morning  of  the  first  day,  however  early,  in  order  to  justify  the 
terms  in  which  they  would  universally  have  spoken  of  the  duration  of 
his  abode  there — -as  comprising  three  days  and  three  nights.  We 
may  observe  too,  that  three  days  are  uniformly  spoken  of  as  the  time  of 
our  Lord's  abode  in  the  grave,  whether  it  is  spoken  of  typically  or 
literally.  Thus  he  says  of  himself,  "  I  do  cures  to-day  and  to-morrow, 
and  the  third  day  I  am  perfected." 


116  THE    BEGINKING   OF    THE    WOELD,  [BOOK  TI. 

less ;  but  the  account  must  begin  from  the  covenant  of  God 
with  Abraham,  and  must  also  comprehend  their  sojourn  in 
the  land  of  Canaan,  according  as  is  expressed  Gal.  iii.,  "  The 
covenant  that  was  confirmed  before  of  God  in  Christ,  the 
law  which  was  430  years  after  cannot  disannul."  Thus  hath 
it  also  happened  in  the  account  of  the  seventy  years  of  their 
captivity,  according  to  that  of  Jeremy,  "  This  whole  land 
shall  be  a  desolation,  and  these  nations  shall  serve  the  king 
of  Babylon  seventy  years."*  Now  where  to  begin  or  end 
this  compute,  ariseth  no  small  difficulty ;  for  there  were  three 
remarkable  captivities  and  deportations  of  the  Jews.  The 
first  was  in  the  third  or  fourth  year  of  Joachim,  and  first  of 
Nabuchodonozor,  when  Daniel  was  carried  away  ;  the  second 
in  the  reign  of  Jeconiah,  and  the  eighth  year  of  the  same 
king ;  the  third  and  most  deplorable  in  the  reign  of  Zede- 
chias,  and  in  the  nineteenth  year  of  Nabuchodonozor, 
whereat  both  the  temple  and  city  were  burned.  Now  such 
is  the  different  conceit  of  these  times,  that  men  have  com- 
puted from  aU ;  but  the  probablest  account  and  most  con- 
cordant mito  the  intention  of  Jeremy  is  from  the  first  of 
Nabuchodonozor  unto  the  first  of  King  Cyrus  over  Babylon  ; 
although  the  prophet  Zachary  accoimteth  from  the  last.  "  O 
Lord  of  hosts,  how  long !  wilt  thou  not  have  mercy  on  Jeru- 
salem, against  which  thou  hast  had  indignation  these  three- 
score and  ten  years  ?"t  for  he  maketh  this  expostulation  in 
the  second  year  of  Darius  Hystaspes,  wherein  he  prophesied, 
which  is  about  eighteen  years  in  account  after  the  other. 

Thus  also  although  there  be  a  certain  truth  therein,  yet 
is  there  no  easy  doubt  concerning  the  seventy  weeks,  or 
seventy  times  seven  years  of  Daniel ;  whether  they  have 
reference  unto  the  nativity  or  passion-  of  otu"  Saviour,  and 

*  Chap.  XX.  t  Chap.  i.  12. 

'  nativity  or  passion.]  The  learned  thinke  they  have  reference  [that 
is  of  their  determination]  to  neither  of  them.  For  most  of  the  learned 
conceive,  that  those  70  weeks,  or  seven  times  seventy  [viz.  490  years] 
ended  with  the  destruction  of  the  citye  ;  which  was  70  yeares  after  the 
nativitye,  and  38  after  the  passion  of  Christe  :  and  then  'twill  bee  noe 
hard  matter  to  compute  the  pointe  from  whence  those  490  yeares  must 
bee  supposed  to.  begin  :  which  wee  shal  find  to  bee  in  the  6th  yeare  of 
Darius  Nothus ;  at  what  time  the  temple  being  finished  by  Artaxerxea 
commauiid,  formerly  given  Ao.  Eegni  20°.  the  commaund  for  the  build* 

CHAP.  1.]  THE    BEGINNING    OE    THE    WOELD.  117 

especially  from  whence  or  what  point  of  time  they  are  to  be 
computed.  For  thus  it  is  delivered  by  the  angel  Glabriel : 
"  Seventy  weeks  are  determined  upon  thy  people  ;"  and  again 
in  the  following  verse  :  "Know  therefore  and  understand,  that 
from  the  going  forth  of  the  commandment  to  restore  and  to 
build  Jerusalem,  unto  the  Messiah  the  prince,  shall  be  seven 
weeks,  and  threescore  and  two  weeks,  the  street  shall  be 
built  again,  and  the  wall  even  in  troublesome  times  ;  and 
after  threescore  and  two  weeks  shall  Messiah  be  cut  ofT."^ 
Now  the  going  out  of  the  commandment,  to  build  the  city, 
being  the  point  from  whence  to  compute,  there  is  no  slender 
controversy  when  to  begin.  For  there  are  no  less  than  four 
several  edicts  to  this  effect,  the  one  in  the  first  year  of 
Cyrus,'*  the  other  in  the  second  of  Darius,  the  third  and 
fourth  in  the  seventh  and  in  the  twentieth  of  Artaxerxes 
Longimanus :  although  as  Petavius  accounteth,  it  best  ac- 
cordeth  unto  the  twentieth  year  of  Artaxerxes,  from  whence 
Nehemiah  deriveth  his  commission.  Now  that  computes 
are  made  uncertainly  with  reference  unto  Christ,  it  is  no 
wonder,  since  I  perceive  the  time  of  his  nativity  is  in  con- 
troversy, and  no  less  his  age  at  his  passion.  For  Clemens 
and  Tertullian  conceive  he  suffered  at  thirty ;  but  Irenseus 

ing  of  Jerusalem  also  was  given  by  thLs  Darius  Nothus,  Ao.  Mundi  3532, 
which  agrees  exactlye  with  Scaliger's  irrefragable  computation.  But  to 
see  this  diiiicult  question  fully  decided,  and  in  a  few  lines,  I  can  give  no 
such  direction,  as  that  which  Gregorye  hath  lately  given  us  in  his  excel- 
lent tract  de  jEris  et  Epochh,  cap.  xi.  which  was  publisht  this  last  year 
1649,  and  is  a  work  worthye  of  a  diligent  reader. —  Wr. 

On  referring  to  Rev.  T.  H.  Home's  analytical  view  of  Daniel,  I  find 
the  following  brief  summary  of  this  period.  Its  commencement  "  i.s 
fixed  (Dan.  ix.  25)  to  the  time  when  the  order  was  issued  for  rebuilding 
the  temple  in  the  seventh  year  of  the  reign  of  Artaxerxes  (Ezra  vii.  11), 
seven  weeks,  or  forty-nine  years,  was  the  temple  in  building  (Dan.  ix. 
25) ;  sixty-two  weeks,  or  four  hundred  and  thirty-four  years  more,  bring 
us  to  the  public  manifestation  of  the  Messiah,  at  the  beginning  of  John 
the  Baptist's  preaching  ;  and  one  prophetic  week  or  seven  years,  added 
to  this,  will  bring  us  to  the  time  of  our  Saviour's  passion,  or  the  thirty- 
third  year  of  the  Christian  jera, — in  all  490  years." — Introduction,  <5cc. 
vol.  iv.  p.  1,  ch.  vi.  §  4. 

^  Know,  <fcc.]     Dan.  ix.  25. 

<  the  one  in  the  first  year,  <fcc.]   A.M.  3419  ;  3430  ;  3492  ;  3505.— TFr, 

These  dates  however  differ  from  those  assigned  by  the  moat  emi- 
nent of  our  more  recent  chronologists. 

118  THE    BEGINNING   OF    THE   WOEID.  [bOOK  TI. 

a  father  nearer  his  time,  is  further  oflf  in  his  account,  that  is, 
between  forty  and  fifty. 

Longomontanus,  a  late  astronomer,  endeavours  to  discover 
this  secret  from  astronomical  grounds,  that  is,  the  apogeiun 
of  the  sun ;  conceiving  the  eccentricity  invariable,  and  the 
apogeum  yearly  to  move  one  scruple,  two  seconds,  fifty 
thirds,  &c.  Wherefore  if  in  the  time  of  Hipparchus,  that 
is,  in  the  year  of  the  Julian  period  4557,  it  was  in  the  fifth 
degree  of  G-emini,  and  in  the  days  of  Tycho  Brahe,  that  is, 
in  the  year  of  our  Lord  1588,  or  of  the  world  5554,  the 
same  was  removed  unto  the  fifth  degree  of  Cancer ;  by  the 
proportion  of  its  motion,  it  was  at  the  creation  first  in  the 
beginning  of  Aries,  and  the  perigeum  or  nearest  point  in 
Libra.  But  this  conceit  how  ingenious  or  subtile  soever,  is 
not  of  satisfaction  ;  it  being  not  determinable,  or  yet  agi'eed 
in  what  time  precisely  the  apogeum  absolveth  one  degree,  as 
Petavius*  hath  also  delivered. 

Lastly,  however  these  or  other  difficulties  intervene,  and 
that  we  cannot  satisfy  ourselves  in  the  exact  compute  of  time, 
yet  may  we  sit  down  with  the  common  and  usual  account ; 
nor  are  these  difierences  derogatory  imto  the  advent  or  pas- 
sion of  Christ,  unto  which  indeed  they  all  do  seem  to  point, 
for  the  prophecies  concerning  our  Saviour  were  indefinitely 
delivered  before  that  of  Daniel ;  so  was  that  pronounced 
imto  Eve  in  Paradise,  that  after  of  Balaam,  those  of  Isaiah 
and  the  prophets,  and  that  memorable  one  of  Jacob,  "  the 
sceptre  shall  not  depart  from  Israel  imtil  Shilo  come  ;"  which 
time  notwithstanding  it  did  not  define  at  all.  In  what  year 
therefore  soever,  either  from  the  destruction  of  the  temple, 
from  the  re-edifying  thereof,  from  the  flood,  or  from  the 
creation,  he  appeared,  certain  it  is,  that  in  the  fulness  of 
time  he  came.  When  he  therefore  came,  is  not  so  consider- 
able as  that  he  is  come :  in  the  one  there  is  consolation,  in 
the  other  no  satisfaction.  The  greater  query  is,  when  he  will 
come  again ;  and  yet  indeed  it  is  no  query  at  all ;  for  that 
is  never  to  be  known,  and  therefore  vainly  enquired  :  'tis  a 
professed  and  authentick  obscurity,  luiknown  to  all  but  to 
the  omniscience  of  the  Almighty.  Certainly  the  ends  of 
things  are  wrapt  up  in  the  hands  of  God,  he  that  undertakes 

*  Dc  Doctrina  Temporum,  L  4. 

CHAP.  II.]  THE    BEGINNING    OF    THE    WOELD.  119 

the  knowledge  thereof  forgets  his  own  beginning,  and  dis- 
claims his  principles  of  earth.  No  man  knows  the  end  of  the 
world,  nor  assuredly  of  any  thing  in  it :  God  sees  it,  because 
unto  his  eternity  it  is  present ;  he  knoweth  the  ends  of  us, 
but  not  of  himself;  and  because  he  knows  not  this,  he 
knoweth  all  things,  and  his  knowledge  is  endless,  even  in  the 
object  of  himself. 


Of  Men's  Enquiries  in  what  season  or  point  of  the  Zodiack  it  began,  that, 
as  they  are  generally  made,  they  are  in  vain,  and  as  particularly, 

CoNCEENiNG  the  seasons,  that  is,  the  quarters  of  the  year 
some  are  ready  to  enquire,  others  to  determine,  in  what 
season,  whether  in  the  autumn,  spring,  winter,  or  summer, 
the  world  had  its  beginning.  Wherein  we  afiirm,  that,  as 
the  question  is  generally  and  in  respect  of  the  whole  earth 
proposed,  it  is  with  manifest  injury  unto  reason  in  any 
particular  determined ;  because  whenever  the  world  had  its 
beginning  it  was  created  in  all  these  four.  For,  as  we  have 
elsewhere  delivered,  whatsoever  sign  the  sun  possesseth 
(whose  recess  or  vicinity  defineth  the  quarters  of  the  year) 
those  four  seasons  were  actually  existent ;  it  being  the  nature 
of  that  luminary  to  distinguish  the  several  seasons  of  the 
year  ;  all  which  it  maketh  at  one  time  in  the  whole  earth,  and 
successively  in  any  part  thereof.'*  Thus  if  we  suppose  the 
sun  created  in  Libra,  in  which  sign  unto  some  it  maketh 
autumn ;  at  the  same  time  it  had  been  winter  unto  the  north- 
ern pole,  for  unto  them  at  that  time  the  sun  beginneth  to  be 
invisible,  and  to  show  itself  again  unto  the  pole  of  the  south. 
Unto  the  position  of  a  right  sphere,  or  directly  under  the 
equator,  it  had  been  summer ;  for  unto  that  situation  the 

*  thereof]  According  as  he  makes  his  access  too,  or  recess  from  the 
several  [parts]  of  the  earthe :  now  in  that  his  accesse  to  the  one  is  a 
recess  from  the  other,  it  followes,  that  those  from  whom  he  partes  have 
their  autumne,  those  within  the  tropicks,  over  whose  heads  he  passes, 
have  their  summer,  and  those  on  the  other  side  beyond  the  tropicke 
towards  whome  hee  goes  have  their  new  spring  beginning  in  exchange 
of  their  former,  causd  by  his  absence. —  Wr. 

120  THE    BEGINNING    OF    TUE    WOULD.  [uOOK   VI. 

sun  is  at  that  time  vertical.  TJnto  the  latitude  of  Capricorn, 
or  the  winter  solstice,  it  had  been  spring ;  for  vmto  that 
position  it  had  been  in  a  middle  point,  and  that  of  ascent,  or 
approximation ;  but  unto  the  latitude  of  Cancer,  or  the  sum- 
mer solstice,  it  had  been  autumn ;  for  then  had  it  been  placed 
in  a  middle  point,  and  that  of  descent,  or  elongation. 

And  if  we  shall  take  literally  what  Moses  describeth  po- 
pularly, this  was  also  the  constitution  of  the  first  day.  Por 
when  it  was  evening  unto  one  longitude,  it  was  morning  unto 
another ;  when  night  unto  one,  day  unto  another.  And  there- 
fore that  question,  whether  our  Saviour  shall  come  again  in 
the  twdight  (as  is  conceived  he  arose)  or  whether  he  shall 
come  upon  us  in  the  night,  according  to  the  comparison  of 
a  thief,  or  the  Jewish  tradition,  that  he  will  come  about  the 
time  of  their  departure  out  of  Egypt,  when  they  ate  the 
passover,  and  the  angel  passed  by  the  doors  of  their  houses ; 
this  query,  I  say,  needeth  not  fiu-ther  dispute.  For  if  the 
earth  be  almost  every  where  inhabited,  and  his  coming  (as 
divinity  affirmeth)  must  needs  be  unto  aU ;  then  must  the 
time  of  his  appearance  be  both  in  the  day  and  niglit.  For 
if  unto  Jerusalem,  or  what  part  of  the  world  soever  he  shall 
appear  in  the  night,  at  the  same  time  unto  the  antipodes  it 
must  be  day  ;  if  twilight  unto  them,  broad  day  unto  the 
Indians  ;  if  noon  unto  them,  yet  night  unto  the  Americans  ; 
and  so  with  variety  according  unto  various  habitations,  or 
different  positions  of  the  sphere,  as  wUl  be  easily  conceived 
by  those  who  understand  the  affections  of  different  habita- 
tions, and  the  conditions  of  Antoeci,  Perioeci,  and  Antipodes. 
And  so,  although  he  appear  in  the  night,  yet  may  the  day  of 
judgment,  or  doomsday,  weU  retain  that  name  ;*  for  that  im- 
plieth  one  revolution  of  the  sun,  which  maketh  the  day  and 
night,  and  that  one  natm-al  day.  And  yet,  to  speak  strictly, 
if  (as  the  apostle  affirmeth)  we  shaU  be  changed  in  the 
twinkling  of  an  eye,^  and  (as  the  schools  determine)  the 

*  'SvxBrjupov. 

*  twinkling,  <fcc.]  Taking  this  for  granted  [which  noe  man,  dare 
denye]  yet  it  is  most  truly  sayde,  that  doomes  day  is  the  last  daye, 
i.  e.  the  last  daye  of  the  sons  circling  this  lower  world  by  his  daylye 
course  :  which  as  itt  hath  [in  itt  selfe]  noe  rising  or  settinge,  but 
caryeth  the  daye  and  midnoone  always  directly  under  him  round  the 
world  perpetuallye :  see  in  what  parte  of  the  world  that  course  shall 

CHAP.  II.]  THE    BEGINNING    OP    THE    WOELD.  121 

destruction  of  the  world  shall  not  be  successive  but  in  an 
instant,  we  cannot  properly  apply  thereto  the  usual  distino* 
tions  of  time ;  calling  that  twelve  hours,  which  admits  not 
the  parts  thereof,  or  use  at  all  the  name  of  time,  when  the 
nature  thereof  shall  perish. 

But  if  the  enquiry  be  made  unto  -  a  particular  place,  and 
the  question  determined  imto  some  certain  meridian ;  as, 
namely,  unto  Mesopotamia,^  wherein  the  seat  of  Paradise  is 
presumed,  tlie  query  becomes  more  reasonable,  and  is  indeed 
in  nature  also  determinable.  Yet  positively  to  define  that 
season,  there  is  no  slender  difficulty  ;  for  some  contend  that 
it  began  in  the  spring ;  as  (beside  Eusebius,  Ambrose,  Bede, 
and  Theodore t),  some  few  years  past,  Henrico  Philippi  in 
his  chronology  of  the  Scripture.  Others  are  altogether  for 
autumn ;  and  from  hence  do  our  chronologers  commence 
their  compute,  as  may  be  observed  in  Helvicus,  Jo.  Scaliger, 
Cahisius,  and  Petavius.^ 

bee  determind  [and  the  day  therewith]  is  noe  waye  considerable,  and 
much  lease  in  what  parte  of  tlie  daye  of  24  houres,  that  sodaine  instant] 
of  change  shall  bee  ;  which  of  necessity  must  bee  to  some  inhabitants  of 
the  world  at  the  time  of  his  risinge,  to  others  at  midnoone,  to  others 
at  his  sittinge,  and  to  others  at  midnight :  for  all  these  are  all  at  once, 
and  in  the  very  same  instant,  every  day,  in  several  partes  of  the  worlde  : 
as  for  example  ;  in  April  when  tis  midday  at  London  ;  'tis  just  sonrise 
at  Virginia ;  and  just  sonset  at  the  hithermost  partes  of  Nova 
Guinea,  and  yet  itt  is  the  same  daye  to  all  these  three  parcels  of  the 
world  at  once.  But  when  that  greate  doome  shall  come,  the  course  of 
the  son  shall  instantly  cease,  and  consequently  the  natural  and  usual 
course  of  day  and  night  with  itt :  yet  there  shall  bee  noe  want  of  lighte 
in  that  parte  of  the  aire,  or  that  parte  of  the  earthe  under  the  place, 
where  the  sonn  of  man  shall  call  the  world  before  his  judgment-seate  ; 
unless  any  man  bee  soe  simple  to  thinke  that  in  the  presence  of  God 
there  shall  be  lesse  light  then  in  the  presence  of  the  son. —  Wr. 

^  Mesopotamia.]     Most  thinke  the  valley  of  Jehosaphat. —  Wr. 

The  valley  of  Jehoshaphat  was  situated  eastward  of  Jerusalem, 
between  that  city  and  the  Mcv  nt  of  Olives ;  and  through  which  ran  the 
brook  Kedron  : — Mesopotamia  was  a  province  between  the  Euphrates 
and  Tigris. 

'  Petra/vius.]  And  yet  itt  must  bee  confest,  that  the  spring,  or  sonna 
entrance  into  Aries  is  verum  caput  et  naturale  PHncip)ium  Anni,  renew- 
ing and  reviving  all  things,  as  of  old  in  Paradise,  asqualling  dayes  and 
nights  in  all  places,  within  the  pole  circles  especially  :  and  as  to  this  all 
astronomers  agree,  soe,  consonant  thereto,  all  geographers  consent,  that 
Paradise  was  neere  under  the  ^quinoctiall,  or  on  this  side  of  itt,  undei 
rise  of  the  spring  with  tie  sonn. —  Wr, 



Of  the  Divisions  of  the  Seasons  and  Four  Quarters  of  the  Year,  according 
unto  Astronomers  and  Physicians;  that  the  common  compute  of  the 
Ancients,  and  which  is  still  retained  by  some,  is  very  questionable. 

As  for  the  divisions  of  tlie  year,  and  the  quartering  out 
this  remarkable  standard  of  time,  there  have  passed  especially 
two  distinctions.  The  first  in  frequent  use  with  astronomers 
according  to  the  cardinal  intersections  of  the  zodiack,  that  is, 
the  two  equinoctials  and  both  the  solstitial  points,  defijiing 
that  time  to  be  the  spring  of  the  year,  wherein  the  sun  doth 
pass  from  the  equinox  of  Aries  imto  the  solstice  of  Cancer ; 
the  time  between  the  solstice  and  the  equinox  of  Libra, 
summer ;  from  thence  unto  the  solstice  of  Capricomus,  au- 
tumn; and  from  thence  unto  the  equinox  of  Aries  again, 
winter.  Now  this  division,  although  it  be  regvdar  and  equal, 
is  not  universal ;  for  it  includeth  not  those  latitudes  which 
have  the  seasons  of  the  year  double  ;  as  have  the  inhabitants 
under  the  equator,  or  else  between  the  tropicks.  For  unto 
them  the  sun  is  vertical  twice  a  year,  making  two  distinct 
simimers  in  the  different  points  of  verticaUty.  So  unto 
those  which  live  under  the  equator,  when  the  sun  is  in  the 
equinox,  it  is  summer,  in  which  points  it  maketh  spring  or 
autumn  unto  us  ;  and  unto  tliem  it  is  also  winter  when  the 
sun  is  in  either  tropick,  whereas  unto  us  it  maketh  always 
summer  in  the  one.  And  the  like  will  happen  unto  those 
habitations,  which  are  between  the  tropicks  and  the  equator. 

A  second  and  more  sensible  division  there  is  observed  by 
Hippocrates,  and  most  of  the  ancient  Greeks,  according  to 
the  rising  and  setting  of  divers  stars  ;  dividing  the  year,  and 
establishing  the  account  of  seasons  from  usual  alterations, 
and  sensible  mutations  in  the  air,  discovered  upon  tlie  rising 
and  setting  of  those  stars :  accounting  the  spring  from  the 
equinoctial  point  of  Aries  ;  from  the  rising  of  the  Pleiades, 
or  the  several  stars  on  the  back  of  Taurus,  summer ;  from 
the  rising  of  Arcturus,  a  star  between  the  thighs  of  Boetes, 
autiunn ;  and  from  the  setting  of  the  Pleiades,  winter.  Of 
these  divisions,  because  they  were  unequal,  they  were  fain  to 
subdivide  the  two  larger  portions,  that  is,  of  the  summer  and 


Winter  quarters  ;  the  first  part  of  the  summer  they  named 
^t'pof,  the  second  unto  the  rising  of  the  dog-star,  upa,  from 
thence  unto  the  setting  of  Arcturus,  oTrwpa.  The  winter 
they  divide  also  into  three  parts ;  the  first  part,  or  that  of 
seed-time,  they  named  (nropsrov,  the  middle  or  proper  winter, 
■XtijXMv,  the  last,  which  was  their  planting  or  grafting  time, 
(pvTciXiay.  This  way  of  division  was  in  former  ages  received, 
is  very  often  mentioned  in  poets,  translated  from  one  nation 
to  another ;  from  the  Greeks  unto  the  Latins,  as  is  received 
by  good  authors  ;  and  delivered  by  physicians,  even  unto 
onr  times. 

Now  of  these  two,  although  the  first  in  some  latitude  may 
be  retained,  yet  is  not  the  other  in  any  way  to  be  admitted. 
For  in  regard  of  time  (as  we  elsewhere  declare)  the  stars 
do  vary  their  longitudes,  and  consequently  the  times  of  their 
ascension  and  descension.  That  star  which  is  the  term  of 
numeration,  or  point  from  whence  we  commence  the  account, 
altering  his  site  and  longitude  in  process  of  time,  and  re- 
moving from  west  to  east,  almost  one  degree  in  the  space  of 
seventy-two  years,  so  that  the  same  star,  since  the  age  of 
Hippocrates,  who  used  this  account,  is  removed  in  conse- 
quentia  about  twenty-seven  degrees.  Which  difierence  of 
their  longitudes  doth  much  diversify  the  times  of  their 
ascents,  and  rendereth  the  account  unstable  which  shall 
proceed  thereby. 

Again,  in  regard  of  different  latitudes,  this  cannot  be  a 
settled  rule,  or  reasonably  applied  unto  many  nations.  For, 
whereas  the  setting  of  the  Pleiades,  or  seven  stars,  is  de- 
signed the  term  of  autumn,  and  the  beginning  of  winter, 
unto  some  latitudes  these  stars  do  never  set,  as  unto  all 
beyond  67  degrees.  And  if  in  several  and  far  distant  lati- 
tudes we  observe  the  same  star  as  a  common  term  of  account 
unto  both,  we  shall  fall  upon  an  unexpected,  but  an  unsuffer- 
able  absurdity ;  and  by  the  same  account  it  will  be  summer 
unto  us  in  the  north,  before  it  be  so  unto  those,  which  unto 
us  are  southward,  and  many  degrees  approaching  nearer  the 
sun.  For  if  we  consult  the  doctrine  of  the  sphere,  and  ob- 
serve the  ascension  of  the  Pleiades,  which  maketh  the  begin- 
ning of  summer,  we  shall  discover  that  in  the  latitude  of  40 
these  stars  arise  in  the  16th  degree  of  Taurus,  but  in  the 
latitude  of  50,  they  ascend  in  the  eleventh  degree  of  the 


same  sign,  that  is,  five  days  sooner ;  so  shall  it  be  summer 
uuto  London,  before  it  be  unto  Toledo,  and  begin  to  scorch 
in  England,  before  it  grow  hot  in  Spain. 

This  is  therefore  no  general  way  of  compute,  nor  reason- 
able to  be  derived  from  one  nation  unto  another ;  the  defect 
of  which  consideration  hath  caused  divers  errors  in  Latin 
poets,  translating  these  expressions  from  the  Greeks ;  and 
many  difificulties  even  in  the  Greeks  themselves,  which,  living 
in  divers  latitudes,  yet  observed  the  same  compute.  So  that, 
to  make  them  out,  we  are  fain  to  use  distinctions ;  some- 
times computing  cosmically  what  they  intended  hehacally, 
and  sometimes  in  the  same  expression  accounting  the  rising 
heliacally,  the  setting  cosmically.  Otherwise  it  will  be 
hardly  made  out,  what  is  delivered  by  approved  authors ; 
and  is  an  observation  very  considerable  unto  those  which 
meet  with  such  expressions,  as  they  are  very  frequent  in  the 
poets  of  elder  times,  especially  Hesiod,  Aratus,  Virgil,  Ovid, 
Manilius,  and  authors  geoponical,  or  which  have  treated  de 
re  rustica,  as  Constantino,  Marcus  Cato,  Columella,  Palla- 
dius,  and  Varro. 

Lastly,  the  absurdity  in  making  common  unto  many  na- 
tions those  considerations  whose  verity  is  but  particular  unto 
some,  will  more  evidently  appear,  if  we  examine  the  rules 
and  precepts  of  some  one  climate,  and  fall  upon  consider- 
ation with  what  incongruity  they  are  transferable  unto 

Thus  it  is  advised  by  Hesiod : — 

Pleiadibus  Atlante  natis  orientibus 

Incipe  Messem,  Arationem  vero  occidentibus, — 

implying  hereby  the  heliacal  ascent  and  cosmical  descent  of 
those  stars.  Now  herein  he  setteth  down  a  rule  to  begin 
harvest  at  the  arise  of  the  Pleiades ;  which  in  his  time  was 
in  the  beginning  of  May.  This  u^deed  was  consonant  unto 
the  clime  wherein  he  lived,  and  their  harvest  began  about 
that  season  ;  but  is  not  appliable  unto  our  own,  for  therein 
we  are  so  far  from  expecting  an  harvest,  that  our  barley- 
seed  is  not  ended.  Again,  correspondent  unto  the  rule  of 
Hesiod,  Virgil  aftbrdeth  another : — 

Ante  tibi  Eok  Atlantides  abscondantur, 
Debita  quam  sulcis  committas  semina, — 


understanding  hereby  their  cosmical  descent,  or  their  setting 
when  the  sun  ariseth ;  and  not  their  hehacal  obscuration, 
or  their  inclusion  in  the  lustre  of  the  sun,  as  Servius 
upon  this  place  would  have  it ;  for  at  that  time  these  stars 
are  many  signs  removed  from  that  luminary.  Now  herein 
he  strictly  adviseth,  not  to  begin  to  -sow  before  the  setting 
of  these  stars ;  which  notwithstanding,  without  injury  to 
agriculture  cannot  be  observed  in  England ;  for  they  set 
unto  us  about  the  12th  of  November,  when  our  seed-time  is 
almost  ended. 

And  this  diversity  of  clime  and  celestial  observations,  pre- 
cisely observed  unto  certain  stars  and  months,  hath  not  only 
overthroNrn  the  deductions  of  one  nation  to  another,  but 
hath  perturbed  the  observation  of  festivities  and  statary 
solemnities,  even  with  the  Jews  themselves.  For  unto  them 
it  was  commanded,  that  at  their  entrance  into  the  land  of 
Canaan,  in  the  fourteenth  of  the  first  month  (that  is  Abib  or 
Nisan,  which  is  spring  with  us),  they  should  observe  the 
celebration  of  the  passover ;  and  on  the  morrow  after,  which 
is  the  fifteenth  day,  the  feast  of  unleavened  bread ;  and  in 
the  sixteenth  of  the  same  month,  that  they  should  offer  the 
first  sheaf  of  the  harvest.  Now  all  this  was  feasible  and  of 
an  easy  possibility  in  the  land  of  Canaan,  or  latitude  of 
Jerusalem ;  for  so  it  is  observed  by  several  authors  in  later 
times ;  and  is  also  testified  by  Holy  Scriptiu-e  in  times  very 
far  before.*  For  when  the  children  of  Israel  passed  the  river 
Jordan,  it  is  delivered  by  way  of  parenthesis,  that  the  river 
overfloweth  its  banks  in  the  time  of  harvest ;  which  is  con- 
ceived the  time  wherein  they  passed ;  and  it  is  after  delivered, 
that  in  the  fourteenth  day  they  celebrated  the  passover :  f 
which  according  to  the  law  of  Moses,  was  to  be  observed  in 
the  first  month,  or  month  of  Abib. 

And  therefore  it  is  no  wonder,  what  is  related  by  Luke, 
that  the  disciples  upon  the  deioteroproton,  as  they  passed  by, 
plucked  the  ears  of  corn.  For  the  deideroproton  or  second 
first  sabbath,  was  the  first  sabbath  after  the  deutera  or  second 
of  the  passover,  which  was  the  sixteenth  of  Nisan  or  Abib. 
And  this  is  also  evidenced  from  the  received  construction 
of  the  first  and  latter  rain :  "  I  will  give  you  the  raiu  of  your 

*  Josh.  iii.  "t"  Josh.  v. 


land  in  his  due  season,  tbe  first  rain  and  the  latter  rain  :"* 
for  the  first  rain  fell  upon  the  seed-time  about  October,  and 
was  to  make  the  seed  to  root ;  the  latter  was  to  fill  the  ear, 
and  fell  in  Abib  or  March,  the  first  month :  according  as  is 
expressed,  "  And  he  will  cause  to  come  down  for  you  the 
rain,  the  former  rain  and  the  latter  rain  in  the  first  month," t 
that  is,  the  month  of  Abib,  wherein  the  passover  was 
observed.  This  was  the  law  of  Moses,  and  this  in  the  land 
of  Canaan  was  well  observed,  according  to  the  first  institu- 
tion :  but  since  their  dispersion,  and  habitation  in  countries, 
whose  constitutions  admit  not  such  tempestivity  of  harvests 
(and  many  not  before  the  latter  end  of  summer),  notwith- 
standing the  advantage  of  their  lunary  account,  and  inter- 
calary month  Veader,  afiixed  unto  the  beginning  of  the  year, 
there  will  be  found  a  great  disparity  in  their  observations, 
nor  can  they  strictly,  and  at  the  same  season  with  their 
forefathers,  observe  the  commands  of  God, 

To  add  yet  further,  those  geoponical  rules  and  precepts  of 
agricultiu-e,  which  are  delivered  by  divers  authors,  are  not  to 
be  generally  received,  but  respectively  understood  unto  climes 
whereto  they  are  determined.  For  whereas  one  adviseth  to 
sow  this  or  that  grain  at  one  season,  a  second  to  set  tliis  or 
that  at  another,  it  must  be  conceived  relatively,  and  every 
nation  must  have  its  country  farm ;  for  herein  we  may 
observe  a  manifest  and  visible  difference,  not  only  in  the 
seasons  of  harvest,  but  in  the  grains  themselves.  For  with 
us  barley-harvest  is  made  after  wheat-harvest,  but  with  the 
Israelites  and  Egyptians  it  was  otherwise.  So  is  it  expressed 
by  way  of  prioi-ity,  Euth  ii. ;  "  So  Euth  kept  fast  by  the 
maidens  of  Boaz,  to  glean  unto  the  end  of  barley-harvest  and 
of  wheat-harvest ;"  which  in  the  plague  of  hail  in  Egypt  is 
more  plainly  delivered,  Exod.  ix.  ;  "  And  the  flax  and  the 
barley  were  smitten,  for  the  barley  was  in  the  ear,  and  the 
flax  was  boiled ;  but  the  wheat  and  the  rye  were  not  smitten, 
for  they  were  not  grown  up." 

And  thus  we  see,  the  account  established  upon  the  arise 
or  descent  of  the  stars  can  be  no  reasonable  rule  unto  distant 
nations  at  all ;  and,  by  reason  of  their  retrogression,  but 
temporary  unto  any  one.    Nor  must  these  respective  expres- 

•  Deut.  xi.  |-  Joel  ii. 


sions  be  entertained  in  .ibsolute  consideration  ;  for  ao  dis- 
tinct is  the  relation,  and  so  artificial  the  habitude  of  this 
inferior  globe  unto  the  superior,  and  even  of  one  thing  in 
each  unto  the  other,  that  general  rules  are  dangerous,  and 
applications  most  safe  that  run  with  security  of  circumstance, 
which  rightly  to  effect,  is  beyond  th6  subtilty  of  sense,  and 
requires  the  artifice  of  reason.^ 


Of  some  computation  of  days,  and  deductions  of  one  part  of  the  year  unto 

Fourthly,  there  are  certain  vulgar  opinions  concerning 
days  of  the  year,  and  conclusions  popularly  deduced  from 
certain  days  of  the  month ;  men  commonly  believing  the 
days  increase  and  decrease  equally  in  the  whole  year  ;  which 
notwithstanding  is  very  repvignant  unto  truth.  For  they 
increase  in  the  mouth  of  March,  almost  as  much  as  in  the 
two  months  of  January  and  February :  and  decrease  as 
much  in  September,  as  they  do  in  July  and  August.  For 
the  days  increase  or  decrease  according  to  the  decUnation  of 
the  sun,  that  is,  its  deviation  northward  or  southward  from 
the  equator.  Now  this  digression  is  not  equal,  but  near  the 
equinoxial  intersections,  it  is  right  and  greater,  near  the 
solstices  more  oblique  and  lesser.  So  from  the  eleventh  of 
March  the  vernal  equinox,  unto  the  eleventh  of  April,  the 
sun  declineth  to  the  north  twelve  degrees  ;  from  the  eleventh 
of  AprU,  unto  the  eleventh  of  May,  but  eight ;  from  thence 
unto  the  fifteenth  of  June,  or  the  summer  solstice,  but  three 

°  reason.]  Hence  itt  may  appeare  that  those  rules  of  prognostic  and 
signification,  which  the  Egyptian,  Arabian,  Graecian,  yea,  and  Italian 
astronomers,  have  given  concerning  the  stari'S,  and  those  clymates 
wherein  they  lived,  cannot  bee  applied  to  our  remote  and  colder  clymes, 
nor  to  these  later  times  (wherein  the  constellations  of  all  the  twelve 
signes  are  moved  eastward  almost  30  degrees ;  Aries  into  Taurus  and 
that  into  Gemini,  &c.)  without  manifest  errors  and  grosse  deceptions, 
and  are  therefore  of  late  rejected  by  the  most  famous  astronomers, 
Tycho,  Copernicus,  Longomontanus,  and  Kepler  (as  diabolical  impos- 
tures).    De  Cometa  Anni  1618. —  Wr. 


and  a  half :  all  wldch  make  twenty-two  degrees  and  an  half, 
the  greatest  declination  of  the  sun. 

Aid  this  inequality  in  the  declination  of  the  sun  in  the 
zodiack  or  line  of  life,  is  correspondent  unto  the  growth  or 
declination  of  man.  For  setting  out  from  infancy,  we 
increase,  not  equally,  or  regvdarly  attain  to  our  state  or  per- 
fection ;  nor  when  we  descend  from  our  state,  is  our  decli- 
nation equal,  or  carrieth  us  with  even  paces  unto  the  grave. 
For  as  Hippocrates  affii'meth,  a  man  is  hottest  in  the  first 
day  of  his  life,  and  coldest  in  the  last ;  his  natural  heat 
setteth  forth  most  vigorously  at  first,  and  decUneth  most 
sensibly  at  last.  And  so  though  the  growth  of  man  end  not 
perhaps  untU  twenty-one,  yet  is  his  stature  more  advanced 
in  the  first  septenary  than  in  the  second,  and  iu  the  second 
more  than  in  the  third,  and  more  indeed  in  the  first  seven 
years,  than  in  the  fourteen  succeeding ;  for  what  stature  we 
attain  unto  at  seven  years,  we  do  sometimes  but  double, 
most  times  come  short  of  at  one  and  twenty.  And  so  do 
we  decline  again :  For  in  the  latter  age  upon  the  tropick 
and  first  descension  from  our  solstice,  we  are  scarce  sensible 
of  declination  :  but  declining  further,  our  decrement  accele- 
rates, we  set  apace,  and  in  our  last  days  precipitate  into  our 
graves.  And  thus  are  also  our  progressions  in  the  womb,  that 
is,  our  formation,  motion,  our  birth,  or  exclusion.  For  our 
formation  is  quickly  efiected,  our  motion  appeareth  later, 
and  our  exclusion  very  long  after :  if  that  be  true  which 
Hippocrates  and  Avicenna  have  declared,  that  the  time  of 
our  motion  is  double  unto  that  of  formation,  and  that  of 
exclusion  treble  unto  that  of  motion.  As  if  the  infant  be 
formed  at  thirty-five  days,  it  moveth  at  seventy,  and  is  born 
the  two  hundred  and  tenth  day,  that  is,  the  seventh  month ; 
or  if  it  receives  not  formation  before  forty-five  days,  it 
moveth  the  ninetieth  day,  and  is  excluded  in  the  two 
hundred  and  seventieth,  that  is,  the  ninth  month. 

There  are  also  certain  popular  proguosticks  drawn  from 
festivals  in  the  calendar,  and  conceived  opinions  of  certain 
days  in  months  ;  so  is  there  a  general  tradition  in  most  parts 
of  Europe,  that  inferreth  the  coldness  of  succeeding  ■udnter 
from  the  shining  of  the  sun  upon  Candlemas  day,  or  the 
purification  of  the  A'irgin  Mary,  according  to  the  proverbial 

OHA.P.  IV.]  OF   THE    COMPUTATION    OP   DATS.  129 

Si  Sol  splendescat  Marid  purificante, 

Major  erit  glacies  post  festum  quam  fuit  ante. 

So  is  it  usual  among  us  to  qualify  and  conditionate  the 
twelve  months  of  the  yeai',  answerable  unto  the  temper  of 
the  twelve  days  in  Christmas  ;  and  to,  ascribe  unto  March 
certain  borrowed  days  from  Aprd,  all  which  men  seem  to 
believe  upoii  annual  experience  of  their  ovm,  and  the 
received  traditions  of  their  forefathers. 

Now  it  is  manifest,  and  most  men  likewise  know,  that  the 
calendars  of  these  computers,  and  the  accounts  of  these  days 
are  very  different :  the  Greeks  dissenting  from  the  Latins, 
and  the  Latins  from  each  other :  the  one  observing  the 
Julian  or  ancient  account,  as  Great  Britain  and  part  of 
Germany ;  the  other  adhering  to  the  Gregorian  or  new 
account,  as  Italy,  France,  Spain,  and  the  LTnited  Provinces 
of  the  Netherlands.  Now  this  latter  account,  by  ten  days 
at  least,  anticipateth  the  other;  so  that  before  the  one 
beginneth  the  account,  the  other  is  past  it ;  yet  in  the 
several  calculations,  the  same  events  seem  true,  and  men 
with  equal  opinion  of  verity,  expect  and  confess  a  confirma- 
tion from  them  aU.  AVhereby  is  evident  the  oraculous 
authority  of  tradition,  and  the  easy  seduction  of  men,^ 
neither  enquiring  into  the  verity  of  the  substance,  nor 
reforming  upon  repugnance  of  circumstance. 

And  thus  may  divers  easily  be  mistaken  who  super- 
stitiously  observe  certain  times,  or  set  down  unto  themselves 
an  observation  of  unfortunate  months,  or  days,  or  hours. 
As  did  the  Egyptians,  two  in  every  month,  and  the  Romans 
the  days  after  the  nones,  ides,  and  calends.  And  thus  the 
rules  of  navigators  must  often  fail,  setting  down,  as  Rhodi- 
ginus  observeth,  suspected  and  ominous  days  in  every  month, 
as  the  lirst  and  seventh  of  March,  and  fifth  and  sixth  of 
April,  the  sixth,  the  twelfth,  and  fifteenth  of  February.  For 
the  accounts  hereof  in  these  months  are  very  different  in 
our  days,  and  were  different  with  several  nations  in  ages 
I  past,  and  how  strictly  soever  the  account  be  made,  and  even 
I  by  the  selfsame  calendar,  yet  it  is  possible  that  navigators 
I  may  be  out.    For  so  were  the  Hollanders,  who  passing  west- 

I      ^  men.']   By  the  jugling  Priests  in  the  old  mythologies  of  the  heathen 
j  deytyes,  trulye  taxte  by  the  poet  under  that  "  Quicquid  Grcecia  niemlax 
I  mandat  in  historiis. —  Wr. 
I        VOL.  II.  K 

130  THE    SITE    AKD   MOTION   OF   THE    SUN.       [bOOK  Tl. 

ward  througli  /return  le  Mayre,  and  compassing  the  globe, 
upon  their  return  into  their  own  country  found  that  they 
had  lost  a  day.  For  if  two  men  at  the  same  time  travel 
from  the  same  place,  the  one  eastward,  the  other  westward, 
round  about  the  earth,  and  meet  in  the  same  place  from 
whence  they  first  set  forth,  it  will  so  fall  out  that  he  which 
hath  moved  eastward  against  the  diurnal  motion  of  the  sun, 
by  anticipating  daily  something  of  its  circle  with  its  own 
motion,  will  gain  one  day  ;  but  he  that  travelleth  westward,^ 
with  the  motion  of  the  sun,  by  seconding  its  revolution,  shaU 
lose  or  come  short  a  day ;  and  therefore  also  upon  these 
grounds  that  Delos  was  seated  in  the  middle  of  the  earth,  it 
was  no  exact  decision,  because  two  eagles  let  fly  east  and 
west  by  Jupiter,  their  meeting  fell  out  just  in  the  island 


A  digression  of  the  Wisdom  of  God  in  the  Site  and  Motion  of  the  Sv/n. 

Hating  thus  beheld  the  ignorance  of  man  in  some  things, 
his  error  and  blindness  in  others,  that  is,  in  the  measure  of 
duration  both  of  years  and  seasons,  let  us  awhile  admire  the 
wisdom  of  God  in  this  distiuguisher  of  times,  and  visible 
deity  (as  some  have  termed  it)  the  sun,  which,  though  some 
from  its  glory  adore,  and  all  for  its  benefits  admire,  we  shall 
advance  from  other  considerations,  and  such  as  dlustrate  the 
artifice  of  its  Maker.  IS^or  do  we  tliink  we  can  excuse  the 
duty  of  our  knowledge,  if  we  only  bestow  the  flourish  of 
poetry  hereon,  or  those  commendatory  conceits  which 
popularly  set  forth  the  eminency  of  this  creature,  except  we 

'  westward.]  Captain  Bodman,  an  auncient  and  discreete  gentleraaa, 
and  learned,  for  his  many  services  to  the  State,  being  admitted  a  poore 
Knight  at  Windsor,  was  wout  to  tell  mee,  that  at  their  returne  from 
surrounding  the  world  with  Sir  Francis  Drake  in  the  yeare  1579,  they 
found  that  they  lost  a  daye  in  their  accomptes  of  their  daylye  saylinge, 
which  agrees  with  this  excellent  observation  of  Dr.  Browne  ;  for  their 
voyage  was  from  England  to  the  Streits  of  Magellan,  and  soe  round  by 
the  Moluccas  and  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  back  to  England,  which  was 
totalye  with  the  sonne,  and  therefore  what  they  observed  with  admira- 
tion, concerning  the  losse  of  a  day  in  their  accompt,  had  a  manifest 
reason  and  cause  to  justifie  the  trueth  of  that  observation,  and  that  itt 
could  not  possiblye  bee  otherwise. —  Wr. 

CHAP,  v.]  THE    SITE    AKU    MOTIOK    OE    THE    SUN.  131 

ascend  unto  subtiler  considerations,  and  such,  as  rightly 
understood,  convincingly  declare  the  wisdom  of  the  Creator. 
Which  since  a  Spanish  physician*  hath  begun,  we  will 
enlarge  with  our  deductions,  and  this  we  shall  endeavour 
from  two  considerations,  its  proper  situation  and  wisely 
ordered  motion. 

And  first,  we  cannot  pass  over  his  providence,  in  that  it 
moveth  at  all,  for  had  it  stood  still,  and  were  it  fixed  like 
the  earth,  there  had  been  then  no  distinction  of  times,  either 
of  day  or  year,  of  spring,  of  autumn,  of  summer,  or  of  winter ; 
for  these  seasons  are  defined  by  the  motions  of  the  sun : 
when  that  approacheth  nearest  our  zenith,  or  vertical  point, 
we  call  it  summer ;  when  furthest  oif,  winter  ;  when  in  the 
middle  spaces,  spring  or  autumn  ;  whereas,  remaining  in  one 
place,  these  distinctions  had  ceased,  and  consequently  the 
generation  of  all  things,  depending  on  their  vicissitudes ; 
making  in  one  hemisphere  a  perpetual  summer,  in  the  other 
a  deplorable  and  comfortless  winter.^  And  thus  had  it  also 
*   Valerius  de  Philos.  Sacr. 

^  winter.]  All  this  must  of  necessity  evidentlye  follow,  unlesse  (ac- 
cording to  the  supposition  of  Copernicus,  for  I  suppose  it  was  but  a 
postulate  of  art,  noe  parte  of  his  creed)  that  the  son  is  fixed  in  the 
midst  or  center  of  this  universal  frame  of  the  world,  altogether  immoov- 
able,  and  that  the  earth,  with  all  the  rest  of  the  elements,  is  annually 
caryed  round  about  the  sonne  in  the  sphere  between  Mars  and  Venus, 
parting  that  lovinge  couple  of  godlings  by  its  boysterous  intrusion,  but 
the  mischeef  is  that  besides  this  annual  motion  of  the  earth,  mounted 
like  Phsethon  in  the  chariot  and  throne  of  the  sonne,  the  Copernicans 
are  forced,  contrary  to  their  own  principles,  that  tmitts  corporis  ccelestis 
(for  soe  you  must  nowe  accompte  itt,  though  a  dul  and  opacous  planet, 
unius  est  motus  simplex),  to  ascribe  two  other  motions  to  the  earth  ;  the 
one  a  vertiginous  rotation,  whirling  about  his  own  center,  wherby 
turning  toward  the  son  caixseth  daye,  and  turning  from  the  son,  night ; 
both  of  them  every  twenty-four  hours  ;  the  other  a  tottering  motion  of 
inclination  to  the  son  the  sommer  halfe  yeare,  and  of  reclination  from 
the  son  in  the  halfe  halfe,  from  whence  must  of  necessity  follow  two 
vast  and  unconcedable  postulates.  First,  that  as  the  son,  in  his  old 
sphere,  is  supposed  in  respect  of  his  distance  from  the  center  to  moove 
noe  lesse  than  18,000  miles  every  minute  of  an  hour,  yf  the  earth  bee  in 
the  sons  place,  they  must  perforce  acknowledge  the  same  pernicitye  in 
the  earth,  and  yet  not  perceptible  to  our  sense,  nor  to  the  wisest  of 
the  world,  since  the  creation  till  our  times.  But  to  salve  this,  as  they 
thinke,  they  suppose  and  postulate  the  second  motion  of  rotation  or 
whirling  on  his  owne  center,  which  others  conceive  to  bee  diametrally 
opposite  to  Scripture  :  but  then  there  recoyles  upon  them  this  strange 


132  THE    SITE   AITD    MOTION   OF   'iHE    SUN.        [bOOK  Vl. 

been  continual  day  unto  some,  and  perpetual  night  unto 
others,  for  the  day  is  defined  by  the  abode  of  the  sun  above 
the  horizon,  and  the  night  by  its  continuance  below ;  so 
should  we  have  needed  another  sun,  one  to  illustrate  our 
hemisphere,  a  second  to  enlighten  the  other,  which  incon- 
venience will  ensue  in  what  site  soever  we  place  it,  whether 
in  the  poles  or  the  equator,  or  between  them  both ;  no 
spherical  body,  of  what  bigness  soever,  illuminating  the  whole 
sphere  of  another,  although  it  illuminate  something  more  than 
half  of  a  lesser,  according  unto  the  doctrine  of  the  opticks. 

His  wisdom  is  again  discernible,  not  only  in  that  it  moveth 
at  all,  and  in  its  bare  motion,  but  wonderful  in  contriving  the 
line  of  its  revolution  which  is  so  prudently  effected,  that  by 
a  vicissitude  in  one  body  and  light  it  sufiiceth  the  whole  earth, 
affording  thereby  a  possible  or  pleasurable  habitation  in  every 
part  thereof,  and  that  is  the  line  ecliptick,  all  which  to  effect 
by  any  other  circle  it  had  been  impossible.  For  first,  if  we 
imagine  the  sun  to  make  its  course  out  of  the  ecliptick,  and 
upon  a  line  without  any  obliquity,  let  it  be  conceived  within 
that  circle  that  is  either  on  the  equator,  or  else  on  either  side  ; 
for  if  we  should  place  it  either  in  the  meridian  or  colures, 
beside  the  subversion  of  its  course  from  east  to  west,  there 
would  ensue  the  like  incommodities.  Now  if  we  conceive 
the  sun  to  move  between  the  obliquity  of  this  ecliptick  in  a 
line  upon  one  side  of  the  equator,  then  would  the  sun  be 
visible  but  unto  one  pole,  that  is  the  same  which  was  nearest 
unto  it.  So  that  unto  the  one  it  would  be  perpetual  day, 
unto  the  other  perpetual  night ;  the  one  would  be  oppressed 
with  constant  heat,  the  other  with  insufferable  cold,  and  so 
the  defect  of  alternation  woidd  utterly  impugn  the  genera- 
tion of  all  things,  which  naturally  require  a  vicissitude  of 
heat  to  their  production,  and  no  less  to  their  increase  and 

But  if  we  conceive  it  to  move  in  the  equator,  first  unto  a 
parallel  sphere,  or  such  as  have  the  pole  for  their  zenith,  it 
would  have  made  neither  perfect  day  nor  night.  Por  being 
in  the  equator  it  would  intersect  their  horizon,  and  be  half 
above  and  half  beneath  it,  or  rather  it  would  have  made 
consequence  that  the  earthe  being  21,600  miles  in  compass,  and  whirl- 
ing rounde  every  twenty-four  howres,  caryes  every  towne  and  howsa 
895  miles  every  hourc,  and  yet  not  discernablye. —  Wr. 

CU.VP.  v.]  THE    SITE    AND    MOTION    OF    THE    SUN.  133 

perpetual  night  to  both  ;  for  though  in  regard  of  the  rational 
horizon,  which  bisecteth  the  globe  into  equal  parts,  the  siui 
in  the  equator  would  intersect  the  horizon ;  yet  in  respect 
of  the  sensible  horizon,  which  is  defined  by  the  eye,  the  sun 
would  be  visible  unto  neither.  For  -if,  as  ocular  witnesses 
report,  and  some  also  write,  by  reason  of  the  convexity  of 
the  earth,  the  eye  of  man  under  the  equator  cannot  discover 
both  the  poles,  neither  would  the  eye  under  the  poles  dis- 
cover the  sun  in  the  equator.  Thus  would  there  nothing 
fructify  either  near  or  under  them,  the  sun  being  horizontal 
to  the  poles,  and  of  no  considerable  altitude  unto  parts  a 
reasonable  distance  from  them.  Again,  unto  a  right  sphere, 
or  such  as  dwell  under  the  equator,  although  it  made  a 
difference  in  day  and  night,  yet  would  it  not  make  any  dis- 
tinction of  seasons  ;  for  unto  them  it  would  be  constant 
summer,  it  being  always  vertical,  and  never  deflecting  from 
them.  So  had  there  been  no  fructification  at  all,  and  the 
countries  subjected  would  be  as  unhabitable,  as  indeed 
antiquity  conceived  them. 

Lastly,  it  moving  thus  upon  the  equator, unto  what  position 
soever,  although  it  had  made  a  day,  yet  could  it  have  made 
no  year,  for  it  covdd  not  have  had  those  two  motions  ^  now 

'  Uvo  motions.']  The  motion  from  east  to  west  is  cald  the  motion  of 
the  world,  bycause  by  itt  all  the  whole  frame  of  the  universe  is  caryeJ 
round  eveiy  24  howres,  and  among  the  rest  of  the  celestial  lights  the 
sun  alsoe,  to  whom  this  motion  does  not  belong  but  passively  onlye,  and 
therefore  heere  was  noe  feare  of  ci-ossing  that  undoubted  principle  which 
unavoydably  recoyls  upon  the  Copernicans,  who  to  make  good  their  hypo- 
thesis, fancye  a  rotation  of  dinetical,  that  is,  a  whirlinge  rapture  of  the 
earthe  about  his  owne  axe  every  24  houres,  that  is,  900  miles  every  howre, 
which  is  more  impossible  then  for  the  heaven  which  wee  call  the  primum 
mobile  to  turne  about  400,000  miles  eveiy  houre  ;  unless  they  thinke 
that  he  who  made  itt  soe  infinitelye  vast  in  compasse  and  in  distance 
from  us,  could  not  make  itt  as  swift  in  motion  alsoe,  as  he  makes  his 
angels,  or  has  he  made  his  owne  bodye  in  his  ascention,  or  as  he  makes 
the  lightning  or  the  light  itself. 

The  compass  of  the  earth,  which  is  21,600  miles,  divided  by  24  leaves 
in  the  quotient  937if  i-  6.  4  of  miles,  and  soe  many  the  Copernicans 
thinke  the  earth  turnes  every  howre  ;  that  is  above  15  miles  every 
minute  of  an  houre,  and  about  ^  of  a  mile  every  second,  i.  e.  swifter 
then  the  natural  motion  of  the  heart.  Proculdubio  loca  terrae  sub  polls 
sita,  nequeunt  ab  ajquatoris  subjectis  cerni  :  cum  horison  terrestris  nus- 
quam  in  ipso  oceano  tranquillo  60  miliarium  visu  tenninetur  :  at  poloa 
cceli  posse  ab  iisdem  terrre  incolis  simul  conspici,  manifestum  ex  rare- 
factione  qua  sydera  attollit  ultra  distantiam  horizoutis  rationalis. —  Wr. 

134  THE    SITE    AKD    MOTION    OF    THE    SUN.  [boOK  VI. 

ascribed  unto  it,  that  is,  from  east  to  west,  whereby  it  makes 
the  day,  and  likewise  from  west  to  east,  whereby  the  year  is 
computed.  For  according  to  received  astronomy,  the  poles 
of  the  equator  are  the  same  with  those  of  the  primum  mobile. 
Now  it  is  impossible  that  on  the  same  circle,^  having  the 
same  poles,  both  these  motions,  from  opposite  terms,  should 
be  at  the  same  time  performed,  all  which  is  salved,  if  we  allow 
an  obliquity  in  his  annual  motion,  and  conceive  him  to  move 
upon  the  poles  of  the  zodiack,  distant  from  those  of  the  world 
twenty-three  degrees  and  an  half.  Thus  may  we  discern  the 
necessity  of  its  obliquity,  and  how  inconvenient  its  motion 
had  been  upon  a  circle  parallel  to  the  equator,  or  upon  the 
equator  itself. 

Now  with  what  providence  this  obliquity  is  determined, 
we  shall  perceive  upon  the  ensuing  inconveniences  from  any 
deviation.  For  first,  if  its  obliquity  had  been  less  (as  instead 
of  twenty-three  degrees,  twelve  or  the  half  thereof)  the  vicis- 
situde of  seasons  appointed  for  the  generation  of  all  things 
would  surely  have  been  too  short  ;  for  different  seasons 
would  have  huddled  upon  each  other,  and  unto  some  it  had 
not  been  much  better  than  if  it  had  moved  on  the  equator. 
But  had  the  obliquity  been  greater  than  now  it  is,  as  double, 
or  of  40  degrees,  several  parts  of  the  earth  had  not  been  able 
to  endure  the  disproportionable  differences  of  seasons,  occa- 
sioned by  the  great  recess,  and  distance  of  the  sun.  Por  unto 
some  habitations  the  summer  would  have  been  extreme  hot, 
and  the  winter  extreme  cold  ;  likewise  the  summer  temperate 
unto  some,  but  excessive  and  in  extremity  imto  others,  as 
unto  those  who  should  dwell  under  the  tropick  of  Cancer,  as 
then  would  do  some  part  of  Spain,  or  ten  degrees  beyond, 
as  Germany,  and  some  part  of  England,  who  would  have 
summers,  as  now  the  Moors  of  Africa.  For  the  sun  would 
sometime  be  vertical  unto  them  ;  but  they  would  have  winters 
like  those  beyond  the  arctic  circle,  for  in  that  season  the  sun 
would  be  removed  above  80  degrees  from  them.  Again,  it 
would  be  temperate  to  some  habitations  in  the  summer,  but 
very  extreme  in  the  winter ;  temperate  to  those  in  two  or 
three  degrees  beyond  the  arctic  circle,  as  now  it  is  unto  us, 
for  they  would  be  equidistant  from  that  tropic,  even  as  we 

*  circle.l    Globe. —  Wr. 

CHAP,  v.]        THE    SITE   AND   MOTION    OF   THE    STTN,  135 

are  from  this  at  present.  But  the  winter  would  be  extreme, 
the  sun  being  removed  above  an  hundred  degrees,  and  so 
consequently  would  not  be  visible  in  their  horizon,  no  posi- 
tion of  sphere  discovering  any  star  distant  above  90  degrees, 
which  is  the  distance  of  every  zenith  from  the  horizon. 
And  thus,  if  the  obliquity  of  this  circle  had  been  less,  the 
vicissitude  of  seasons  had  been  so  small  as  not  to  be  distin- 
guished ;  if  greater,  so  large  and  disproportionable  as  not  to 
be  endured. 

Now  for  its  situation,  although  it  held  this  ecliptic  line,  yet 
bad  it  been  seated  in  any  other  orb,*  inconveniences  would 
ensue  of  condition  unlike  the  former ;  for  had  it  been  placed 
in  the  lowest  sphere  of  the  moon,  the  year  would  have  con- 
sisted but  of  one  month,  for  in  that  space  of  time  it  would 
have  passed  through  every  part  of  the  ecliptic ;  so  would 
there  have  been  no  reasonable  distinction  of  seasons  required 
for  the  generation  and  fructifying  of  aU  things,  contrary 
seasons  which  destroy  the  effects  of  one  another  so  suddenly 
succeeding.  Besides,  by  this  vicinity  unto  the  earth,  its 
heat  had  been  intolerable ;  for  if,  as  many  affirm,^  there  is  a 
different  sense  of  heat  from  the  different  points  of  its  proper 
orb,  and  that  in  the  apogeum,  or  highest  point,  which  hap- 
peneth  in  Cancer,  it  is  not  so  hot  under  that  tropic,  on  this 
side  the  equator,  as  unto  the  other  side  in  the  perigeum  or 
lowest  part  of  the  eccentric,  which  happeneth  in  Capri- 
comus,  surely,  being  placed  in  an  orb  far  lower,  its  heat 
would  be  unsufferable,  nor  needed  we  a  fable  to  set  the 
world  on  fire. 

But  had  it  been  placed  in  the  highest  orb,  or  that  of  the 
eighth  sphere,  there  had  been  none  but  Plato's  year,  and  a 
far  less  distinction  of  seasons  ;  for  one  year  had  then  been 
many,  and  according  unto  the  slow  revolution  of  that  orb 
which  absolveth  not  his  course  in  many  thousand  years,  no 
man  had  lived  to  attain  the  account  thereof.  These  are  the 
inconveniences  ensuing  upon  its  situation  in  the  extreme 
orbs ;  and  had  it  been  placed  in  the  middle  orbs  of  the 
planets,  there  would  have  ensued  absurdities  of  a  middle 
nature  unto  them. 

*  orb.]    Orbit. 

*  as  many  affirm.]  Especially  Scaliger,  in  that  admirable  work  of  his 
•xercitations  upon  Cardan  de  Subtilitate.  Exercit.  99,  §  2,  p.  342. —  Wr, 

136        THE  EAHTH  BEFORE  THE  ElOOD.     [bOOK  VI. 

Now  whether  we  adhere  unto  the  hypothesis  of  Coper- 
nicus/ affirming  the  earth  to  move  and  the  sun  to  stand 
still ;  or  whether  we  hold,  as  some  of  late  have  concluded, 
from  the  spots  in  the  sun,  which  appear  and  disappear  again, 
that  besides  the  revolution  it  maketh  with  its  orbs,  it  hath 
also  a  dinetical  ^  motion,  and  rolls  upon  its  own  poles  ; 
whether  I  say  we  affirm  these  or  no,  tlie  illations  before 
mentioned  are  not  thereby  infringed.  "We  therefore  con- 
clude this  contemplation,  and  are  not  afraid  to  believe  it 
may  be  literally  said  of  the  wisdom  of  God,  what  men  will 
have  but  figuratively  spoken  of  the  works  of  Christ,  that  if 
the  wonders  thereof  were  duly  described,  the  whole  world, 
that  is,  all  within  the  last  circumference,  would  not  contain 
them.  For  as  his  wisdom  is  infinite,  so  cannot  the  due 
expressions  thereof  be  finite,  and  if  the  world  comprise  him 
not,  neither  can  it  comprehend  the  story  of  him. 


Concerning  the  vulgar  opinion,  that  the  Earth  was  slenderly  peopled 
before  the  Flood. 

Beside  the  slender  consideration,  men  of  latter  times  do 
hold  of  the  first  ages,  it  is  commonly  opinioned,  and  at  first 
thought  generally  imagined,  that  the  earth  was  thinly  inha- 
bited, at  least  not  remotely  planted,  before  the  flood,  whereof 
there  being  two  opinions,  which  seem  to  be  of  some  ex- 
tremity, the  one  too  largely  extending,  the  other  too  narrowly 

'  Cope7'nicus.]  Copernicus,  to  make  good  his  hypothesis,  is  forced 
to  ascribe  a  triple  motion  to  the  earthe  :  the  first  annuall,  round  about 
the  Sonne,  which  hee  places  in  the  midst  of  the  universe,  and  the  earthe 
to  bee  caryed,  as  the  sonne  was  ever  supposed  to  be,  in  a  middle  orbe 
between  Venus  and  Mars  ;  the  second  not  a  motion  of  declination  from 
the  sequator  to  bothe  the  tropicks  onlye,  causinge  the  different  seasons 
of  the  yeare,  but  moi'e  properlye  a  motion  of  inclination  likewise  to  the 
Sonne,  which  supposes  also  the  poles  of  the  earth  to  bee  mooved,  and 
the  third  motion  is  that  called  dineticall,  or  rotation  upon  his  owne 
axis,  causing  day  and  night. —  Wr. 

*  dinetical.]  Signifies  whirlinge,  from  Sivrj,  which  in  the  Greeke  is 
a  whirlpole,  soe  that  the  dineticall  motion  of  the  son  is  such,  in  their 
opinion,  as  that  of  the  material!  globes,  which  wee  make  to  tume  upoD 
their  axis  in  a  frame. —  Wr. 

CHAP.  VI.]     THE  EAETH  BEFOBE  THE  FLOOD.        137 

contracting  the  populosity  of  those  times,  we  shall  not  pass 
over  this  point  without  some  enquiry  into  it.^ 

Now  for  the  true  enquiry  thereof,  the  means  are  as  ob- 
scure as  the  matter,  which  being  naturally  to  be  explored  by 
history,  human  or  divine,  receiveth  thereby  no  small  addition 
of  obscurity.  For  as  for  human  relations,  they  are  so  fabu- 
lous in  Deucalion's  flood,  that  they  are  of  little  credit  about 
Ogyges'  and  Noah's.  Eor  the  heathens,  as  Varro  accounteth, 
make  three  distinctions  of  time.  The  first  from  the  begin- 
ning of  the  world  unto  the  general  deluge  of  Ogyges,  they 
term  Adelon}  that  is,  a  time  not  much  unlike  that  which 
was  before  time,  immanifest  and  unknown  ;  because  thereof 
there  is  almost  nothing  or  very  obscurely  delivered  ;  for 
though  divers  authors  have  made  some  mention  of  the  deluge, 
as  Mane th  on  the  Egyptian  priest,  Xenophon,  De  JEquivocis, 
Fabius  Pictor,  De  Aureo  seculo,  Mar.  Cato,  De  Originibus, 
and  Archilochus  the  Greek,  who  iutroduceth  also  the  testi- 
mony of  Moses,  in  his  fragment  De  Temporihus ;  yet  have 
they  delivered  no  account  of  what  preceded  or  went  before. 
Josephus,  I  confess,  in  his  discourse  against  Appion,  induceth 
the  antiquity  of  the  Jews  unto  the  flood,  and  before,  from  the 
testimony  of  human  writers,  insisting  especially  upon  Maseus 
of  Damascus,  Jeronymus  JEgyptius,  and  Berosus ;  and  con- 
firming the  long  dvu'ation  of  their  lives,  not  only  from  these, 
but  the  authority  of  Hesiod,  Erathius,  Hellanicus,  and  Age- 

®  whereof,  <fcc.]  Instead  of  this  passage,  the  first  five  editions  have 
the  following  : — "  So  that  some  conceiving  it  needless  to  be  universal, 
have  made  the  deluge  particular,  and  about  those  parts  where  Noah 
built  his  ark  ;  which  opinion,  because  it  is  not  only  injurious  to  the 
text,  human  history,  and  common  reason,  but  also  derogatory  to  the 
great  work  of  God,  the  universal  inundation,  it  -will  be  needful  to  make 
some  further  inquisition  ;  and  although  predetermined  by  opinion, 
whether  many  might  not  suffer  in  the  first  flood,  as  they  shall  in  the 
last  flame,  that  is  who  knew  not  Adam  nor  his  offence,  and  many  perish 
in  the  deluge,  who  never  heard  of  Noah  or  the  ark  of  his  preservation." 

'  Adelon.']  To  the  heathen  who  either  knew  nothing  of  the  creation, 
or  at  least  beleeved  itt  not,  the  first  distinction  of  time  must  needs  bee 
dcr]\oi>,  that  is  utterly  unknowne,  for  the  space  of  1656  from  the  crea- 
tion to  the  flood,  and  the  second,  the  mythicon,  little  better,  as  the  very 
name  they  give  itt  (yt  is  fabulous),  importea,  whereas  in  the  church  of 
God,  the  third  (which  they  call  historicall,  and  began  not  till  after  the 
3C  JOth  yeare  of  the  world's  creation  with  them)  was  continued  in  a 
perfect  nairation  and  unquestionable  historye  from  the  beginning  of  time 
through  those  3000  yeares. —  Wr. 

138  THE    EAETH    BEFORE    THE    FLOOD.  [bOOK  TI. 

silaus.  Berosus,  the  Chaldean  priest,  writes  most  plainly, 
mentioning  the  city  of  Enos,  the  name  of  Noah  and  his  sons, 
the  building  of  the  ark,  and  also  the  place  of  its  landing. 
And  Diodorus  Siculus  hath  in  his  third  book  a  passage, 
which  examined,  advanceth  as  high  as  Adam  ;  for  the  Chal- 
deans, saith  he,  derive  the  original  of  their  astronomy  and 
letters  forty-three  thousand  years  before  the  monarchy  of 
Alexander  the  Creat ;  now  the  years  whereby  they  computed 
the  antiquity  of  their  letters,  being,  as  Xenophon  interprets, 
to  be  accounted  lunary,  the  compute  will  arise  unto  the  time 
of  Adam.  For  forty-three  thousand  lunary  years  make  about 
three  thousand  six  hundred  thirty-four  years,  which  answer- 
eth  the  chronology  of  time  from  the  beginning  of  the  world 
unto  the  reign  of  Alexander,  as  Annius  of  Yiterbo  com- 
puteth,  in  his  comment  upon  Berosus. 

The  second  space  or  interval  of  time  is  accounted  from  the 
flood  unto  the  first  Olympiad,  that  is,  the  year  of  the  world 
3174,  which  extendetli  unto  the  days  of  Isaiah  the  prophet, 
and  some  twenty  years  before  the  foundation  of  Eome.  This 
they  term  mythicon  or  fabulous,  because  the  account  thereof, 
especially  of  the  first  part,  is  fiibulously  or  imperfectly  deli- 
vered, ilereof  some  things  have  been  briefly  related  by  the 
authors  above  mentioned,  more  particularly  by  Dares  Phry- 
gius,  Dictys  Cretensis,  Herodotus,  Diodorus  Siculus,  and 
Trogus  Pompeius.  The  most  famous  Greek  poets  lived  also 
in  this  interval,  as  Orpheus,  Linus,  Museus,  Homer,  Hesiod ; 
and  herein  are  comprehended  the  grounds  and  first  invention 
of  poetical  fables,  which  were  also  taken  up  by  historical 
winters,  perturbing  the  Chaldean  and  Egyptian  records  with 
fabulous  additions,  and  confounding  their  names  and  stories 
with  their  own  inventions. 

The  third  time  succeeding  until  their  present  ages,  they 
term  historicon,  that  is,  such  wherein  matters  have  been 
more  truly  historified,  and  may  therefore  be  believed.  Of 
these  times  also  have  written  Herodotus,-  Thucydides,  Xeno- 

*  Herodotus.']  Yet  the  first  parte  of  his  historye  begins  not  till 
the  times  of  Apries,  that  is,  Hophreas,  whose  reign  began  not  till  the 
eeige  of  Jerusalem  by  Nabuchodonosor,  475  yeares  after  Saul,  the  first 
king  of  Israel,  and  at  least  1224  yeares  after  the  flood,  of  all  which  time 
(which  to  them  was  most  obscure  and  fabulous)  the  sacred  storye  is  soe 
plaine  that  thence  Eusebius  tooke  his  argument  to  convince  the  heathen 

CHAP.  VI.]     THE  EARTH  BEFOKE  THE  FLOOB.       139 

phon,  Diodorus,  and  both  of  these  and  the  other  preceding 
such  as  have  delivered  universal  histories  or  chronologies  ; 
as  (to  omit  Pliilo,  whose  naiTations  concern  the  Hebrews) 
Eusebius,  Julius  Africanus,Orosius,  Ado  of  Vienna,  Marianus 
Scotus,  Historia  tripartita,  Urspergensis,  Carion,  Pineda, 
Salian,  and  with  us  Sir  Walter  Ealeigh, 

Now  from  the  first  hereof,  that  most  concemeth  us,  we 
have  little  or  no  assistance,  the  fragments  and  broken  records 
hereof  inforcing  not  at  all  our  purpose.  And  although  some 
things  not  usually  observed  may  be  from  thence  collected, 
yet  do  they  not  advantage  our  discourse,  nor  any  way  make 
evident  the  point  in  hand.  Por  the  second,  though  it  directly 
concerns  us  not,  yet  in  regard  of  our  last  medium  and  some 
illustrations  therein,  we  shall  be  constrained  to  make  some 
use  thereof  As  for  the  last,  it  concerns  us  not  at  all ;  for 
treating  of  times  far  below  us,  it  can  no  way  advantage  us. 
And  though  divers  in  this  last  age  hare  also  wTitten  of  the 
first,  as  all  that  have  delivered  the  general  accounts  of  time, 
yet  are  their  tractates  little  auxiliary  unto  ours,  nor  afford 
us  any  light  to  detenebrate  and  clear  this  truth. 

As  for  Holy  Scripture  and  divine  relation,  there  may  also 
seem  therein  but  slender  information,  there  being  only  left 
a  brief  narration  hereof  by  Moses,  and  such  as  affords  no 
positive  determination.  Por  the  text  delivereth  but  two 
genealogies,  that  is,  of  Cain  and  Seth  ;  in  the  line  of  Seth 
there  are  only  ten  descents,  in  that  of  Cain  but  seven,  and 
those  in  a  right  line  with  mention  of  father  and  son,  except- 
ing that  of  Lamech,  where  is  also  mention  of  wives,  sons,  and 
a  daughter.  Notwithstanding,  if  we  seriously  consider  what 
is  delivered  therein,  and  what  is  also  deducible,  it  will  be 
probably  declared  what  is  by  us  intended,  that  is,  the  popu- 
lous and  ample  habitation  of  the  earth  before  the  ffood. 
Which  we  shall  labour  to  induce  not  from  postulates  and 
entreated  maxims,  but  undeniable  principles  declared  in  Holy 
Scripture,  that  is,  the  length  of  men's  lives  before  the  ffood, 
and  the  large  extent  of  time  from  creation  thereoito. 

We  shall  only  first  crave  notice,  that  although  in  the  rela- 
tion of  Moses  there  be  very  few  persons  mentioned,  yet  are 
there  many  more  to  be  presumed ;  nor  when  the  Scripture 

of  their  novel  idolatryes,  the  most  whereof  sprang  upp  in  the  end  of 
these  fabulous  times.- ~lFr. 

140        THE  EAETH  BEFORE  THE  ELO  )D.     .'bOOK  VI. 

in  the  line  of  Seth  nominates  but  ten  persons,  are  they  to  be 
conceived  all  that  were  of  this  generation.  The  Scripture 
singly  delivering  the  holy  line,  wherein  the  world  was  to  be 
preserved,  first  in  Noah,  and  afterward  in  our  Saviour.  For 
in  this  line  it  is  manifest  there  were  many  more  born  than 
are  named,  for  it  is  said  of  them  all,  that  they  begat  sons 
and  daughters.  And  whereas  it  is  very  late  before  it  is  said 
they  begat  those  persons  which  are  named  in  the  Scripture, 
the  soonest  at  65,  it  must  not  be  understood  that  they  had 
none  before,  but  not  any  in  whom  it  pleased  God  the  holy 
line  should  be  continued.  And  although  the  expression  that 
they  begat  sons  and  daughters,  be  not  determined  to  ,be 
before  or  after  the  mention  of  those,  yet  must  it  be  before 
in  some  ;  for  before  it  is  said  that  Adam  begat  Seth  at  the 
130th  year,  it  is  plainly  affirmed  that  Cain  knew  his  wife, 
and  had  a  son,  which  must  be  one  of  the  daughters  of  Adam, 
one  of  those  whereof  it  is  after  said,  he  begat  sons  and 
daughters.  And  so,  for  ought  can  be  disproved,  there  might 
be  more  persons  upon  earth  than  are  commonly  supposed 
when  Cain  slew  Abel,  nor  the  fact  so  heinously  to  be  aggra- 
vated in  the  circumstance  of  the  fourth  person  living.  And 
whereas  it  is  said,  upon  the  nativity  of  Seth,  Grod  hath  ap- 
pointed me  another  seed  instead  of  Abel,  it  doth  not  imply 
he  had  no  other  all  this  while  ;  but  not  any  of  that  expecta- 
tion, or  appointed  (as  his  name  implies)  to  make  a  progres- 
sion in  the  holy  line,  in  whom  the  world  was  to  be  saved, 
and  from  whom  he  should  be  born,  that  was  mystically  slain 
in  Abel. 

Now  our  first  ground  to  induce  the  numerosity  of  people 
before  the  flood,  is  the  long  duration  of  their  lives,  beyond 
seven,  eight,  and  nine  hundred  years.  "Which  how  it  con- 
duceth  unto  populosity,  we  shall  make  but  little  doubt,  if 
we  consider  there  are  two  main  causes  of  numerosity  in  any 
kind  or  species,  that  is,  a  frequent  and  multiparous  way  of 
breeding,  whereby  they  fill  the  world  with  others,  though 
they  exist  not  long  themselves  ;  or  a  long  duration  and  sub- 
sistence, whereby  they  do  not  only  replenish  the  world  with 
a  new  annumeration  of  others,  but  also  maintain  the  former 
account  in  themselves.  From  the  first  cause  we  may  observe 
examples  in  creatures  oviparous,  as  birds  and  fishes  ;  in  ver- 
miparous,  as  flies,  locusts,  and  gnats ;  in  animals  also  vivi- 

CHAP.  TT.]      THE  EAETH  BEFOKE  THE  FLOOD.       141 

parous,  as  swine  and  conies.  Of  the  first  there  is  a  great 
example  in  the  herd  of  swine  in  Galilee,  although  an  unclean 
beast  and  forbidden  unto  the  Jews.  Of  the  other  a  remark- 
able one  in  Athenaeus,  in  the  Isle  Astipalea,  one  of  the 
Cyclades,  now  called  Stampalia,  wherein  from  two  that  were 
imported,  the  number  so  increased,  that  the  inhabitants  were 
constrained  to  have  recourse  unto  the  oracle  of  Delphos,  for 
an  invention  how  to  destroy  them. 

Others  there  are  which  make  good  the  paucity  of  their 
breed  with  the  length  and  duration  of  their  days,  whereof 
there  want  not  examples  in  animals  uniparous.  First,  in 
bisulcous  or  cloven-hoofed,  as  camels  and  beeves,  whereof 
there  is  above  a  million  annually  slain  in  England.  It  is  also 
said  of  Job,  that  he  had  a  thousand  yoke  of  oxen,  and  six 
thousand  camels  ;  and  of  the  children  of  Israel  passing  into 
the  land  of  Canaan,  that  they  took  from  the  Midianites 
threescore  and  ten  thousand  beeves ;  and  of  the  army  of 
Semiramis,  that  there  were  therein  one  hundred  thousand 
camels.  Tor  solipeds  or  firm-hoofed  animals,  as  horses, 
asses,  mules,  &c.,  they  are  also  in  mighty  numbers ;  so  it 
is  delivered  that  Job  had  a  thousand  she  asses  ;  that  the 
Midianites  lost  sixty-one  thousand  asses.  For  horses,  it  is 
affirmed  by  Diodorus,  that  Ninus  brought  against  the  Bac- 
trians  two  hundred  eighty  thousand  horses  ;  after  him  Semi- 
ramis five  hundred  thousand  horses,  and  chariots  one  hun- 
dred thousand.  Even  in  creatures  sterile,  and  such  as  do 
not  generate,  the  length  of  life  conduceth  much  unto  the 
multiplicity  of  the  species  ;  for  the  number  of  mules  which 
live  far  longer  than  their  dams  or  sires,  in  countries  where 
they  are  bred,  is  very  remarkable,  and  far  more  common  than 

For  animals  multifidous,  or  such  as  are  digitated  or  have 
several  divisions  in  their  feet,  there  are  but  two  that  are  uni- 
parous, that  is,  men  and  elephants,  who,  though  their  pro- 
ductions be  but  single,  are  notwithstanding  very  numerous. 
The  elephant,  as  Aristotle  affirmeth,  carrieth  the  young  two 
years,  and  conceiveth  not  again,  as  Edvardus  Lopez  affirm- 
eth, in  many  years  after,  yet  doth  their  age  requite  this  dis- 
advantage, they  living  commonly  one  hundred,  sometime 
two  hundred  years.  Now  although  they  be  rare  with  us  in 
Europe,  and  altogether  unknown  unto  America,  yet  in  the 


two  other  parts  of  the  world  they  are  in  great  abundance, 
as  appears  by  the  relation  of  Grarcias  ab  Horto,  physician  to 
the  Viceroy  at  Goa,  who  relates  that  at  one  venation  the 
king  of  Siam  took  four  thousand,  and  is  of  opinion  they  are 
in  other  parts  in  greater  number  than  herds  of  beeves  in 
Europe.  And  though  this,  dehvered  from  a  Spaniard  unac- 
quainted with  our  northern  droves,  may  seem  very  far  to 
exceed,  yet  must  we  conceive  them  very  numerous,  if  we 
consider  the  number  of  teeth  transported  from  one  country 
to  another,  they  having  only  two  great  teeth,  and  those  not 
falling  or  renewing. 

As  for  man,  the  disadvantage  in  his  single  issue  is  the 
same  with  these,  and  in  the  lateness  of  his  generation  some- 
what greater  than  any  ;  yet  in  the  continual  and  not  inter- 
rupted time  hereof,  and  the  extent  of  his  days,  he  becomes  at 
present,  if  not  than  any  other  species,  at  least  more  numerous 
than  these  before  mentioned.  Now  being  thus  numerous  at 
present,  and  in  the  measure  of  threescore,  fourscore,  or  an 
hundred  years,  if  their  days  extended  unto  six,  seven,  or 
eight  hundred,  their  generations  would  be  proportionably 
multiplied,  their  times  of  generation  being  not  only  multi- 
plied, but  their  subsistence  continued.  For  though  the 
great-grandchild  went  on,  the  petrucius*  and  first  original 
would  subsist  and  make  one  of  the  world,  though  he  outlived 
all  the  terms  of  consanguinity,  and  became  a  stranger  unto 
his  proper  progeny.  So,  by  compute  of  Scripture,  Adam 
lived  unto  the  ninth  generation,  unto  the  days  of  Lameeh, 
the  father  of  Noah  ;  Methuselah  unto  the  year  of  tlie  flood, 
and  Noah  was  contemporary  unto  all  from  Enoch  unto  Abra- 
ham. So  that  although  some  died,  the  father  beholding  so 
many  descents,  the  number  of  survivors  must  still  be  very 
great ;  for  if  half  the  men  were  now  alive  which  lived  in  the 
last  century,  the  earth  would  scarce  contain  their  number. 
Whereas  in  our  abridged  and  septuagesimal  ages,  it  is  very 
rare,  and  deserves  a  distich  f  to  behold  the  fourth  generation. 
Xerxes'  complaint  still  remaining,  and  what  he  lamented  in 
his  army,  being  almost  deplorable  in  the  whole  world ;  men 
seldom  arriving  unto  those  years  whereby  Methuselah  ex- 

*  The  term  for  that  person  for  whom  consanguineal   relations  are 
accounted,  as  in  the  Arbor  civilis. 
t  Mater  aitnatce,  die  natce  Jilia,  d-c. 

CHAP.  VI.]     THE  EAETH  BEFOEE  THE  FLOOD.       143 

ceeded  nine  hundred,  and  what  Adam  came  short  of  a  thou- 
sand, was  defined  long  ago  to  be  the  age  of  man. 

Now,  although  the  length  of  days  condueeth  mainly  unto 
the  numerosity  of  mankind,  and  it  be  manifest  from  Scrip- 
ture they  lived  very  long,  yet  is  not  the  period  of  their  lives 
determinable,  and  some  might  be  longer  livers  than  we  ac- 
count that  any  were.  For,  to  omit  that  conceit  of  some  that 
Adam  was  the  oldest  man,  in  as  much  as  he  is  conceived  to 
be  created  in  the  maturity  of  mankind,  that  is,  at  sixty,  for 
in  that  age  it  is  set  down  they  begat  children,  so  that  adding 
this  number  unto  his  930,  he  was  21  years  older  than  any  of 
his  posterity ;  that  even  Methuselah  was  the  longest  liver 
of  all  the  children  of  Adam  we  need  not  grant,  nor  is  it  defi- 
nitively set  down  by  Moses.  Indeed  of  those  ten  mentioned 
in  Scripture,  with  their  several  ages,  it  must  be  true,  but 
whether  those  seven  of  the  line  of  Cain  and  their  progeny, 
or  any  of  the  sons'  and  daughters'  posterity  after  them  out- 
lived those,  is  not  expressed  in  Holy  Scripture,  and  it  will 
seem  more  probable  that  of  the  line  of  Cain  some  were  longer 
lived  than  any  of  Seth,  if  we  concede  that  seven  generations 
of  the  one  lived  as  long  as  nine  of  the  other.  As  for  what 
is  couimonly  alleged  that  Grod  would  not  permit  the  life  of 
any  unto  a  tliousand,  because,  alluding  unto  that  of  David,  no 
man  should  live  one  day  in  the  sight  of  the  Lord,  although 
it  be  urged  by  divers,  yet  is  it  methiuks  an  inference  some- 
what rabbinical,  and  not  of  power  to  persuade  a  serious 

Having  thus  declared  how  powerfully  the  length  of  lives 
conduced  unto  the  populosity  of  those  times,  it  will  yet  be 
easier  acknowledged  ii'  we  descend  to  particularities,  and 
consider  how  many  in  seven  hundred  years  might  descend 
from  one  man ;  wherein  considering  the  length  of  their  days, 
we  may  conceive  the  greatest  number  to  have  been  alive 
together.  And  this,  that  no  reasonable  spirit  may  contradict, 
we  will  declare  with  manifest  disadvantage  :  for  whereas  the 
duration  of  the  world  unto  the  flood  was  above  1600  years, 
we  will  make  our  compute  in  less  than  half  that  time.  Nov 
will  we  begin  with  the  first  man,  but  allow  the  earth  to  be 
provided  of  women  fit  for  marriage  the  second  or  third  first 
centuries,  and  will  only  take  as  granted,  that  they  might 
beget  children  at  sixty,  aud  at  an  liuudred  years  have  twenty, 


allowing  for  that  number  forty  years.  Nor  vtlA  we  herein 
single  out  Methuselali,  on  account  from  the  longest  livers, 
but  make  choice  of  the  shortest  of  any  we  find  recorded  in 
the  text,  excepting  Enoch,  who,  after  he  had  lived  as  many 
years  as  there  be  days  in  the  year,  was  translated  at  365. 
And  thus  from  one  stock  of  seven  himdred  years,  multi- 
plying still  by  twenty,  we  shall  find  the  product  to  be  one 
thousand  three  hundred  forty-seven  millions,  three  hundred 
sixty-eight  thousand,  four  hundred  and  twenty. 



2  400 

3  8000 

4  )  160,000 

5  3,200,000 

6  64,000,000 

7  J  1,280,000,000 

Product     1,347,368,420 

Now,  if  this  account  of  the  learned  Petavius  will  be  allowed, 
it  will  make  an  unexpected  increase,  and  a  larger  number 
than  may  be  found  ia  Asia,  Africa,  and  Europe  ;  especially 
if  in  Constantinople,  the  greatest  city  thereof,  there  be  no 
more  than  Botero  accoimteth,  seven  hundred  thousand  souls. 
Which  duly  considered,  we  shall  rather  admire  how  the  earth 
contained  its  inhabitants,  than  doubt  its  inhabitation ;  and 
might  conceive  the  deluge  not  simply  penal,  but  in  some 
way  also  necessary,  as  many  have  conceived  of  translations,^ 
if  Adam  had  not  sinned,  and  the  race  of  man  had  remained 
upon  earth  immortal. 

Now,  whereas  some  to  make  good  their  longevity,  have 
imagined  that  the  years  of  their  compute  were  limary,  unto 
these  we  must  reply  ;  that  if  by  a  lunary  year  they  under- 
stand twelve  revolutions  of  the  moon,  that  is,  354  days, 
eleven  fewer  than  in  the  solary  year  ;  there  wUl  be  no  great 
difiference,  at  least  not  sufiicient  to  convince  or  extenuate 
the  question.  But  if  by  a  lunary  year  they  mean  one  revo- 
lution of  the  moon,  that  is,  a  month  ;  they  first  introduce  a 

*  translations. 1  That  is,  that  after  totue  terme  of  yearesthey  should 
not  dye,  but  have  been  translated  as  Heuoch  was,  into  Heaven. —  Wr. 

CHAP.  VI.]     THE  EARTH  BBFORli  THE  FLOOD.       .145 

vear  never  used  by  the  Hebrews  in  tbeir  civil  accounts  ;  and 
what  is  delivered  before  of  the  Chaldean  years  (as  Xenophon 
gives  a  caution)  was  only  received  in  the  chronology  of  their 
arts.  Secondly,  they  contradict  the  Scripture,  which  makes 
a  plain  enumeration  of  many  months  in  the  accoimt  of  the 
deluge  ;  for  so  it  is  expressed  in  the'  text :  "  In  the  tenth 
month,  in  the  first  day  of  the  month,  were  the  tops  of  the 
mountains  seen."  Concordant  whereunto  is  the  relation  of 
human  authors  ;  Inundationes plures  fuere,  prima  novimestris 
inundatio  terrarum  suh  prisco  Ogyge.  Meminisse  hoc  loco 
par  est  post  prwmm  diluvium  Ogygi  temporibus  notatum,  cumi 
novem,  et  amplius  mensihus  diem  continua  nox  inuonbrasset, 
Delon  ante  omnes  terras  radiis  solis  illmninatimi  sortitumque 
ex  eo  nomen*  Aad  lastly,  they  fall  upon  an  absurdity,  for 
they  make  Enoch  to  beget  children  aljout  six  years  of  age. 
For,  whereas  it  is  said  he  begat  Methuselah  at  sixty-five,  if 
we  shall  account  every  month'*  a  year,  he  was  at  that  time 
some  six  years  and  an  half,  for  so  many  months  are  con- 
tained in  that  space  of  time. 

Haviug  thus  declai'ed  how  much  the  length  of  men's  lives 
conduced  unto  the  populosity  of  their  kind,  our  second 
foundation  must  be  the  large  extent  of  time,  from  the  crea- 
tion unto  the  deluge  (that  is,  according  unto  received  com- 
putes, about  1655  years),  almost  as  long  a  time  as  hath 
passed  since  the  nativity  of  our  Saviour.^   And  this  we 

*  Xenophon  de  yEquivocis.  Solinus, 

*  month.']  The  spirit  in  many  places  (as  of  Daniel,  and  the  Apoca- 
lyps)  by  dayes  means  yeares  :  but  in  noe  place  yeares  for  dayes  or 
monthes. —  Wr. 

*  Saviou.r.']  And  according  to  this  number  there  are,  that  take  upon 
them  to  judge  that  when  the  yeare.s  of  the  church's  age  comes  to  as 
many  since  Christ's  birthe,  as  those  yeares  of  the  world  had  from  the 
creation  to  the  flood,  the  consummation  or  consumption  of  the  world  by 
fire  prophesy ed  by  St.  Peter,  2nd  Epist.  3  chap.  v.  10,  must  needs  bee 
Mien  or  thereabouts  fulfilled,  as  itt  was  before  by  water  at  those  years. 
For  counting  (say  they)  as  the  Apostle  there  does,  that  with  God  1000 
yeares  are  but  as  one  daye,  and  that  (as  all  agree)  in  this  yeare  of 
Christ,  1650,  there  are  just  5600  yeares  of  the  world  past  since  the 
creation,  that  is  almost  6  dayes  of  the  weeke,  and  that  the  dayes  of  the 
world  shal  bee,  as  our  Saviour  foretold,  much  shortened,  i.  e.  shall  not 
continue  to  the  full  end  of  6000  yeares,  i.  e.  6  of  God's  dayes  :  they  con- 
clude that  the  seventh  day  of  eeternal  rest  of  the  world  and  all  the  works 

VOL    II.  L 

146  THE   EARTH   BEFORE   THE   FLOOD.  [bOOK  Vi. 

cannot  but  conceive  sufficient  for  a  very  large  increase,  if  we 
do  but  affirm  what  reasonable  enquirers  will  not  deny, — that 
the  earth  might  be  as  populous  in  that  number  of  years 
before  the  flood,  as  we  can  manifest  it  was  in  the  same 
number  after.  And,  whereas  there  may  be  conceived  some 
disadvantage,  in  regard  that  at  the  creation  the  original  of 
mankind  was  in  two  persons,  but  after  the  flood  their  propa- 
gation issued  at  least  from  six ;  against  this  we  might  very 
well  set  the  length  of  their  lives  before  the  flood,  which  were 
abbreviated  after,  and  in  half  this  space  contracted  into 
hundreds  and  threescores.  Notwithstanding,  to  equalize 
accounts,  we  will  allow  three  hundred  years,  and  so  long  a 
time  as  we  can  manifest  from  the  Scripture,  there  were  four 
men  at  least  that  begat  children,  Adam,  Cain,  Seth,  and 
Enos  ;  so  shall  we  fairly  and  favourably  proceed,  if  we  afiirm 
the  world  to  have  been  as  populous  in  sixteen  hundred  and 
fifty  years  before  the  flood,  as  it  was  in  thirteen  hundred 
after.  Now  how  populous  and  largely  inhabited  it  was 
within  this  period  of  time,  we  shall  declare  from  probabilities, 
and  several  testimonies  of  Scriptiu^e  and  hmnau  authors. 

And  first,  to  manifest  the  same  near  those  parts  of  the 
earth  where  the  ark  is  presumed  to  have  rested,  we  have  the 
relation  of  Holy  Scripture,  accounting  the  genealogy  of 
Japhet,  Cham,  and  Sem,  and  in  this  last,  four  descents  unto 
tlie  division  of  the  earth  in  the  days  of  Peleg,  which  time 
although  it  were  not  upon  common  compute  much  above  an 
hundred  years,  yet  were  men  at  this  time  mightily  increased. 
Nor  can  we  well  conceive  it  otherwise,  if  we  consider  they 
began  already  to  wander  from  their  first  habitation,  and  were 
able  to  attempt  so  mighty  a  work  as  the  building  of  a  city 
and  a  tower,  whose  top  should  reach  luito  the  heavens. 
Whereuuto  there  was  required  no  slender  ninnber  of  persons, 
if  we  consider  the  magnitude   thereof,  expressed  by  some, 

therin  cannot  bee  far  of.  But  Low  far  off,  or  how  neere,  is  not  for 
man  to  enquire,  much  less  to  define  otherwise  tlien  by  way  of  Christian 
caution,  to  bee  always  readye  for  the  coming  of  that  kingdome,  which 
wee  every  (day)  pray,  may  come  speedilye.  For  doubtlesyf  1600  yeares 
agoe  the  Spirit  thought  itt  reqvjsite  to  rowse  them  up  with  that 
memento,  "the  Lord  is  at  hand,  bee  yee  therefore  sober  and  watche," 
itt  may  well  bee  an  alarum  to  us,  on  whom  the  ends  of  the  world  are 
some. —  Wr. 

CHAP.  TI.J     THE  EABTH  BEFOKE  THE  ELOOD.        147 

and  conceived  to  be  turris  Beli  in  Herodotus  ;^  and  the 
multitudes  of  people  recorded  at  the  erecting  of  tlie  like  or 
inferior  structures  ;  for  at  the  building  of  Solomon's  temple 
there  were  threescore  and  ten  thousand  that  carried  burdens, 
and  fourscore  thousand  hewers  in  tlie  mountains,  beside  the 
chief  of  his  officers  three  thousand  and  three  hundred  ;  and 
at  the  erection  of  the  pyramids  in  the  reign  of  king  Cheops, 
as  Herodotus  reports,  there  were  decern  myriades,  that  is, 
an  hundred  thousand  men.  And  though  it  be  said  of  the 

Porrum  et  caepe  uefas  violare  et  frangere  morsu  ;  * 

yet  did  the  sums  expended  in  garlick  and  onions  amount 
unto  no  less  than  one  thousand  six  hundred  talents. 

The  first  monarchy  or  kingdom  of  Babylon  is  mentioned 
in  Scripture  under  the  foundation  of  Nimrod,  which  is  also 
recorded  in  human  history ;  as  beside  Berosus,  in  Diodorus 
and  Justin ;  for  Nimrod  of  the  Scriptures  is  Belus  of  the 
Grentiles,  and  Assur  the  same  with  Ninus  his  successor. 
There  is  also  mention  of  divers  cities,  particularly  of  Nineveh 
and  Eesen,  expressed  emphatically  in  the  text  to  be  a  great 

That  other  countries  round  about  were  also  peopled,  appears 
by  the  wars  of  the  monarchs  of  Assyria  with  the  Bactrians, 
Indians,  Scythians,  Ethiopians,  Armenians,  Hyrcanians,  Par- 
thiaus,  Persians,  Susians  ;  they  vanquished  (as  Diodorus  re- 
lateth)  Egypt,  Syria,  and  all  Asia  Minor,  even  from  Bosphorus 
uxito  Tanais.  And  it  is  said,  that  Semiramis  in  her  expedition 
against  the  Indians  brought  along  with  her  the  king  of 
Arabia.  About  the  same  time  of  the  Assyi-ian  monarchy, 
do  authors  place  that  of  the  Sycionians  in  Greece,  and  soon 
after  that  of  the  Argives,  and  not  very  long  after,  that  of 
the  Athenians  under  Cecrops ;  and  within  our  period 
assumed  are  historified  many  memorable  actions  of  the 
Greeks,  as  the  expedition  of  the  Ai'gonauts,  with  the  most 
famous  wars  of  Thebes  and  Troy. 
*  Juvenal. 

_  6  conceived  to  he,  d:c.]  Mr.  Beke,  however,  is  of  opinion  that  "the 
city  and  tower  of  Babel,  the  Babel  of  Nirarod  and  the  Babel  or  Babylon 
of  Nebuchadnezzar,  were  three  totally  distinct  places." — Origines 
Bihlicce,  p.  17. 

L  2 

148       THE  EAETH  BEFOEE  THE  ELOOD.      [bOOE  TI. 

That  Canaan  also  and  Egypt  were  well  peopled  far  within 
this  period,  besides  their  plantation  by  Canaan  and  Misraim, 
appeareth  from  the  history  of  Abraham,  who  in  less  than 
400  years  after  the  flood,  journeyed  from  Mesopotamia  unto 
Canaan  and  Eg}'pt,  both  which  he  found  well  peopled  and 
polieied  into  kingdoms.  AVherein  also  in  430  years,  from 
tlireescore  and  ten  persons  which  came  with  Jacob  into 
Egypt,  he  became  a  mighty  nation ;  for  it  is  said,  at  their 
departure,  there  journeyed  from  Ehamesis  to  Succoth  about 
six  hundred  thousand  on  foot,  that  were  men,  besides  chil- 
dren. Xow  how  populous  the  land  from  whence  they  came 
was,  may  be  collected  not  only  from  their  ability  in  com- 
manding such  subjections  and  mighty  powers  under  them, 
but  from  the  several  accounts  of  that  kingdom  delivered  by 
Herodotus.  And  how  soon  it  was  peopled,  is  evidenced 
from  the  pillar  of  their  king  Osyris,  with  this  inscription  in 
Diodorus  :  Milii jyater  est  Saturmis  deorum  junior,  sum  vero 
Osyris  rex,  qui  totum  peragravi  orhem  usque  ad  Indorum 
fines,  ad  eos  quoque  sum  profectus  qui  sej^tentrioni  suhjacent 
usque  ad  Istri  fontes,  et  alias  partes  usque  ad  Oceanum. 
Xow,  according  unto  the  best  determinations,  Osyris  was 
Misraim,  and  Saturnus  Egyptius  the  same  with  Cham ;  after 
whose  name  Egypt  is  not  only  called  in  Scripture  the  land  of 
Ham,  but  thus  much  is  also  testified  by  Phitarch  ;  for  in  his 
treatise  de  Osyride,  he  delivereth  that  Egypt  was  called 
Cliamia,  a  Chamo  Noe  filio,  that  is,  from  Cham  the  son  of 
Xoah.  And  if,  according  to  the  consent  of  ancient  fathers, 
Adam  was  buried  in  tlie  same  place  where  Christ  was  cruci- 
fied, that  is  Mount  Calvary,  the  first  man  ranged  fiir  before 
the  flood,  and  laid  his  bones  many  miles  from  that  place, 
where  it's  presmned  he  received  them.  And  this  migration 
was  the  greater,  if,  as  the  text  expresseth,  he  was  cast  out  of 
the  east  side  of  paradise  to  till  the  ground ;  and  as  the 
position  of  the  Cherubiin  implieth,  who  were  placed  at  the 
east  end  of  the  garden  to  keep  him  from  the  tree  of  life. 

That  the  remoter  parts  of  the  earth  were  in  this  time 
inhabited,  is  also  inducible  from  the  like  testimonies,  for 
(omitting  the  numeration  of  Josephus  and  the  genealogies 
of  the  sons  of  jVoah)  that  Italy  was  inhabited  appeareth 
from  the  records  of  Livy  and  Dionysius  Halicarnasseus,  the 
story  of  ^neas,   Evander,   and   Janus,   whom  Annius   oi 

CHAP.  VI.]      THE  EABTH  BEFORE  THE  FLOOD.       140 

Viterbo,  and  the  chorographers  of  Italy,  do  make  to  be  the 
same  with  Noah.  That  Sicily  was  also  peopled  is  made  out 
from  the  frequent  mention  thereof  in  Homer,  the  records  of 
Diodorus  and  others,  but  especially  from  a  remarkable  pas- 
sage touched  by  Aretius  and  Ranzanus,  bishop  of  Luceriuni, 
but  fully  explained  by  Thomas  Fazelli,  in  his  accurate  history 
of  Sicily,  that  is,  from  ancient  inscription  in  a  stone  at 
Panormo,  expressed  by  him  in  its  proper  characters,  and  by 
a  Syrian  thus  translated  :  Non  est  alius  Deus  prceter  unwn 
Deum,  non  est  alius  potens  prcster  eundem  Deum,  neque 
est  alius  victor  prater  eundem  quern  colimus  Deum  : 
Hujus  turris  prcefectus  est  Sapha  Jilius  Eliphat,  Jilii  Esau, 
fratris  Jacob,  filii  Isaac,  jilii  Abraham  ;  et  ttirri  quidein 
ipsi  nomen  est  Baych,  sed  turri  Jiuic  proximcB  nomen  est 
Pharath.  The  antiquity  of  the  inhabitation  of  Spain  is  also 
confirmable,  not  only  from  Berosus  in  the  plantation  of 
Tubal,  and  a  city  continuing  yet  in  his  name,  but  the  story 
of  Gerion,  the  travels  of  Hercules  and  his  pillars,  and 
especially  a  passage  in  Strabo,  which  advanceth  unto  the 
time  of  Ninus,  thus  delivered  in  his  fourth  book :  the 
Spaniards  (saith  he)  affirm  that  they  have  had  laws  and 
letters  above  six  thousand  years.  Now  the  Spaniards  or 
Iberians  observing  (as  Xenophon  hath  delivered)  annum 
quadrimestrem,  four  months  unto  a  year,  this  compute  will 
make  up  2000  solary  years,  which  is  about  the  space  of  time 
from  Strabo,  who  lived  in  the  days  of  Augustus,  unto  the 
reign  of  Ninus, 

That  Mauritania  and  the  coast  of  Africa  were  peopled 
very  soon,  is  the  conjecture  of  many  wise  men,  and  that  by 
the  Phoenicians,''  who  left  their  country  upon  the  invasion 
of  Canaan  by  the  Israelites.  For  beside  the  conformitv  of 
the  Punick  or  Carthaginian  language  with  that  of  Phoenicia, 
there  is  a  pregnant  and  very  remarkable  testimony  liereof 
in  Procopius,  who  in  his  second  de  hello  Vandalico,  re- 
cordeth  that  in  a  towTi  of  Mauritania  Tingitana,  there  was 
to  be  seen  upon  two  white  columns  in  the  Phoenician  lan- 
guage these  ensuing  words  ;  Nos  Maurici  swnus  quifugimus 

'  hy  the  Phoenicians.]  "  Tyri  et  Sidonis  in  Phoenicis  litore  civitatum 
Carthago  colonia ;  unde  et  Pasni,  sermone  corrupto  quasi  Phoeni  appel- 
lantur." — Hieron.  See  Selden,  De  Diis  Syriis,  Prolegomena,  cap.  2, 
p.  10-24.— /e/. 

150       THE  EAETH  BErOEE  THE  FLOOD.      [BOOK  TI. 

a  facie  Jehoschue  filii  Nunis  prcedatoris.  The  Fortunate 
Islands  or  Cauaries  were  not  unknown ;  for  so  doth  Strabo 
interpret  that  speech  in  Homer  of  Proteus  unto  Menelaus. 

Seel  te  qua  terrse  postremus  terminus  extat, 
Elysium  in  Campum  ccelestia  numina  ducunt. 

The  like  might  we  affirm  from  credible  histories  both  of 
France  and  Grermany,  and  perhaps  also  of  our  own  country. 
For  omitting  the  fabulous  and  Trojan  original  delivered  by 
Jeffrey  of  Monmouth,  and  the  express  text  of  Scripture, 
that  the  race  of  Japhet  did  people  the  isles  of  the  Gen- 
tiles ;  the  British  original  was  so  obscure  in  Caesar's  time, 
that  he  affirmeth  the  inland  inhabitants  were  Aborigines, 
that  is,  such  as  reported  that  they  had  their  beginning  in 
the  island.  That  Ireland  our  neighbour  island  was  not  long 
time  without  inhabitants,  may  be  made  probable  by  sundry 
accounts,  although  we  abate  the  tradition  of  Bartholanus 
the  Scythian,  who  arrived  three  hundred  years^  after  the 
flood,  or  the  relation  of  G-iraldus,  that  Csesaria,  the  daugliter 
of  Noah,  dwelt  there  before. 

Kow  should  we  call  in  the  learned  account  of  Bochartus,* 
deducing  the  ancient  names  of  countries  from  Phoenicians, 
who  by  their  plantations,  discoveries,  and  sea  negociations, 
have  left  unto  very  many  countries,  Phoenician  denomina- 
tions, the  enquiry  would  be  much  shorter ;  and  if  Spain,  in 
the  Phoenician  original,  be  but  the  region  of  conies,  Lusi- 
tania,  or  Portugal,  the  country  of  almonds,  if  Britanuica 
were  at  first  Baratanaca,  or  the  land  of  tin,  and  Ibernia  or 
Ireland  were  but  Ibernae,  or  the  farthest  inhabitation,  and 
these  names  imposed  and  dispersed  by  Phoenician  colonies, 
in  their  several  navigations,  the  antiquity  of  habitations 
might  be  more  clearly  advanced. 

Thus  though  we  have  declared  how  largely  the  world  was 

*  Bochart.  Geog.  Sacr.  part  2. 

®  tJiree  hundred  years.']  This  yeare,  1650,  is  the  5600  yeare  of  the 
worlde  since  the  creation  ;  out  of  which,  yf  you  take  the  j'eare  of  the 
floodd,  viz.  in  the  yeare  of  the  world  1656,  and  also  the  300  yeares 
more  here  mentioned,  the  summe  will  be  1956,  which  being  againe 
deducted  out  of  the  present  yeai-e  of  the  world  5600,  there  remaine 
36i4  ye.ares  this  yeare,  since  Bartolanus  is  said  to  arrive  in  Irelande, 
which  neither  Scripture  nor  any  story  mentions,  and  therefore  is  a 
feigned  and  foolish  tradition. —  Wr. 

CHAP.  VI.J    THE  EAETH  BEFOEE  THl;  FLOOD.        151 

inhabited  within  the  space  of  1300  years,  yet  must  it  be 
conceived  more  populous  than  can  be  clearly  evinced ;  for 
a  greater  part  of  the  earth  hath  ever  been  peopled,  than 
hath  been  known  or  described  by  geographers,  as  will 
appear  by  the  discoveries  of  all  ages.  For  neither  in 
Herodotus  or  Thucydides  do  we  find  any  mention  of  Rome, 
nor  in  Ptolemy  of  many  parts  of  Europe,  Asia,  or  Africa ; 
and  because  many  places  we  have  declared  of  long  planta- 
tion, of  whose  populosity  notwithstanding  or  memorable 
actions  we  have  no  ancient  story ;  if  we  may  conjecture  of 
these  by  what  we  find  related  of  others,  we  shall  not  need 
many  words,  nor  assume  the  half  of  1300  years.  And  this 
we  miglit  illustrate  from  the  mighty  acts  of  the  Assyrians, 
performed  not  long  after  the  flood,  recorded  by  Justin  and 
Diodorus,  who  makes  relation  of  expeditions  by  armies 
more  numerous  than  have  been  ever  since.  For  Ninus,'' 
king  of  Assyria,  brought  against  the  Bactrians  700,000 
foot,  200,000  horse,  10,600  chariots.  Semiramis,  his  suc- 
cessor, led  against  the  Indians  1,300,000  foot,  500,000 
horse,  100,000  chariots,  and  as  many  upon  camels. 
And  it  is  said  Staurobates,  the  Indian  king,  her  with 
greater  forces  than  she  brought  against  him  ;  all  which  was 
performed  within  less  than  four  hundred  years  after  the 

Now  if  any  imagine  the  unity  of  their  language  did 
hinder  their  dispersion  before  the  flood,  we  confess  it  some 
hindrance  at  first,  but  not  much  afterward.  For  though  it 
might  restrain  their  dispersion,  it  could  not  their  popu- 
losity, which  necessarily  requireth  transmigration  and 
emission   of    colonies ;    as    we   read   of   Eomans,    Greeks, 

"  Ninus]  Soe  Ninus  had  in  his  armye  974,200,  reckoning  to  every 
chariot  six  fightinge  men  (on  each  side  three)  besides  the  charioteer  ; 
but  Semiramis  her  army  was  not  less  then  2,000,000,  i.  e.  above  twice 
soe  manye  ;  and  yf  Staurobates  his  army  wei'e  greater,  doubtless  never 
any  since  that  time  came  neere  those  numbers.  Then  reckoninge  at 
the  least  of  horses,  4  in  each  chariot,  and  of  camels,  in  all  500,000 
beasts  in  her  armye,  and  as  many  or  more  on  the  adverse  side,  what 
countryes  could  hold,  much  less  feed  them  ?  For  Sennacherib's  army 
did  not  reach  to  the  twentithe  parte  of  these  conjoyned  numbers,  and 
yet  he  boasted  to  have  drunk  the  rivers  di-ye. —  Wr. 

'  upon  camds.]  300,000  ox  hides  stuffed  to  represent  elephants,  and 
carried  upon  camels. — Jeff: 

152  THE    EAETH    BEFOEE    THE    FLOOD.  [bOOK  TI 

Phoenicians,  in  ages  past,  and  have  beheld  examples  thereof 
in  our  days.  We  may  also  observe  that  after  the  flood,  before 
the  confusion  of  tongues,  men  began  to  disperse.  For  it  is 
said  they  journeyed  towards  the  east,  and  the  Scripture 
itself  expresseth  a  necessity  conceived  of  their  dispersion, 
for  the  intent  of  erecting  the  tower  is  so  delivered  in  the 
text,  "lest  we  be  scattered  abroad  upon  the  face  of  the 

Again,  if  any  apprehend  the  plantation  of  the  earth 
more  easy  in  regard  of  navigation  and  shipping  discovered 
since  the  flood,  whereby  the  islands  and  divided  parts  of 
the  earth  are  now  inhabited ;  he  must  consider  that  whe- 
ther there  were  islands  or  no  before  the  flood,  is  not  yet 
determined,  and  is  witli  probability  denied  by  very  learned 

Lastly,  if  we  shall  fall  into  apprehension  that  it  was 
less  inhabited,  because  it  is  said  in  the  sixth  of  Genesis, 
about  120  years  before  the  flood,  "  And  it  came  to  pass 
that  when  men  began  to  multiply  upon  the  face  of  the 
earth  ;"  beside  that  this  may  be  only  meant  of  the  race  of 
Cain,  it  will  not  import  they  were  not  multiplied  before, 
but  that  they  were  at  that  time  plentifully  increased ;  for 
so  is  the  same  word  used  in  other  parts  of  Scripture. 
And  so  is  it  afterward  in  the  nintli  chapter  said,  that 
"Noah  began  to  be  an  husbandman,"  that  is,  he  was  so, 
or  earnestly  performed  the  acts  thereof ;  so  is  it  said  of  our 
Saviour,  that  he  "  began  to  cast  them  out  that  bought  and 
sold  in  the  temple,"  that  is,  he  actually  cast  them  out,  or 
with  alacrity  effected  it. 

Thus  have  I  declared  some  private  and  probable  con- 
ceptions in  the  enquiry  of  this  truth ;  but  the  certainty 
hereof  let  the  arithmetic  of  the  last  day  determine,  and 
therefore  expect  no  further  belief  than  probability  and 
reason  induce.  Only  desire  men  would  not  swallow  dubio- 
sities  for  certainties,  and  receive  as  principles  points  mainly 
controvertible  ;  for  we  are  to  adhere  unto  things  doubtfiil 
in  a  dubious  and  opinionative  way.  It  being  reasonable  for 
every  man  to  vary  his  opinion  according  to  the  variance  of 
his  "reason,  and  to  affirm  one  day  what  he  denied  another. 
Wherein  although  at  last  we  miss  of  truth,  we  die  not- 
withstanding in  harmless  and  inoffensive  errors,  because  we 

CHA-P.  TJI.]  OF    EAST    AND    WEST.  153 

adhere  unto  that,  whereunto  the  examen  of  our  reasons, 
and  honest  enquiries  induoe  us.^ 


Of  East  and  West. 

The  next  shall  be  of  east  and  west ;  that  is,  the  pro- 
prieties and  conditions  ascribed  unto  regions  respectively 
unto  those  situations  ;  which  hath  been  the  obvious  con- 
ception of  philosophers  and  geographers,  magnifying  the 
condition  of  India,  and  the  eastern  countries,  above  the 
setting  and  occidental  climates :  some  ascribing  hereto  the 
generation  of  gold,  precious  stones,  and  spices,  others  the 
civility  and  natural  endowments  of  men;  conceiving  the 
bodies  of  this  situation  to  receive  a  special  impression  from 
the  first  salutes  of  the  sun,  and  some  appropriate  influence 
from  his  ascendent  and  oriental  radiations.  But  these 
proprieties,  affixed  unto  bodies,  upon  considerations 
reduced  from  east,  west,  or  those  observable  points  of  the 
sphere,  how  specious  and  plausible  soever,  will  not  upon 
enquiry  be  justified  from  such  foundations. 

Eor  to  speak  strictly,  there  is  no  east  and  west  in  nature, 
nor  are  those  absolute  and  invariable,  but  respective  and 
mutable  points,  according  unto  diiferent  longitudes,  or 
distant  parts  of  habitation,  whereby  they  suffer  many  and 
considerable  variations.  For  first,  unto  some  the  same  part 
will  be  east  or  west  in  respect  of  one  another,  that  is,  unto 
such  as  inhabit  the  same  parallel,  or  differently  dwell  from 
east  to  west.  Thus,  as  unto  Spain  Italy  lieth  east,  unto 
Italy  Greece,  unto  Greece  Persia,  and  unto  Persia  China ; 
so  again,  unto  the  country  of  China  Persia  lieth  west,  unto 
Persia  Greece,  unto  Greece  Italy,  and  unto  Italy  Spain. 
So  that  the  same  country  is  sometimes  east  and  sometimes 
west ;  and  Persia  though  east  unto  Greece,  yet  is  it  west 
unto  China. 

Unto  other  habitations  the  same  point  wiU  be  both  east 

'  induce  ms.]  And  whatsoever  is  beyond  this  search  must  bee  imputed 
to  an  invincible  ignorance. —  Wr. 

154  OF   EAST   AND   WEST.  [BOOK  VI. 

and  west ;  as  unto  those  that  a.*e  Antipodes  or  seated 
in  points  of  the  globe  diametrically  opposed.  So  the 
Americans  are  antipodal  unto  the  Indians,  and  some  part 
of  India  is  both  east  and  west  unto  America,  according  as 
it  shall  be  regarded  from  one  side  or  the  other,  to  the  right 
or  to  the  left ;  and  setting  out  from  any  middle  point, 
either  by  east  or  west,  the  distance  unto  the  place  intended 
is  equal,  and  in  the  same  space  of  time  in  nature  also 

To  a  third  that  have  the  poles  for  their  vertex^  or  dwell 
in  the  position  of  a  parallel  sphere,  there  will  be  neither 
east  nor  west,  at  least  the  greatest  part  of  the  year. 
For  if  (as  the  name  oriental  implieth)  they  shall  account 
tliat  part  to  be  east  wherever  the  sun  ariseth,  or  that  west 
where  the  sun  is  occidental  or  setteth  ;  almost  half  the  year 
they  have  neither  the  one  nor  the  other.  For  half  the  year 
it  is  below  the  horizon,  and  the  other  half  it  is  continually 
above  it,  and  circlmg^  round  about  them  intersecteth  not 
the  horizon,  nor  leaveth  any  part  for  this  compute. 
And  if  (which  wiU  seem  very  reasonable)  that  part  should 
be  termed  the  eastern  point  where  the  sun  at  equinox,  and 
but  once  in  the  year,  ariseth,  yet  will  this  also  disturb  the 
cardinal  accounts,  nor  will  it  with  propriety  admit  that 
appellation.  For  that  surely  cannot  be  accounted  east 
which  hath  the  south  on  both  sides  ;  which  notwithstanding 
this  position  must  have.  For  if,  unto  such  as  live  under 
the  pole,  that  be  only  north  which  is  above  them,  that  must 
be  southerly  which  is  below  them,  which  is  all  the  other 
portion  of  the  globe,  beside  that  part  possessed  by  them. 
And  thus,  these  points  of  east  and  west  being  not  absolute 
in  any,  respective  in  some,  and  not  at  all  relating  unto 
others,  we  cannot  hereon  establish  so  general  considerations, 
nor  reasonably  erect  such  immutable  assertions,  upon  so 
unstable  foundations. 

Now   the   ground  that  begat  or  promoted  this  conceit 

'  vertex.]  This  is  spoken  by  way  of  supposition,  yf  any  such  there  be, 
that  dwell  under  the  pole. —  IVr. 

*  and  circling.]  And  aboutt  the  tenthe  of  Marche,  before  and  after, 
the  discus  of  the  son  wheles  about  the  verge  of  the  horizon,  and  rises  not 
totally  above  itt  for  the  space  of  almost  as  many  dayes  as  there  are 
minutes  in  his  diameter  :  appearing  by  those  degrees  in  every  circu- 
lation (of  24  houres  time)  more  and  more  conspicuous,  as  hee  uses  to 
doe,  when  he  gets  out  of  total  eclypse. —  Wr. 

CHAP.  VII.]  01'   EAST    AND    AVEST.  155 

was,  first,  a  mistake  in  the  apprehension  of  east  and  west, 
considering  thereof  as  of  the  north  and  south,  and  com- 
puting by  these  as  invariably  as  by  the  other.  But  herein, 
upon  second  thoughts,  there  is  a  great  disparity :  for  the 
north  and  southern  pole  are  the  invariable  terms  of  that 
axis  whereon  the  heavens  do  move,  and  are  therefore 
incommunicable  and  fixed  points,  whereof  the  one  is  not 
apprehensible  in  the  other.  But  with  east  and  west  it  is 
quite  otherwise :  for  the  revolution  of  the  orbs  being  made 
upon  the  poles  of  north  and  south,  all  other  points  about 
the  axis  are  mutable ;  and  wheresoever  therein  the  east 
point  be  determined,  by  succession  of  parts  in  one  revolution 
every  point  becometh  east.  And  so,  if  where  the  sun  ariseth 
that  part  be  termed  east,  every  habitation,  diifering  in  lon- 
gitude, will  have  this  point  also  difterent,  in  as  much  as 
the  sun  successively  ariseth  unto  every  one.* 

The  second  ground,  although  it  depend  upon  the  former, 
approacheth  nearer  the  effect ;  and  that  is,  the  efficacy  of 
the  sun,  set  out  and  divided  according  to  priority  of  ascent ; 
whereby  his  influence  is  conceived  more  favourable  unto  one 
coimtry  than  another,  and  to  felicitate  Indis,  more  than  any 
after.  But  hereby  we  cannot  avoid  absvu-dities,  and  such  as 
infer  effects  controlable  by  our  senses.  For  first,  by  the 
same  reason  that  we  affirm  the  Indian  richer  than  the 
American,  the  American  will  also  be  more  plentiful  than 
the  Indian,  and  England  or  Spain  more  fruitful  than  His- 
pauiola  or  golden  Castile  ;^  in  as  much  as  the  sun  ariseth 
unto  the  one  sooner  than  the  other ;  and  so  accountably 
unto  any  nation  subjected  unto  the  same  parallel,  or  with 
a  considerable  diversity  of  longitude  from  each  other. 
Secondly,  an  unsufferable  absurdity  will  ensue  ;  for  thereby 
a  country  may  be  more  fruitful  than  itself.  For  India  is 
more  fertile  than  Spain,  because  more  east,  and  that  the 
sun  ariseth  first  unto  it ;  Spain  likewise  by  the  same  reason 
more  fruitful  than  America,  and  America  than  India;  so 
that  Spain  is  less  fruitful  than  that  country,  which  a  lesa 
fertile  country  than  itself  excelleth. 

Lastly,   if  we   conceive   the  sun  hath  any  advantage  by 

^  every  one.]  Every  generall  meridian  hath  a  several  east  pointe  and 
«?est  (in  their  horizon)  that  live  under  itt. —  Wr. 

_®  Castile.]  Virginia  is  about  7houres  distant  from  London,  for  when 
'■as  noone  heere,  'tis  5  in  the  morne  with  them. —  Wr. 

156  OF    EAST    AXD    WEST.  [bOOS  TI. 

priority  of  ascent,  or  makes  thereby  one  country  more 
happy  than  another,  we  introduce  injustifiable  determina- 
tions, and  impose  a  natiu-al  partiaUty  on  that  luminary, 
which  being  equidistant  from  the  earth,  and  equally  removed 
in  the  east  as  in  the  west,  his  power  and  efficacy  in  both 
places  must  be  equal,  as  Boetius  hath  taken  notice,  and 
Scaliger*  hath  graphically  declared.  Some  have  therefore 
forsaken  this  refuge  of  the  smi,  and  to  salve  the  eifect  have 
recurred  unto  the  influence  of  the  stars,  making  their 
activities  national,  and  appropriating  their  powers  unto 
particular  regions.  So  Cardan  conceiveth,  the  tail  of 
Ursa  Major  peculiarly  respecteth  Europe :  whereas  indeed  ' 
once  in  twenty-four  hours  it  also  absolveth  its  course  over 
Asia  and  America.  And  therefore  it  will  not  be  easy  to 
apprehend  those  stars  peculiarly  glance  on  us,  who  must 
of  necessity  carry  a  common  eye  and  regard  unto  all  coun- 
tries, unto  whom  their  revolution  and  verticity  is  also 

The  effects  therefore,  or^  different  productions  in  several 
countries,  which  we  impute  unto  the  action  of  the  sun, 
must  surely  have  nearer  and  more  immediate  causes  than 
that  luminary.^  And  these  if  we  place  in  the  propriety  of 
clime,  or  condition  of  soil  wherein  they  are  produced,  we 
shall  more  reasonably  proceed,  than  they  who  ascribe  them 
unto  the  activity  of  the  sun.  Whose  revolution  being 
regular,  it  hath  no  power  nor  efficacy  peculiar  from  its 
orientality,  but  equally  disperseth  his  beams  unto  all  which 
equally,  and  in  the  same  restriction,  receive  his  lustre. 
And  being  an  universal  and  indefinite  agent,  the  effects  or 
productions  we  behold  receive  not  their  circle  from  his 
causality,  but  are  determined  by  the  principles  of  the  place, 
or  qualities  of  that  region  which  admits  them.  And  this  is 
evident  not  only  in  gems,  minerals,  and  metals,  but  ob- 
servable in  plants  and  animals ;  whereof  some  are  common 
unto  many  countries,  some  peculiar  unto  one,  some  not 
communicable  unto  another.  For  the  hand  of  Grod  that  first 

*  De  gemmis  exercitat. 

''  or.]  Eeade  of. — Wr.  The  Dr.'s  is  the  true  reading ;  see  it  repeated 
a  few  lines  ftirther  on. 

*  luminary.']     Cald  by  God  tlie  greate  lighte. —  Wr. 

CHAP.  VII.]  or   EAST   AND  WEST.  157 

created  the  earth,  hath  with  variety  disposed  the  principles 
of  all  things ;  wisely  contriving  them  in  their  proper  semi- 
naries, and  where  they  best  maintained  the  intention  of 
their  species  ;  whereof  if  they  have  not  a  concurrence,  and 
be  not  lodged  in  a  convenient  matrix,  they  are  not  excited 
by  the  efficacy  of  the  sun  ;  nor  failing  in  particular  causes, 
receive  a  relief  or  sufficient  pi'omotion  from  the  universal. 
For  although  superior  powers  co-operate  with  inferior  acti- 
vities, and  many  (as  some  conceive)  carry  a  stroke  in  the 
plastick  and  formative  draught  of  all  things,  yet  do  their 
determinations  belong  unto  particular  agents,  and  are 
denned  from  their  proper  principles.  Thus  the  sun,  which 
with  us  is  fruitful  in  the  generation  of  frogs,  toads,  and 
serpents,  to  this  effect  proves  impotent  in  our  neighbour 
island  ;^  wherein  as  in  all  other,  carrying  a  common  aspect, 
it  concurreth  but  unto  predisposed  effects,  and  only  susci- 

*  which  with  us,  cfcc]  Itt  is  a  true  and  remarkable  thing  that  wheras 
Islip  and  Bletchinton,  in  Oxon  shire,  are  not  distant  above  2  miles,  and 
noe  river  between,  yet  noe  man  living  remembers  a  snake  or  adder 
found  alive  in  Bletchinton  (which  abounds  vnth  frogs  and  toods),  and  yf 
they  bee  brought  from  Islip,  or  other  partes,  unto  that  towne,  they  dye, 
as  venemous  tilings  doe  on  Irish  earthe,  brought  thence  by  ship  into  our 
gardens  in  England  :  nor  is  this  proper  to  Irish  earthe,  but  to  the  timber 
brought  thence,  as  appeares  in  that  vast  roof  of  King's  College  Chappel 
in  Cambridge,  where  noe  man  ever  saw  a  spider,  or  their  webs,  bycause 
itt  is  all  of  Irish  timber. —  Wr. 

On  reading  the  preceding  passage,  I  wrote  to  a  friend  in  Cambridge 
requesting  that  some  inquiry  might  be  made  as  to  the  matter  of  fact. 
I  subjoin  an  extract  from  his  reply : — 

"  Ever  since  I  was  a  boy,  I  have  heard  the  traditional  account  of  the 
roof,  and  more  particularly  the  organ  loft  of  King's  College  Chapel,  being 
formed  of  Irish  oak,  and  that  no  spiders  or  their  webs  are  to  be  found 
upon  it.  I  yesterday  took  an  opportunity  of  making  a  personal  enquiry 
and  examination — two  curators  had,  I  found,  since  passed  to  the  silent 
tomb,  a  third  whom  I  now  met  with  had  not  even  heard  of  the  circum- 
stance, though  an  intelligent  man,  and  who  seemed  to  enter  at  once  into 
the  nature  of  my  enquiries.  He  wished  me  to  go  up  to  the  roof  and 
examine  for  myself,  assuring  me,  that  no  trouble  was  taken  to  sweep 
it  over  at  any  time ;  I  went  up  and  could  not  succeed  in  discovering  the 
least  appearance  of  a  cobweb,  much  less  of  a  spider  ;  from  the  stone 
roof,  wliich  is  underneath  the  wooden  roof,  he  informed  me  that  in  some 
parts  the  spider's  webs  were  very  abundant  and  troublesome. 

"  I  saw  the  organist,  who  seemed  to  be  aware  of  the  tradition,  though 
almost  forgotten,  and  who  told  me  there  was  plenty  of  dust  for  want 
of  proper  care  of  the  place,  but  he  believed  there  were  no  spiders  j 
lie  had  officiated  caany  years,  but  had  oever  seen  one. 

158  OF   EAST   ASTD   WEST.  [bOOk  VI 

tates  tliose  forms,  whose  determinations  are  seminal,  and 
proceed  from  the  idea  of  themselves. 

JSTow,  whereas  there  be  many  observations  concerning 
east,  and  divers  considerations  of  art  which  seem  to  extol 
the  quality  of  that  point,  if  rightly  ujiderstood  they  do  not 
really  promote  it.  That  the  astrologer  takes  account  of 
nativities  from  the  ascendant,  that  is,  the  first  house  of  the 
heavens,  whose  beginning  is  toward  the  east,  it  doth  not  ad- 
vantage the  conceit.  For  he  establisheth  not  his  judgment 
upon  the  orientality  thereof,  but  considereth  therein  his  first 
ascent  above  the  horizon  ;  at  which  time  its  efficacy  becomes 
observable,  and  is  conceived  to  have  the  signification  of  life, 
and  to  respect  the  condition  of  all  things,  Avhich  at  the  same 
time  arise  from  their  causes,  and  ascend  to  their  horizon  with 
it.  Now  this  ascension  indeed  falls  out  respectively  in  the 
east ;  but,  as  we  have  delivered  before,  in  some  positions  there 
is  no  eastern  point  from  whence  to  compute  these  ascen- 
sions. So  is  it  in  a  parallel  sphere  ;  for  mito  them  six  houses 
are  continually  depressed,  and  six  never  elevated ;  and  the 
planets  themselves,  whose  revolutions  are  of  more  speed,  and 
influences  of  higher  consideration,  must  find  in  that  place  a 
very  imperfect  regard ;  for  half  their  period  they  absolve 
above,  and  half  beneath  tlie  horizon.  And  so,  for  six  years, 
no  man  can  have  the  happiness  to  be  born  under  Jupiter : 
and  for  fifteen  together  all  must  escape  the  ascendant 
dominion  of  Saturn. 

That  Aristotle,  in  his  PoUticlcs,  commends  the  situation 
of  a  city  wliich  is  open  towards  the  east,  and  admitteth  the 
rays  of  the  rising  sun,  thereby  is  implied  no  more  particular 
efilcacy  than  in  the  west :  but  that  position  is  commended,  in 
regard  the  damps  and  vaporous  exhalations,  engendered  in 
the  absence  of  tlie  sun,  are  by  his  returning  rays  the  sooner 
dispelled ;  and  men  thereby  more  early  enjoy  a  clear  and 
healthy  habitation. ^    Upon  the  like  considerations  it  is,  that 

"The  curator  has  promised  to  bring  me  a  spider  or  web  if  he  can  find 
one,  and  seemed  much  pleased  with  the,  to  him,  novel  information." 

The  Hon.  D.  Barrington  (in  the  Philosophical  Transactions,  vol.  lix. 
p.  30)  says,  that  he  had  examined  several  ancient  timber  roofs,  without 
being  able  to  detect  any  spider's  webs.  He  accounts,  however,  for  this, 
on  the  principle  that  jlies  are  not  to  be  found  in  such  situations,  and 
therefore  spiders  do  not  frequent  them.  How  would  this  remark  agree 
with  the  number  of  cobwebs  found  in  the  stone  roof  of  King's  College  ? 

'  habitation.']  The  waters  of  those  springs  are  held  to  bee  most  medi 

CHAP.  Til.]  OF   EAST   ANI^   WEST.  15y 

Marcus  Varro*  commendetli  tlie  same  situation,  and  exposeth 
his  farm  unto  the  equinoxial  ascent  of  the  sun ;  and  that 
Palladius  adviseth  the  front  of  his  edifice  should  so  respect 
the  south,  that  in  the  first  angle  it  receiye  the  rising  rays  of 
the  winter  sun,  and  decline  a  little  from  the  winter  setting 
thereof.  And  concordant  hereunto'  is  the  instruction  of 
Columella,,  De  positione  villce;  which  he  contriveth  into  sum- 
mer and  winter  habitations,  ordering  that  the  winter  lodgings 
regard  the  winter  ascent  of  the  sun,  that  is  south-east ;  and 
the  rooms  of  repast  at  supper,  the  equinoxial  setting  thereof, 
that  is,  the  west ;  that  the  summer  lodgings  regard  the  equi- 
noxial meridian  :  but  the  rooms  of  cenation  in  the  summer, 
he  obverts  unto  the  winter  ascent,  that  is,  south-east ;  and 
the  balnearies,  or  bathing-places,  that  they  may  remain  under 
the  sun  until  evening,  he  exposeth  unto  the  summer  setting, 
that  is,  north-west ;  in  all  which,  although  the  cardinal  points 
be  introduced,  yet  is  the  consideration  solary,  and  only  deter- 
mined unto  the  aspect  or  visible  reception  of  the  sun. 

Jews  and  Mahometans  in  these  and  our  neighbour  parts 
are  observed  to  use  some  gestures  towards  the  east,  as  at 
their  benediction,  and  the  killing  of  their  meat.  And  though 
many  ignorant  spectators,  and  not  a  few  of  the  actors,  con- 
ceive some  magick  or  mystery  therein,  yet  is  the  ceremony 
only  topical,  and  in  a  memorial  relation  unto  a  place  they 
honour.  So  the  Jews  do  carry  a  respect  and  cast  an  eye 
upon  Jerusalem,  for  which  practice  they  are  not  without  the 
example  of  their  forefathers,  and  the  encouragement  of  their 
wise  king ;  for  so  it  is  said  that  Daniel  "  went  into  his  house, 
and  his  windows  being  opened  towards  Jerusalem,  he  kneeled 
upon  his  knees  three  times  a  day,  and  prayed."  f  So  is  it 
expressed  in  the  prayer  of  Solomon :  "What  prayer  or  suppli- 
cation soever  be  made  by  any  man,  which  shall  spread  forth 
his  hands  towards  this  house ;  if  thy  people  go  out  to  battle, 
and  shall  pray  unto  the  Lord  towards  the  city  which  thou 

*  De  Re  Rustica.  f  Dan.  vi. 

cinal  (of  all  others)  which  rise  into  the  easte,  for  this  very  reason  here 
alleaged  :  hence  in  the  west  parts  of  England,  to  difference  such  from 
all  others,  they  call  them  bj'  a  significant  name,  East-up -springs,  inti- 
mating by  that  proper  name,  a  proper  kind  of  excellencye,  above  other 
springs,  especially  yf  the  soile  from  whence  they  rise  bee  chalke,  or 
pure  gravell.  —  Wr. 

160  OF   EAST   AND   WEST.  [bOOK  TI. 

hast  chosen,  and  towards  the  house  which  I  have  chosen  to 
build  for  thy  name,  then  hear  thou  in  heaven  their  prayer 
and  their  supplication,  and  maintain  their  cause."  Now  the 
observation  hereof,  unto  the  Jews  that  are  dispersed  west- 
ward, and  such  as  most  converse  with  us,  directeth  their 
regard  unto  the  east ;  but  the  words  of  Solomon  are  appliable 
unto  all  quarters  of  heaven,  and  by  the  Jews  of  the  east  and 
south  must  be  regarded  in  a  contrary  position.  So  Daniel  in 
Babylon  looking  toward  Jerusalem  had  his  face  toward  the 
west.  So  the  Jews  in  their  o\vn  land  looked  upon  it  from 
all  quarters  :  for  the  tribe  of  Judah  beheld  it  to  the  north  ; 
Manasses,  Zabulon,  and  Napthali  unto  the  south ;  Reuben 
and  Grad  unto  the  west ;  only  the  tribe  of  Dan  regarded  it 
directly  or  to  the  due  east.  So  when  it  is  said :  "  AVhen  you 
see  a  cloud  rise  out  of  the  west,  you  say  there  cometli  a 
shower,  and  so  it  is  ;  "*  the  observation  was  respective  unto 
Judea ;  nor  is  this  a  reasonable  illation,  in  all  other  nations 
whatsoever.  For  the  sea  lay  west  unto  that  country,  and  the 
winds  brought  rain  from  that  quarter ;  but  this  consideration 
cannot  be  transferred  unto  India  or  China,  which  have  a  vast 
sea  eastward,  and  a  vaster  continent  toward  the  west.  So 
likewise,  when  it  is  said  in  the  vulgar  translation,  "  Gold 
cometh  out  of  the  north, "f  it  is  no  reasonable  inducement 
unto  us  and  many  other  countries,  from  some  particular 
mines  septentrional  unto  his  situation,  to  search  after  that 
metal  in  cold  and  northern  regions,  which  we  most  plenti- 
fully discover  in  hot  and  southern  habitations. 

For  the  Mahometans,  as  they  partake  with  all  religions  in 
something,  so  they  imitate  the  Jews  in  this.  Por  in  their 
observed  gestures,  they  hold  a  regard  unto  Mecca  and  Me- 
dina Talnaby,  two  cities  in  Arabia  Felix,  where  their  prophet 
was  born  and  buried,  whither  they  perform  their  pilgrimages, 
and  from  whence  they  expect  he  should  return  again.  And 
therefore  they  direct  their  faces  unto  these  parts  ;  which, 
unto  the  Mahometans  of  Barbary  and  Egypt,  lie  east,  and 
are  in  some  point  thereof  unto  many  other  parts  of  Turkey. 
"Wherein  notwithstanding  there  is  no  oriental  respect ;  for 
with  the  same  devotion  on  the  other  side,  they  regard  these 
parts  toward  the  west,  and  so  with  variety  wheresoever  they 
are  seated,  conforming  unto  the  ground  of  their  conception. 
*  Luke  xii.  +  Job  xxxvii. 

CHAP.  VII.]  OF   EAST   AND   WEST.  161 

Fourthly,  whereas  in  the  ordering  of  the  camp  of  Israel, 
the  east  quarter  is  appointed  unto  the  noblest  tribe,  that  is, 
the  tribe  of  Judah,  according  to  the  command  of  God,  "  In 
the  east  side  toward  the  rising  of  the  sim  shall  the  standard 
of  the  tribe  of  Judah  pitch  ;"*  it  doth  not  peculiarly  extol 
that  point.  For  herein  the  east  is  not  to  be  taken  strictly, 
but  as  it  signifieth  or  implieth  the  foremost  place  ;  for  Judah 
had  the  van,  and  many  countries  through  which  they  passed 
were  seated  easterly,  unto  them.  Thus  much  is  implied  by 
the  original,  and  expressed  by  translations  which  strictly  con- 
form thereto.  So  Tremellius,  Castra  habentium  ah  anteriore 
parte  Orientem  versus,  vexillum  esto  castrorum  Judce  :  so  hath 
K.  Solomon  Jarchi  expounded  it ;  the  foremost  or  before  is 
the  east  quarter,  and  the  west  is  called  behind.  And  upon 
this  interpretation  may  aU  be  salved  that  is  allegeable 
against  it.  For  if  the  tribe  of  Judah  were  to  pitch  before 
the  tabernacle  at  the  east,  and  yet  to  march  first,  as  is  com- 
manded. Numb.  X.,  there  must  ensue  a  disorder  in  the  camp, 
nor  could  they  conveniently  observe  the  execution  thereof. 
For  when  they  set  out  from  Mount  Sinai,  where  the  command 
was  delivered,  they  made  northward  unto  Eithmah ;  from 
Eissah  uutoEziongaber  about  fourteen  stations  they  marched 
south ;  from  Almon  Diblathaim  through  the  mountains  of 
Abarim  and  plains  of  Moab  toward  Jordan  the  face  of  their 
march  was  west.  So  that  if  Judah  were  strictly  to  pitch  in 
the  east  of  the  tabernacle,  every  night  he  encamped  in  the 
rear ;  and  if  (as  some  conceive)  the  whole  camp  could  not  be 
less  than  twelve  miles  long,  it  had  been  preposterous  for  him 
to  have  marched  foremost,  or  set  out  first,  who  was  most 
remote  from  tlie  place  to  be  approached. 

Fifthly,  that  learning,  civility,  and  arts,  had  their  beginning 
in  the  east,  it  is  not  imputable  either  to  the  action  of  the 
sun,  or  its  orientality,  but  the  first  plantation  of  man  in  those 
parts,  which  unto  Europe  do  carry  the  respect  of  east.  For 
lOn  the  mountains  of  Ararat,  this  is,  part  of  the  hill  Taurus, 
;  between  the  East  Indies  and  Scythia,  as  Sir  W.Raleigh  ac- 
j  counts  it,  the  ark  of  Noah  rested ;  from  the  east  they  travelled 
ithat  built  the  tower  of  Babel :  from  thence  they  were  dis- 
Ipersed  and  successively  enlarged,  and  learning,  good  arts,  and 
iiU  civility  communicated.  The  progression  whereof  was  very 
;  *  Numb.  ii. 

1      VOL.  II.  M 

162  OF    EAST    AlfD   AVEST.  [bOOK  TT, 

sensible,  and  if  we  consider  the  distance  of  time  between  the 
coufusion  of  Babel,  and  the  civility  of  many  parts  now  eminent 
therein,  it  travelled  late  and  slowly  into  our  quarters.  For 
notwithstanding  the  learning  of  bards  and  Druids  of  elder 
times,  he  that  sliall  peruse  that  work  of  Tacitus,  De  moribus 
Germanorum,  may  easily  discern  how  little  civility  two  thou- 
sand years  had  wrought  upon  that  nation ;  the  like  he  may 
observe  concerning  ourselves  from  the  same  author  in  the 
life  of  Agricola,  and  more  directly  from  Strabo,  who,  to  the 
dishonour  of  our  predecessors,  and  the  disparagement  of 
those  that  glory  in  the  antiquity  of  their  ancestors,  affirmeth 
tlie  Britons  were  so  simple,  that  though  they  abounded  in 
milk,  they  had  not  the  artifice  of  cheese. 

Lastly,  that  the  globe  itself  is  by  cosmographers  divided 
into  east  and  west,  accounting  from  the  first  meridian,  it  doth 
not  establish  this  conceit.  For  that  division  is  not  natiu-ally 
founded,  but  artificially  set  down,  and  by  agreement,  as 
the  aptest  terms  to  define  or  commensurate  the  longitude  of 
places.  Thus  the  ancient  cosmographers  do  place  the  division 
of  the  east  and  western  hemisphere,  that  is,  the  first  term 
of  longitude,  in  the  Canary  or  Fortunate  Islands  ;  conceiving 
these  parts  the  extremest  habitations  westward.  But  the 
moderns  have  altered  that  term,  and  translated  it  unto  the 
Azores  or  islands  of  St.  Michael,  and  that  upon  a  plausible 
conceit  of  the  small  or  insensible  variation  of  the  compass  in 
those  parts.  Wherein  nevertheless,  and  though  upon  a  second 
invention,  they  proceed  upon  a  common  and  no  appropriate 
foundation ;  for  even  in  that  meridian  farther  north  or  south 
the  compass  observably  varieth  ;2  and  there  are  also  other 

*  varieth.]  Mr.  Gunter,  about  35  yeares  agoe,  observd  the  variation 
of  the  compass  at  Redriff  not  to  bee  greate  by  an  excellent  needle  of 
8  inches  lengthe  ;  yet  now  at  tliis  day  the  variation  in  the  very  same 
place  is  about  halfe  a  pointe  different,  as  some  artizians  confidently 
avouch  upon  experience  ;  and  our  best  mathematicians  aver  that  there 
is  a  variation  of  the  former  variations  dayly  ;  whereof  the  cause  may  bee 
in  the  several  loadstones  brought  from  several  places.  For  the  mines 
of  iron,  whence  they  are  taken,  not  running  all  exactly  north  and  southe, 
may  imprinte  a  different  force,  and  verticity  in  the  needles  toueht  by 
them,  according  to  the  difference  of  their  own  situation.  Soe  that  the 
variation  is  not,  or  can  bee  in  respect  of  the  pole,  but  of  the  needles.  It 
would  be  therefore  exactly  inquired  by  several  large  stones  old  and  new, 
whetlier  the  verticity  of  them  severally  be  alwayes  the  same  in  the  sajpf 
place  or  noe. —  Wi: 

CHAP.  VIII.]  OF   THE   ElVER  NILUS.  163 

places  wherein  it  varieth  not,  as  Alphonso  and  Eodoriges 
de  Lago  will  have  it  about  Capo  de  las  Agullas,  in  Africa ; 
as  Maurolycus  affirmeth  in  the  shore  of  Peloponnesus,  in 
Europe ;  and  as  Grilbertus  averreth,  La  the  midst  of  great 
regions,  in  most  parts  of  the  earth. 


Of  the  River  Nilus. 

Hekeof  uncontrollably  and  under  general  consent  many 
opinions  are  passant,  which  notwithstanding,  upon  due  ex- 
amination, do  admit  of  doubt  or  restriction.  It  is  generally 
esteemed,  and  by  most  unto  our  days  received,  that  the  river 
of  Nilus  hath  seven  ostiaries,  that  is,  by  seven  channels  dis- 
burdened itself  into  the  sea.  Wherein,  notwithstanding, 
beside  that  we  find  no  concurrent  determination  of  ages 
past,  and  a  positive  and  undeniable  refute  of  these  present, 
the  affirmative  is  mutable,  and  must  not  be  received  without 
all  limitation. 

For  some,  from  whom  we  receive  the  greatest  illustrations 
of  antiquity,  have  made  no  mention  hereof  So  Homer  hath 
given  no  number  of  its  channels,  nor  so  much  as  the  name 
thereof  in  use  with  all  historians.  Eratosthenes  in  his  de- 
scription of  Egypt  hath  likewise  passed  them  over.  Aristotle 
is  so  indistinct  in  their  names  and  numbers,  that  in  the  first 
of  Meteors  he  plainly  affirmeth,  the  region  of  Egypt  (which 
we  esteem  the  ancientest  nation  of  the  world)  was  a  mere 
gained  ground,  and  that  by  the  settling  of  mud  and  limous 
matter  brought  down  by  the  river  Nilus,  that  which  was  at 
first  a  continued  sea,^  was  raised  at  last  into  a  firm  and 
habitable  country.  The  like  opinion  he  held  of  Mseotis 
Palus,  that  by  the  floods  of  Tanais  and  earth  brought  down 
thereby,  it  grew  observably  shallower  in  his  days,  and  would 
in  process  of  time  become  a  firm  land.     And  though  '•  his 

^  sea.]     Moore. 

*  And  thowjh.']  Yet  after  Aristotel  740  yeares,  about  the  yeare  o^ 
Christ  410,  itt  became  soe  fordable  that  the  Huns  and  Vandals  (obRerv- 
ing  a  hinde  to  goe  usually  through  itt  to  the  pastures  in  Natolia)  came 
in  Buch  swaims  iiver  the  same  way,  that  at  last  they  overrann  all  Europe 
also. —  Wr. 

M  2 

164  OF   THE   EIVER  ISILUS.  [bOOK  VI. 

conjecture  be  not  as  yet  fulfilled,  yet  is  the  like  observable 
in  the  river  Gihon,^  a  branch  of  Euphrates  and  river  of 
Paradise,  which  having  in  former  ages  discharged  itself  into 
the  Persian  Sea,  doth  at  present  fall  short,  being  lost  in  the 
lakes  of  Chaldea,  and  hath  left  between  them  and  the  sea  a 
large  and  considerable  part  of  dry  land. 

Others  expressly  treating  hereof,  have  diversely  delivered 
themselves.  Herodotus  in  his  Euterpe  makes  mention  of 
seven,  but  carelessly  of  two  hereof,  that  is,  Bolbitinum  and 
Bucolicum  ;^  for  these,  saith  he,  were  not  the  natural  cur- 
rents, but  made  by  art  for  some  occasional  convenience. 
Strabo,  in  his  geography,  naming  but  two,  Peleusiacum  and 
Canopicum,  plainly  affirmeth  there  were  more  than  seven ; 
Inter  hoec  alia  quinque,  &c.  There  are,  saith  he,  many  re- 
markable towns  within  the  currents  of  Nile,  especially  such 
which  have  given  the  names  unto  the  ostiaries  thereof,  not 
unto  all,  for  they  are  eleven,''  and  four  besides,  but  unto 
seven  and  most  considerable,  that  is,  Canopicum,  Bolbitinum, 
Selenneticum,  Sebenneticum,^  Phamiticum,  Mendesium, 
Taniticum,  and  Pelusium,  wherein  to  make  up  the  number, 
one  of  the  artificial  channels  of  Herodotus  is  accounted. 
Ptolemy,  an  Egj^ptian,  and  born  at  the  Pelusian  mouth  of 
Xile,  in  his  geography  maketh  nine,^  and  in  the  third  map 
of  Africa,  hath  unto  their  mouths  prefixed  their  several 
names,  Heracleoticum,  Bolbitinum,  Sebenneticum,  Pinep- 
tum,  Diolcos,  Pathmeticum,  Mendesium,  Taniticum,  Peleu- 
siacum, wherein  notwithstanding  there  are  no  less  than  three 
difterent  names  from  those  delivered  by  Pliny.  All  which 
considered,  we  may  easily  discern  that  authors  accord  not 
either  in  name  or  number,  and  must  needs  confirm  the  judg- 
ment of  Maginus,  de  Ostioruvi  Nili  numero  et  nominihus, 
vcdde  antiqui  scriptores  discordant. 

^  Gihon.]  The  river  which  rann  by  Verulara  was  once  navigable  up 
to  the  wals  thereof,  as  appears  by  story,  and  anchors  digd  up,  but  is 
now  rich  land,  20  miles  lower. —  Wr. 

^  but  carelessly,  cfcc]  Yet  these  are  now  the  principal  branches 

'  eleven.]     Thirteen  in  all  by  Strabo,  yet  Honterus  reckons  17. —  Wr. 

*  Sebennetimm.]  Is  aunciently  divided  into  Saiticum  and  Mende- 
sium.—  Wr. 

'  nine.'l  Of  note,  the  rest  smaller  branches,  and  soe  not  considerable, 
and  therefore  omitted. —  Wr. 

CHAP.  Till.]  or   THE  EIVEE   NILTTS.  165 

Modern  geographers'  and  travellers  do  much  abate  of  this 
number,  for  as  Maginus  and  others  observe,  there  are  now 
but  three  or  four  mouths  thereof;  as  Grulielmus  Tyrius  long 
ago,  and  BeUonius  since,  both  ocular  enquirers,  with  others 
have  attested.  For  below  Cairo,  the  river  divides  itself 
into  four  branches,  whereof  two  make  the  chief  and  navi- 
gable streams,  the  one  running  to  Pelusium  of  the  ancients, 
and  now  Damietta;^  the  other  imto  Canopium,  and  now 
Eosetta  ;^  the  other  two,  saith  Mr.  Sandys,  do  run  between 
these,  but  poor  in  water.  Of  those  seven  mentioned  b\' 
Herodotus,  and  those  nine  by  Ptolemy,  these  are  all  I  could 
either  see  or  hear  of.  Which  much  confirmeth  the  testi- 
mony of  the  bishop  of  Tyre,  a  diligent  and  ocular  enquirer, 
who  in  his  Holy  War  doth  thus  deliver  himself :  "  We 
wonder  much  at  the  ancients,  who  assigned  seven  mouths 
unto  Nilus,  which  we  can  no  otherwise  salve  than  that  by 
process  of  time,  the  face  of  places  is  altered,  and  the  river 
hath  lost  its  channels,  or  that  our  forefathers  did  never 
obtain  a  true  account  thereof."'* 

And  therefore,  when  it  is  said  in  Holy  Scripture,  "  The 
Lord  shall  utterly  destroy  the  tongue  of  the  Egyptian  sea, 
and  with  his  mighty  wind  he  shall  shake  his  hand  over  the 
river,  and  shall  smite  it  in  the  seven  streams,  and  make  men 
go  over  dry-shod,"*  if  this  expression  concerneth  the  river 
Nilus,  it  must  only  respect  the  seven  principal  streams.  But 
the  place  is  very  obscure,  and  whether  thereby  be  not  meant 
the  river  Euphrates,  is  not  without  some  controversy  ;  as  is 
collectible  from  the  subsequent  words  ;  "  And  there  shall  be 
an  high  way  for  the  remnant  of  his  people,  that  shall  be  left 
from  Assyria;"  and  also  from  the  bare  name  river,  empha- 
tically signifying  Euphrates,  and  thereby  the  division  of  the 
Assyrian  empire  into  many  fractions,  whicli  might  facilitate 
their  return;  as  Grotiusf  hath  observed,  and  is  more  plainly 

*  Isa.  xi.  15.  t  O)'-  Not.  in  Isaiam. 

'  geographers.']  But  Honterus,  in  his  geographical  map  of  ^gypt, 
sets  downe  17,  distinct  in  situation  and  name,  and  hee  wrote  not  soe 
long  agoe,  that  they  should  since  bee  varyed. —  Wr. 

2  now  Dandetta.']     This  is  the  Bucolic  of  Herodotus. 

'  now  Rosetta.]     The  Bolbitine  branch  of  Herodotus. 

••  Which  much  confirmeth,  tfcc]  This  sentence  and  the  following  para- 
graph were  first  added  in  the  2nd  edition. 

166  OF    THE    EITER    NILTIS.  [bOOK  Xl. 

made  out,  if  the*  Apocrypha  of  Esdras,  anl  that  of  thef 
Apocalypse  have  any  relation  hereto.^ 

Lastly,  whatever  was  or  is  their  number,  the  contrivers  of 
cards  and  maps  alFord  us  no  assurance  or  constant  descrip- 
tion therein.  For  whereas  Ptolemy  hath  set  forth  nine ; 
Houdius  in  his  map  of  Africa,  makes  but  eight,  and  in  that 
of  Eui'ope  ten  :  Ortelius,  in  the  map  of  the  Turkish  empire, 
setteth  down  eight,  in  that  of  Egypt  eleven  ;  and  Maginus, 
in  his  map  of  that  country,  hath  observed  the  same  number. 
And  if  we  enquire  farther,  we  shall  find  the  same  diversity 
aud  discord  in  divers  others. 

Thus  may  we  perceive  tliat  this  account  was  differently 
related  by  the  ancients,  that  it  is  undeniably  rejected  by  the 
moderns,  and  must  be  warily  received  by  any.  For  if  we 
receive  them  all  into  account,  they  were  more  than  seven  ; 
if  only  the  natiu'al  sluices  they  were  fewer ;  and  however  we 
receive  them,  there  is  no  agreeable  and  constant  description 
thereof;  and  therefore  how  reasonable  it  is  to  di'aw  conti- 
nual and  durable  deductions  from  alterable  and  uncertain 
foundations ;  let  them  consider  who  make  the  gates  of 
Thebes,  and  the  mouths  of  this  river  a  constant  and 
continued    periphrasis    for    this    number,^    and    iu    their 

*  2  Esdr.  xiii.  43,  47.  +  Apoc.  xvi.  12. 

^  And  therefore,  ttc]  Bishop  Lowth  considers  this  passage  as  con- 
veying an  allusion  to  the  passage  of  the  Eed  Sea.  But  he  cites  a 
story  told  by  "  Herodotus  (i.  189),  of  his  Cyrus,  that  may  somewhat  illus- 
trate this  passage  ;  in  which  it  is  said  that  God  would  inflict  a  kind  of 
punishment  and  judgment  on  the  Euphrates,  and  render  it  fordable 
Ijy  dividing  it  into  seven  streams.  Cyrus,  being  impeded  in  his  march 
to  Babylon  by  the  Gyudes,  a  deep  and  rapid  river,  which  falls  into  the 
Tygris,  and  having  lost  one  of  his  sacred  white  horses  that  attempted 
to  pass  it,  was  so  enraged  against  the  river,  that  he  threatened  to 
reduce  it,  and  make  it  so  shallow  that  it  should  be  easily  fordable,  even 
by  women,  who  should  not  be  up  to  their  knees  in  passing  it.  Accord- 
ingly he  set  his  whole  army  to  work,  and  cutting  360  trenches  from 
both  sides  of  the  river,  turned  the  waters  into  them,  and  drained 
them  off." 

^  tmmber.]  Why  should  wee  call  the  ancients  to  accompt  for  that 
which,  tho'  then  true,  is  now  altered  after  2000  yeares.  Let  us  rather 
hence  collect  the  mutability  of  all  things  under  the  moone. —  Wr. 

In  the  first  edition  the  following  words  are  added  to  this  paragraph, 
but  have  been  omitted  in  all  the  subsequent  editions  : — "  conceiving  a 
perpetuity  in  mutability  upon  unstable  foundations  erecting  eternal 

CHAP.  Vm.]  OF   THE   EIVEB    NIXUS.  167 

poetical  expressions  do  give  the  river  that  epithet  unto  this 

The  same  river  is  also  accounted  the  greatest  of  the  earth, 
called  therefore  Fluviorum  pater,  and  totius  Orbis  maximtts, 
by  Ortelius.  If  this  be  true,  many  maps  must  be  corrected, 
or  the  relations  of  divers  good  authors  renounced. 

For  first,  in  the  delineations  of  many  maps  of  Africa,  the 
river  Niger  exceedeth  it  about  ten  degrees  in  length,  that 
is,  no  less  than  six  hundred  miles.  For  arising  beyond  the 
equator  it  maketh  northward  almost  15  degrees,  and  deflect- 
ing after  westward,  without  meanders,  continueth  a  straight 
course  about  40  degrees,  and  at  length  with  many  great  cur- 
rents disburdeneth  itself  into  the  occidental  ocean.  Again, 
if  we  credit  the  descriptions  of  good  authors,  other  rivers 
excel  it  in  length,  or  breadth,  or  both.  Arrianus,  in  his  his- 
tory of  Alexander,  assigneth  the  first  place  unto  the  river 
Ganges ;  which  truly  according  unto  later  relations,  if  not 
in  length,  yet  in  breadth  and  depth,  may  be  granted  to  excel 
it.  For  the  magnitude  of  Nilus  consisteth  in  the  dimension 
of  longitude,  and  is  inconsiderable  in  the  other ;  what  stream 
it  maintaineth  beyond  Syene  or  Esna,  and  so  forward  unto 
its  original,  relations  are  very  imperfect ;  but  below  these 
places,  and  further  removed  from  the  head,  the  current  is 
but  narrow ;  and  we  read,  in  the  history  of  the  Turks,  the 
Tartar  horsemen  of  Selimus  swam  over  the  Nile  from  Cairo 
to  meet  the  forces  of  Tonumbeus.  Baptista  Scortia,*  ex- 
pressly treating  hereof,  preferreth  the  river  of  Plate  in  Ame- 
rica, for  that,  as  Maffeus  hath  delivered,  falleth  into  the 
ocean  in  the  latitude  of  forty  leagues,  and  with  that  force 
and  plenty,  that  men  at  sea  do  taste  fresh  water  before  they 
approach  so  near  as  to  discover  the  land.  So  is  it  exceeded 
by  that  which  by  Cardan  is  termed  the  greatest  in  the  world, 
that  is  the  river  Oregliana  in  the  same  continent ;  which,  as 
Maginus  delivereth,  hath  been  navigated  6000  miles,  and 
opens  in  a  channel  of  ninety  leagues  broad,  so  that,  as 
Acosta,  an  ocular  witness,  recordeth,  they  that  sail  in  the 
middle  can  make  no  land  on  either  side.^ 

Now  the  ground  of  this  assertion  was  surely  the  magni- 
*  De  natwrd  et  incremento  Nili. 

'  side.]  Oregliana  river  ia  6000  miles  longe,  270  nailes  broad  at  the 
mouth. —  Wr. 

168  OF    THE    RIYEE    NILUS.  [bOOK  Ti. 

fying  esteem  of  the  ancients,  arising  fi-om  the  indiscoverv  of 
its  head.^  For  as  things  unknown  seem  greater  tlian  they 
are,  and  are  usually  received  with  amplifications  above  their 
nature  ;  so  might  it  also  be  with  this  river,  whose  head  being 
^lnknow^l  and  di'awn  to  a  proverbial  obscurity,  the  opinion 
thereof  became  without  bounds,  and  men  must  needs  con- 
ceit a  large  extent  of  that  to  which  the  discovery  of  no  man 
had  set  a  period.  And  this  is  an  usual  way,  to  give  the 
superlative^  unto  things  of  eminency  in  any  kind,  and  when 
a  thing  is  very  great,  presently  to  define  it  to  be  the  greatest 
of  all.  Whereas  indeed  superlatives  are  difficult ;  whereof 
there  being  but  one  in  every  kind,  their  determinations  are 
dangerous,  and  must  not  be  made  witliout  great  circumspec- 
tion. So  the  city  of  Rome  is  magnified  by  the  Latins  to  be 
the  greatest  of  the  earth ;  but  time  and  geography  inform 
us  that  Cairo  is  bigger,  and  Quinsay,  in  China,  far  exceedeth 
both.  So  is  Olympus  extolled  by  the  Greeks,  as  an  hill 
attaining  luito  heaven  ;  but  the  enlarged  geography  of  after 
times  makes  slight  accoimt  hereof,  when  they  discourse  of 
Andes  in  Peru,  or  Tenerifie  in  the  Canaries.'  And  we  under- 
stand, by  a  person  who  hath  lately  had  a  fair  opportunity  to 
behold  the  magnified  Mount  Olympus,  that  it  is  exceeded 
by  some  peaks  of  the  Alps.  So  have  all  ages  conceived,  and 
most  are  still  ready  to  swear,  the  wren  is  the  least  of  birds ; 

*  head.]  Maximus  Tyrius,  tutor  to  Aurel.  Antonin.  emperor,  taxeth 
the  vaine  solicitude  of  Alexander  to  discover  the  head  of  the  Nile,  and 
enquired  rather  si  a  Deo  bona  omnia,  uncle  mala  fluimt,  tDc. —  Wr. 

^  superlative.]     A  noble  lord  was  wont  to  say  the  best  trowts  are  in 
as  manj'  places  of  England,  as  afford  any  trowtes,  for  every  place  mag- 
nifies theire  owne.     Hence  TuUye  wittily  drew  an   argument  from  the 
mouths  of  all  the  philosophers  against  themselves,  that  the  secte  of  the 
Academicks  (whereof  he  was  one)  was  the  best.      For,  saythe  hee,  aske 
the  Stoicke  which  is  the  best,  and  he  will  saj'  the  Stoick.     But  then 
aske  which  is  the  next  best,  hee  will  say  the  Academick.    Soe  aske  of  the 
Peripatetick,   the  CjTiicke,   the  Pythagorian,   the  Platonick,  and  the 
Pyn-onian  or  sceptick,  which  of  all  is  the  best,  each  of  these  will  mag-i 
nifie    and    advance   his   owne    as  the  prime,    but   next   his    owne  the] 
Academicke.     Therefore  hee  concludes,  and  that  most  invinciblye,  that! 
which  by  the  confession  of  all  interests  in  severall  is  the  second,  is  inl 
every  truthe  the  firste  :  for  what  each  speakes  of  his  owne  is  partiall,"| 
but  whatt  all  confesse  to  be  the  second  best  after  their  owne,  is  by  all] 
confession  the  very  prime  of  all. —  Wr. 

•*  Canaries.']       Pico,    in   the  Azores,    3   miles  highe  like  a   sugar j 
loaf 6. —  Wr. 

CHAP.  Till.]  OF    THE    RIYEE   NILIJS.  169 

yet  the  discoveries  of  America,  and  even  of  our  own  planta- 
tions, have  showed  us  one  far  less,  that  is,  the  humbird,  not 
much  exceeding  a  beetle.  And  truly,  for  the  least  and 
greatest,  the  highest  and  the  lowest  of  every  kind,  as  it  is 
very  difficult  to  define  them  in  visible  things,  so  is  it  to  un- 
derstand in  things  invisible.  Thus  is  it  no  easy  lesson  to 
comprehend  the  first  matter,  and  the  affections  of  that  which 
is  next  neighbour  unto  nothing,  but  impossible  truly  to  com- 
prehend God,  who  indeed  is  all  in  all.  For  things,  as  they 
arise  into  perfection,  and  approach  unto  God,  or  descend 
to  imperfection,  and  draw  nearer  unto  nothing,  fall  both 
imperfectly  into  our  apprehensions,  the  one  being  too 
weak  for  our  conceptions,  our  conceptions  too  weak  for  the 

Thirdly,  divers  conceptions  there  are  concerning  its  incre- 
ment or  inundation.  The  first  unwarily  opinions,  that  this 
increase  or  annual  overflowing  is  proper  unto  Nile,  and  not 
agreeable  unto  any  other  river,  which  notwithstanding  is 
common  unto  many  currents  of  Africa.  For  about  the  same 
time  the  river  Niger  and  Zaire  do  overflow,  and  so  do  the 
rivers  beyond  the  Mountains  of  the  Moon,  as  Suama  and 
Spirito  Santo.  And  not  only  these  in  Africa,  but  some  also 
in  Europe  and  Asia  ;2  for  so  is  it  reported  of  Menan  in 
India,  and  so  doth  Botero  report  of  Duina  in  Livonia,  and 
the  same  is  also  observable  in  the  river  Jordan,  in  Judea,  for 

*  some  in  Europe  and  Asia.]  And  in  America,  where  the  Eio  de  la 
Plata  is  flooded  at  certain  periods,  and  like  the  Nile  inundates  and  fer- 
tilizes the  country.  The  Indians  then  leave  their  huts,  and  betake 
themselves  to  their  canoes,  in  which  they  float  about,  until  the  waters 
have  retired.  In  the  month  of  April,  in  1793,  it  happened  tliat  a  cur- 
rent of  wind,  of  an  extraordinary  nature  and  violence,  hejiped  up  the 
immense  mass  of  water  of  this  river  to  a  distance  of  ten  leagues,  so 
that  the  whole  country  was  submersed,  and  the  bed  of  the  river  re- 
mained dry  in  such  a  manner,  that  it  might  be  walked  over  with  dry 
feet.  The  vessels  which  had  foundered  and  sunk,  were  all  exposed 
again,  and  there  was  found,  among  others,  an  English  vessel,  which 
had  perished  in  1762.  Many  people  descended  into  this  bed,  visited 
and  spoiled  the  vessels  thus  laid  dry,  and  returned  with  their  pockets 
filled  with  silver  and  other  precious  articles,  which  had  been  buried 
more  than  thirty  years  in  the  deep.  This  phenomenon,  which  may  be 
regarded  as  one  of  the  greatest  convulsions  of  nature,  lasted  three  days, 
at  the  expiration  of  which  the  wind  abated,  and  the  waters  returned 
with  fury  into  their  natural  bed. — Bulletin  Universel. 

170  OF   THE   EIVER   NILUS.  [bOOK  VI. 

SO  IS  it;  delivered  that  "  Jordan  overfloweth  all  his  banks  in 
the  time  of  harvest."*^ 

The  effect  indeed  is  wonderful  in  all,  and  the  causes  surely 
best  resolvable  from  observations  made  in  the  countries 
themselves,  the  parts  through  which  they  pass,  or  whence 
they  take  their  original.  That  of  Nilus  hath  been  attempted 
by  many,  and  by  some  to  that  despair  of  resolution,  that  they 
have  only  referred  it  unto  the  providence  of  God,  and  his 
secret  manuduction  of  all  things  unto  their  ends.  But  divers 
have  attained  the  truth,  and  the  cause  alleged  by  Diodorus, 
Seneca,  Strabo,  and  others,  is  allowable  ;  that  the  inundation 
of  Nilus  in  Egypt  proceeded  from  the  rains  in  Ethiopia,  and 
the  mighty  source  of  waters  falling  towards  the  fountains 
thereof.  For  this  inundation  unto  the  Egyptians  happeneth 
when  it  is  winter  unto  the  Ethiopians,  which  habitations, 
although  they  have  no  cold  winter,  the  sun  being  no  further 
removed  from  them  in  Cancer  than  unto  us  in  Taurus,  yet 
is  the  fervour  of  the  air  so  well  remitted,  as  it  admits  a  suffi- 
cient generaiion  of  vapours,  and  plenty  of  showers  ensuing 
thereupon.'*  This  theory  of  the  ancients  is  since  confirmed 
by  experience  of  the  moderns :  by  Franciscus  Alvarez,  who 
lived  long  in  those  parts,  and  left  a  description  of  Ethiopia, 
affirming  that  from  the  middle  of  June  unto  September,  there 
fell  in  this  time  continual  rains.  As  also  Antonius  Ferdi- 
nandus,  who  in  an  epistle  written  from  thence,  and  noted  by 
Codignus,  affirmeth  that  during  the  winter,  in  those  coun- 
tries, there  passed  no  day  without  rain. 

Now  this  is  also  usual,  to  translate  a  remarkable  quality 
into  a  propriety,  and  where  we  admire  an  effect  in  one,  to 
opinion  there  is  not  the  like  in  any  other.  With  these  con- 
ceits do  common  apprehensions  entertain  the  antidotal  and 

*  Josh.  iii. 

^  Jiarvest]     Maio  ineunte. 

■•  thereupon.]  Thia  oVjservation  is  worthye  of  notinge,  yf  you  under- 
stand itt  of  that  .Ethiopia,  which  borders  on  the  springs  of  Nilus,  sup- 
posed generally  to  flow  out  of  the  Mountains  of  the  Moon,  that  is,  15 
degrees  beyond  the  ffiquinoctiall.  Whereas  Prester  John's  courte,  of 
residence  wherein  Alvarez  lived,  is  12  degrees  on  this  side  the  line,  i.  e, 
27  degrees,  or  1620  miles  at  least.  And  this  rayne,  which  fell  in  his 
courte  from  June  to  September  overthrows  the  former  instance  of  the 
winter  raines  at  the  Mountains  of  the  Moon,  although  that  bee  the  only 
and  the  true  cause  of  the  rising  of  Nilus. —  Wr. 

CHAP.  Till. J  OF    THE    RIVEE   Nll.US.  171 

wondrous  conclition  of  Ireland,  conceiving  only  in  that  land 
an  immunity  from  venomous  creatures  ;  but  unto  him  that 
shall  further  enquire,  the  same  will  be  aiBrmed  of  Creta, 
memorable  in  ancient  stories,  even  unto  fabulous  causes,  and 
benediction  from  the  birth  of  Jupiter.  The  same  is  also 
found  in  Ebusus  or  Evisa,  an  island  near  Majorca,  upon  the 
coast  of  Spain.  With  these  apprehensions  do  the  eyes  of 
neighbour  spectators  behold  Etna,  the  flaming  mountain  iu 
Sicilia  ;  but  navigators  tell  us  there  is  a  burning  mountain^ 
in  Iceland,  a  more  remarkable  one  in  Teneriffe  of  the 
Canaries,  and  many  volcanoes  or  fiery  hills  elsewhere.  Thus 
crocodiles  were  thought  to  be  peculiar  unto  Nile,  and  the 
opinion  so  possessed  Alexander,  that  when  he  had  discovered 
some  in  Granges,  he  fell  upon  a  conceit  he  had  found  the 
head  of  Nilus  ;  but  later  discoveries  affirm  they  are  not 
only  in  Asia  and  Africa,  but  very  frequent  in  some  rivers  of 

Another  opinion^  confineth  its  inundation,  and  positively 
affirmeth,  it  constantly  increaseth  the  seventeenth  day  of 
June ;  wherein  perhaps  a  larger  form  of  speech  were  safer, 
than  that  which  punctually  prefixeth  a  constant  day  thereto. 
For  this  expression  is  different  from  that  of  the  ancients,  as 
Herodotus,  Diodorus,  Seneca,  &c.,  delivering  only  that  it 
happeneth  about  the  entrance  of  the  sun  into  Cancer ; 
wherein  they  warily  deliver  themselves,  and  reserve  a  rea- 
sonable latitude.''  So,  when  Hippocrates  saith,  Sicb  Cane  et 
ante  Canem  difficiles  sunt  purgationes,  there  is  a  latitude  of 
days  comprised  therein  ;  for  under  the  dog-star  he  containeth 
not  only  the  day  of  his  ascent,  but  many  following,  and  some 
ten  days  preceding.  So  Aristotle  delivers  the  affections  of 
animals,  with  the  very  terms  of  circa,  et  magna  ex  parte  ;  and, 
when  Theodorus  translateth  that  part  of  his  "  coeunt  thunni 
et  scombri  mense  Februario  post  Idits,  pariunt  Junio  ante 
Nonas,'''  Scaligerfor  ^^  ante  Nonas'''  renders  it  '■'■  Jwiii  initio,'^ 
because  that  exposition  affbrdeth  the  latitude  of  divers  days. 

'  burning  mountain.^     Called  Hecla. 

^  Another,  dbc]     Lord  Bacon,  Natural  History,  Expenment  743. 

''  latitude.]  This  is  all  one  with  the  former,  for  in  their  times  the  0 
then  entered  q^  or  rather  soner  soe  that  this  about  hath  a  large  latitude  : 
for  at  the  sumer  solstice,  or  his  coming  to  Cancer,  hee  does  little  varye 
his  declination  for  almost  a  month's  space. —  Wr. 

172  OF    THE    RITER    >'ILITS.  [bOOK  YX. 

For  affirming  it  happeneth  before  the  Nones,  he  alloweth 
but  one  day,  that  is  the  Calends ;  for  in  the  Roman  account, 
the  second  day  is  the  fourth  of  the  Nones  of  June.^ 

Again,  were  tlie  day  definitive,  it  had  prevented  the 
delusion  of  the  devil,  nor  could  he  have  gained  applause  by 
its  prediction ;  who,  notwithstandiBg  (as  Athanasius  in  the 
life  of  Anthony  relateth),  to  magnify  his  knowledge  in 
things  to  come,  when  he  perceived  the  rains  to  fall  in 
Ethiopia,  would  presage  unto  the  Egyptians  the  day  of 
its  inundation.  And  this  would  also  make  useless  that 
natural  experiment  observed  in  earth  or  sand  about  the 
river ;  by  the  weight  whereof  (as  good  authors  report)  they 
have,  unto  this  day,  a  knowledge  of  its  increase.^ 

Lastly,  it  is  not  reasonable  from  variable  and  unstable 
causes  to  derive  a  fixed  and  constant  eftect,  and  such  are  the 
causes  of  this  iniindation,  which  cannot  indeed  be  regular, 
and  therefore  their  eflects  not  prognosticable,  like  eclipses, 
Eor,  depending  upon  the  clouds  and  descent  of  showers  in 
Ethiopia,  which  have  their  generation  from  vaporous  exhala- 
tions, they  must  submit  their  existence  unto  contingencies, 
and  endure  anticipation  and  recession  from  the  moveable 
condition  of  their  causes.  And  therefore  some  years  there 
hath  been  no  increase  at  all,  as  some  conceive  in  the  years 
of  famine  under  Pharaoh ;  as  Seneca  and  divers  relate  of  the 
eleventh  year  of  Cleopatra ;  nor  nine  years  together,  as  is 
testified  by  Calisthenes.  Some  years  it  hath  also  retarded, 
and  come  far  later  than  usually  it  was  expected,  as  according 

9  June.]  Reckoning  the  nones  as  they  doe  the  calends  a  retro. —  Wi: 
'  incrccise.]  They  have  now  a  more  certain  way,  for  all  the  ancienta 
agree  that  Nilus  begins  to  flow  about  the  beginning  of  July  (the  sonn 
going  out  of  Cancer  into  Leo),  and  about  the  end  of  September  returnea 
within  his  bankes  againe.  From  the  first  rise  to  his  wonted  level  are 
commonly  100  days:  the  just  bight  is  16  cubits.  In  12  cubits  they 
are  sure  of  a  famine,  in  13  of  scarcitye  and  dearthe,  14  cubits  makes 
them  merye,  15,  secure,  and  16,  triumphe,  beyonde  this  (which  is  rare) 
they  looke  sad  agen,  not  for  feare  of  want,  but  lest  the  slow  fall  of  the 
■waters  should  defer  the  seed-time  to  longe  ;  which  usually  begins  in 
9ber,  and  the  harvest  is  in  Maye.  But  of  this  you  may  read  at  large  in 
Tlmjen  Natural  Historye,  lib.  v.  cap.  9,  and  lib.  xviii.  cap.  18.  But 
most  excellently  in  Seneca's  iv.  lib.  of  natural  questions,  which  is 
vvorthe  the  reading.  Itt  seems  that  in  the  7  yeares  of  famine  wherof 
Joseph  (instructed  by  God)  prophesyed,  there  had  noe  rain  fain  iu 
Ethiopia,  and  that  therefore  Nilus  had  not  overflowed. —  Wr. 

CHAP.  Till.]  or   THE    EIVER   NILUS.  173 

to  Sozomen  and  Nicephorus  it  happened  in  the  days  of 
Theodosius ;  whereat  the  people  were  ready  to  mutiny, 
because  they  might  not  sacrifice  unto  the  river,  according  to 
the  custom  of  their  predecessors. 

Now  this  is  also  an  usual  way  of  mistake,  and  many  are 
deceived  who  too  strictly  construe  the  temporal  considera- 
tions of  things.  The  books  will  tell  us,  and  we  are  made  to 
believe,  that  the  fourteenth  year  males  are  seminifical  and 
pubescent ;  but  he  tliat  shall  enquire  into  the  generality,  will 
rather  adhere  unto  the  cautelous  assertion  of  Aristotle,  that 
is,  his  septem  annis  exactis,  and  then  but  magna  ex  parte. 
That  whelps  are  blind  nine  days,  and  then  begin  to  see,  is 
generally  believed ;  but  as  we  have  elsewhere  declared,  it  is 
exceeding  rare,  nor  do  their  eyelids  usually  open  imtil  the 
tweltth,  and  sometimes  not  before  the  fourteenth  day.  And 
to  speak  strictly,  an  hazardable  determination  it  is,  unto 
fluctuating  and  indifferent  effects  to  affix  a  positive  type  or 
period,  For  in  effects  of  far  more  regular  causalities,  diffi- 
culties do  often  arise,  and  even  in  time  itself,  which  measureth 
all  things,  we  use  allowance  in  its  commensuration.  Thus 
while  we  conceive  we  have  the  account  of  a  year  in  365 
days,  exact  enquirers  and  computists  wiU  tell  us,  that  we 
escape  six  hours,^  that  is,  a  quarter  of  a  day.  And  so  in  a 
day,  which  every  one  accounts  twenty-four  hours,  or  one 
revolution  of  the  sun  ;  in  strict  account  we  must  allow  the 
addition  of  such  a  part  as  the  sun  doth  make  in  his  proper 
motion,  from  west  to  east,  whereby  in  one  day  he  describeth 
not  a  perfect  circle. 

Fourthly,  it  is  affirmed  by  many,  and  received  by  most, 
that  it  never  raineth  in  Egypt,  the  river  supplying  that 
defect,  and  bountifully  requiting  it  in  its  inundation :  but 
this  must  also  be  received  in  a  qualified  sense,  that  is,  that  it 
rains  but  seldom  at  any  time  in  the  summer,  and  very  rarely 
in  the  winter.     But  that  great  showers  do  sometimes  fall 

'  escape  six  hours.]  Lege  overreckon  every  common  yeare  10'  44'' 
according  to  Alphonsus,  and  every  4  th  yeare,  42'  56".  But  Tycho  by 
long  and  exact  observation  sayes  the  retrocession  made  by  this  over- 
reckoninge  is  now  but  41',  precisely  :  so  that  in  300  yeares  to  come  the 
retrocession  of  the  sequinoxes  in  the  Julian  kalendar  (for  in  heaven  they 
are  fixed)  cannot  bee  above  one  day  :  eoe  that  the  kalendar  reformed 
would  remaine  to  all  times, —  Wr. 

174  OP   THE   EITER   NILUS.  [bOOK  VI. 

upon  that  region,  beside  the  assertion  of  many  writers,  we 
can  confirm  from  honourable  and  ocular  testimony,*  and 
that  not  many  years  past  it  rained  in  Grand  Cairo  divers 
days  together. 

The  same  is  also  attested  concerning  other  parts  of  Egypt, 
by  Prosper  Alpinus,  who  lived  long  in  that  country,  and 
hath  left  an  accurate  treatise  of  the  medical  practice  thereof. 
Gayri  rarb  decidunt  pluvice ;  Alexandrics,  Pelusiique  et  in 
omnibtis  locis  mart  adjacentibus,  pluit  largissime  et  scepe ; 
that  is,  it  raineth  seldom  at  Cairo,  but  at  Alexandria, 
Damietta,  and  places  near  the  sea,  it  raineth  plentifidly  and 
often.  Whereto  we  might  add  the  latter  testimony  of 
learned  Mr.  Greaves,  in  his  accurate  description  of  the 

Beside,  men  hereby  forget  the  relation  of  Holy  Scripture. 
"  Behold  I  will  cause  it  to  rain  a  very  great  hail,^  such  as 
hath  not  been  in  Egypt  since  the  foundation  thereof,  even 
until  now."t  Wherein  God  threatening  such  a  rain  as  had 
not  happened,  it  must  be  presumed  they  had  been  acquainted 
with  some  before,  and  were  not  ignorant  of  the  substance, 
the  menace  being  made  in  the  circumstance.  The  same 
concerning  had  is  inferrible  from  Prosper  Alpinus,  Earissime 
nix,  grando,  it  seldom  snoweth  or  haileth  :  whereby  we  must 
concede  that  snow  and  hail  do  sometimes  fall,  because  they 
happen  seldom.^ 

Now  this  mistake  ariseth  from  a  misapplication  of  the 
bounds  or  limits  of  time,  and  an  undue  transition  from  one 
unto  another  ;  which  to  avoid,  we  must  observe  the  punctual 
differences  of  time,  and  so  distinguish  thereof,  as  not  to  con- 
found or  lose  the  one  in  the  other.  For  things  may  come 
to  pass,  semper,  plerumque,  scepe  ;  aut  oiunquam,  aJiquando, 
raro ;  that  is,  always,  or  never,  for  the  most  part,  or  some- 
times, oft-times,  or  seldom.  Now  the  deception  is  usual 
N.hichis  made  by  the  mis-application  of  these;  men  pre- 

*  Sir  WilL^m  Pcoston,  Baronet.  f  Exod.  ix. 

*  The  snrtKr  is  also,  dx.]     First  added  in  2nd  edition. 

*  rain — hail.]  Haile  is  raine  as  itt  fals  first  out  of  the  clowde,  but 
freeses  as  itt  fals,  and  turnes  into  haile-stones,  yf  the  lower  ayre  bee 
colder  then  that  from  whence  it  fals. —  Wr: 

*  The  same  conceriivs  hail,  tt-c]     First  added  in  2nd  edition. 

CHAP.  Till.]  OF   THE   EIVEB  NILUS.  175 

sently  concludiug  that  to  happen  often,  which  happeneth 
but  sometimes :  that  never,  which  happeneth  but  seldom ; 
and  that  always,  which  happeneth  for  the  most  part.  So  is 
it  said,  the  sun  shines  every  day  in  Hhodes,  because  for  the 
most  part  it  faileth  not.  So  we  say  and  believe  that  a 
chameleon  never  eateth,  but  liveth  only  upon  air ;  whereas 
indeed  it  is  seen  to  eat  very  seldom,  but  many  there  are  who 
have  beheld  it  to  feed  on  flies.  And  so  it  is  said,  that 
children  born  in  the  eighth  month  live  not,  that  is,  for  the 
most  part,  but  not  to  be  concluded  always  :  nor  it  seems  in 
former  ages  in  all  places,  for  it  is  otherwise  recorded  by 
Aristotle  concerning  the  births  of  Egj'pt. 

Lastly,  it  is  commonly  conceived  that  divers  princes  have 
attempted  to  cut  the  isthmus  or  tract  of  land  which  parteth 
the  Arabian  and  Mediterranean  seas.  But  upon  enquiry  I 
find  some  difiiculty  concerning  the  place  attempted  ;  many 
with  good  authoi'ity  affirming,  that  the  intent  was  not  imme- 
diately to  unite  these  seas,  but  to  make  a  navigable  channel 
between  the  Eed  Sea  and  the  Nile,  the  marks  whereof  are 
extant  to  this  day.  It  was  first  attempted  by  Sesostris,  after 
by  Darius,  and  in  a  fear  to  drown  the  country,  deserted  by 
them  both,  but  was  long  after  re-attempted  and  in  some 
manner  effected  by  Pliiladelphus.  And  so  the  Grand 
Signior,  who  is  lord  of  the  country,  conveyeth  his  galleys 
into  the  Eed  Sea  by  the  Nile ;  for  he  briugeth  them  down 
to  Grrand  Cairo,  where  they  are  taken  in  pieces,  carried  upon 
camels'  backs,  and  rejoined  together  at  Suez,  his  port  and 
naval  station  for  the  sea ;  whereby  in  effect  he  acts  the 
design  of  Cleopatra,  who  after  the  battle  of  Actium  in  a 
different  way  would  have  conveyed  her  galleys  into  the 
Eed  Sea. 

And  therefore  that  proverb  to  cut  an  isthmus,  that  is,  to 
take  great  pains,  and  effect  nothing,  alludeth  not  unto  this 
attempt,  but  is  by  Erasmus  applied  unto  several  other  ;  as 
that  undertaking  of  the  Cnidians  to  cut  their  isthmus,  but 
especially  that  of  Corintli  so  unsuccessfully  attempted  by 
many  emperors.  The  Cnidians  were  deterred  by  the  peremp- 
tory dissuasion  of  ApoUo,  plainly  commanding  them  to  desist, 
for  if  God  had  thought  it  fit,  he  would  have  made  that 
country  an  island  at  first.  But  this,  perhaps,  will  not  be 
thought  a  reasonable  discouragement  unto  the  activity  of 

176  OF    THE    BED    SEA.  [bOOK  T1. 

those  spirits  which  endeavour  to  advantage  nature  by  art, 
and  upon  good  grounds  to  promote  any  part  of  the  universe ; 
nor  will  the  ill  success  of  some  be  made  a  sufficient  deter- 
ment unto  others,  who  know  that  many  learned  men  affixm, 
that  islands  were  not  from  the  beginning,  that  many  have 
been  made  since  by  art,  that  some  isthmuses  have  been  eat 
through  by  the  sea,  and  others  cut  by  the  spade.  And  if 
policy  would  permit,  that  of  Panama,  in  America,  were  most 
worthy  the  attempt,  it  being  but  few  miles  over,  and  would 
open  a  shorter  cut  unto  the  East  Indies  and  China.* 


0/  the  Red  Sea. 

CoNTBAET  apprehensions  are  made  of  the  Erythraean  or 
Eed  Sea,  most  apprehending  a  material  redness  therein,  from 
whence  they  derive  its  common  denomination ;  and  some  so 
lightly  conceiving  hereof,  as  if  it  had  no  redness  at  aU,  are 
fain  to  recur  unto  other  originals  of  its  appellation.  Wherein 
to  deliver  a  distinct  account,  we  first  observe  that  without 

*  China.]  Betweene  Panama  and  the  Nombre  de  Dios,  which  lyes  on 
bothe  sides  that  strip  of  lande,  the  Spaniards  accompte  about  40  miles 
at  most ;  but  the  Spaniard  enjoying  both  those  havens,  and  conse- 
quentlye  having  the  free  trade  of  both  seas  without  corrivalitye  of  other 
nations  (which  yf  that  passage  were  open  would  not  longe  bee  his  alone), 
will  never  endure  such  an  attempt,  and  for  that  cause  hath  fortified 
bothe  those  havens  soe  stronglye  that  hee  may  enjoye  this  proprietye 
without  controule.  But  itt  withall  supposes  that  to  cutt  through  the 
ridge  of  mountains  which  lies  betweene  those  2  havens  is  impossible,  and 
would  prove  more  unfecible  then  that  of  yEgypt,  which  yf  itt  might  be 
compassed  would  be  of  more  advantage  to  these  3  parts  of  the  world 
than  that  of  Panama,  and  nearer  by  1000  leagues  to  us,  the  remotest 
kingdome  trading  to  the  East  Indyes. —  Wr. 

This  long  projected  intercourse  with  the  East  Indies  seems — under  the 
present  enterprising  Pacha  of  Egypt,  to  be  in  a  fair  way  of  accompliah- 
luent.  Letters  thither  having  been  actually  sent  off  by  the  Mediter- 
ranean mail  in  the  spring  of  1835.  The  Pacha  has  sent  to  M.  Brunei 
requesting  his  assistance  in  carrying  on  the  great  work  of  improvement 
in  the  channel  of  the  Nile  ;  and  one  of  our  Britisli  engineers,  Mr.  Gal- 
loway, who  has  the  conduct  of  a  railway  constructing  between  Cairo  and 
Suez,  has  been  created  a  Bey  of  Egypt. 

CHAP.  IX.]  OF   THE   EED    SEA.  177 

consideration  of  colour  it  is  named  the  Arabian  Gulph, 
The  Hebrews,  who  had  best  reason  to  remember  it,  do  call 
it  Zuph,  or  the  weedy  sea,^  because  it  was  full  of  sedge,  or 
they  found  it  so  in  their  passage.  The  Mahometans,  who 
are  now  lords  thereof,  do  know  it  by  no  other  name  than 
the  Gulpli  of  Mecca,  a  city  of  Arabia. 

The  stream  of  antiquity  deriveth  its  name  from  King 
Erythrus,  so  slightly  conceiving  of  the  nominal  deduction 
from  redness,  that  they  plainly  deny  there  is  any  such  acci- 
dent in  it.  The  words  of  Curtius  are  plainly  beyond  evasion  : 
Ab  Erythro  rege  inditum  est  nomen,  propter  quod  ignari 
ruhere  aquas  credunt.  Of  no  more  obscurity  are  the  words 
of  Philostratus,  and  of  later  times,  Sabellicus ;  Stulte  per- 
suasum  est  vulgo  rubras  alicubi  esse  maris  aqtias,  quin  ab 
Erythro  rege  nomen  pelago  inditum.  Of  this  opinion  was 
Andreas  Corsalius,  Pliny,  Solinus,  Dio  Cassius,  who  although 
tliey  denied  not  all  redness,  yet  did  they  rely  upon  the 
original  from  King  Erythrus. 

Others  have  fallen  upon  the  like,  or  perhaps  the  same 
conceit  under  another  appellation,  deducing  its  name  not 
from  King  Erythrus,  but  Esau  or  Edom,  whose  habitation 
was  upon  the  coasts  thereof*  Now  Edom  is  as  much  as 
Erythrus,  and  the  Red  Sea  no  more  than  the  Idumean,  from 
whence  the  posterity  of  Edom  removing  towards  the  Medi- 
terranean coast,  according  to  their  former  nomination  by 
the  Greeks,  were  called  Phoenicians,  or  red  men,  and  from  a 
plantation  and  colony  of  theirs,  an  island  near  Spain  was  by 
the  Greek  describers  termed  Erythra,  as  is  declared  by 
Strabo  and  Solinus. 

*  More  exactly  hereof  Bochartus  and  Mr.  Dickiuson. 

®  the  xveedy  sea!\  Bruce  however  says  that  he  never  saw  a  weed  in 
it :  and  attributes  this  name  to  the  plants  of  coral  with  which  it 

"  Heb.  xi.  29,  commonly  called  the  Red  Sea.  But  this  is  a  vulgar 
error,  and  the  appellation  rather  arose  from  its  proper  name  Mare 
Erythnrum,  which  (the  commentators  say)  was  derived  from  king  Ery- 
thrus, undoubtedly  the  same  with  Esau  and  Edom,  who  was  a  red 
man — so  Grotius  and  others.  It  is  called  by  Moses,  at  Exod.  xv.  22, 
m£3  D',  the  weedy  sea,  and  such  the  accounts  of  modem  tourists, 
as  Niebuhr  and  others  (see  Huruen),  testify  it  to  be.  But  whether 
these  weeds  give  a  colour  to  it,  so  as  to  originate  the  name  Red  Sea,  is, 
I  think,  very  doubtful." — Bloomjidd,  Recensio  Synoptica,  in  loc. 

VOL.  II.  N 

178  OF   THE   BED   SEA.  [bOOK  Tl. 

Yery  many,  omitting  the  nominal  derivation,  do  rest  in 
tlie  gross  and  literal  conception  thereof,  apprehending  a  real 
redness  and  constant  colour  of  parts.  Of  which  opinion  are 
also  they  which  hold,  the  sea  receiveth  a  red  and  minious 
tincture  from  springs,  wells,  and  currents  that  fall  into  it ; 
and  of  the  same  belief  are  probably  many  Christians,  who 
conceiving  the  passage  of  the  Israelites  through  the  sea  to 
have  been  the  type  of  baptism,  according  to  that  of  the 
apostle,  "  All  were  baptized  unto  Moses  in  the  cloud,  and  in 
the  sea,"*  for  the  better  resemblance  of  the  blood  of  Christ, 
they  willingly  received  it  in  the  apprehension  of  redness,  and 
a  colour  agreeable  unto  its  mystery  ;  according  unto  tliat  of 
Austin,t  Significat  mare  illud  ruhrum  haptismum  Christi, 
wide  nobis  haptismiis  Christi,  nisi  sanguine  Christi  con- 
secratus  ? 

But  divers  moderns  not  considering  these  conceptions,  and 
appealing  unto  the  testimony  of  sense,  have  at  last  determined 
the  point,  concluding  a  redness  herein,  but  not  in  the  sense 
received.  Sir  Walter  Ealeigh,  from  his  own  and  Portugal 
observations,  doth  place  the  redness  of  the  sea  in  the  reflection 
from  red  islands,  and  the  redness  of  the  earth  at  the  bottom, 
wherein  coral  grows  very  plentifully,  and  from  whence  in 
great  abundance  it  is  transported  into  Europe.  The  observa- 
tions of  Albuquerque,  and  Stephanus  de  Grama  (as,  from 
Johannes  de  Bairros,  Fernandius  de  Cordova  relateth),  derive 
this  redness  from  the  colour  of  the  sand  and  argiUous  earth 
at  the  bottom,  for  being  a  shallow  sea,  while  it  rolleth  to  and 
fro,  there  appeareth  redness  upon  the  water,  which  is  most 
discernible  in  sunny  and  windy  weather.  But  that  this  is  no 
more  than  a  seeming  redness,he  confirmeth  by  an  experiment: 
for  in  the  reddest  part  taking  up  a  vessel  of  water,  it  diftered 
not  from  the  complexion  of  other  seas.  Nor  is  this  colour  dis- 
coverable in  every  place  of  that  sea,  for,  as  he  also  observed, 
in  some  places  it  is  very  green,  in  others  white  and  yellow, 
according  to  tlie  colour  of  the  earth  or  sand  at  the  bottom. 
And  so  may  Philosti'atus  be  made  out,  when  he  saith,  this 
sea  is  blue  ;  or  Bellonius  denying  this  redness,  because  he 
beheld  not  that  colour  about  Suez  ;  or  when  Corsahus  at  the 
mouth  thereof  could  not  discover  the  same. 

*  1  Cor.  X.  2.  t  Auf).  in  Johannem. 

CHAP.  IX.]  OF    THE   RED    SEA.  179 

Now  although  we  have  enquired  the  ground  of  redness  in 
this  sea,  yet  are  we  not  fully  satisfied.  For  (what  is  forgot 
by  many,  and  known  by  few)  there  is  another  Red  Sea,  whose 
name  we  pretend  not  to  make  out  from  these  principles,  that 
is,  the  Persian  Grulph  or  Bay,  which  divideth  the  xlrabian 
and  Persian  shore,  as  Pliny  hath  described  it,  Mare  rubrum 
in  duos  dividitiir  sinus,  is  qui  ah  Oriente  est,  Persicus  appel- 
latur ;  or,  as  Solinus  expresseth  it.  Qui  ah  Oriente  est, 
Persicus  appellatur,  ex  adverso  unde  Arabia  est,  Arahicus  ; 
whereto  assenteth  Suidas,  Ortelius,  and  many  more.  And 
therefore  there  is  no  absurdity  in  Strabo,  when  he  delivereth 
that  Tigris  and  Euphrates  do  fall  into  the  Ked  Sea,  and 
Pernandius  de  Cordova  justly  defendeth  his  comitryman 
Seneca  in  that  expression  : — 

Et  qui  renatum  prorsus  excipiens  diem 
Tepidum  Rubeiiti  Tigrin  immiscet  freto. 

Nor  hath  only  the  Persian  Sea  received  the  same  name 
with  the  Arabian,  but  what  is  strange  and  much  confounds 
the  distinction,  the  name  thereof  is  also  derived  from  King 
Erythrus,  who  was  conceived  to  be  buried  in  an  island  ot 
this  sea,  as  Dionysius,  Afer,  Curtius,  and  Suidas  do  deliver. 
Which  were  of  no  less  probability  than  the  other,  if  (as  with 
the  same  authors  Strabo  affirmeth),  he  was  buried  near  Cara- 
mania,  bordering  upon  the  Persian  Gulph.  And  if  his  tomb 
was  seen  by  Nearchus,  it  was  not  so  likely  to  be  in  the  Arabian 
Gulph ;  for  we  read  that  from  the  river  Indus  he  came  unto 
Alexander,  at  Babylon,  some  few  days  before  his  death. 
Now  Babylon  was  seated  upon  the  river  Euphrates,  which 
runs  into  the  Persian  Gulph ;  and  therefore,  however  the 
Latui  expresseth  it  in  Strabo,  tliat  Nearchus  suffered  much 
in  the  Arabian  Sinus,  yet  is  the  original  kvXttuq  TripaiKoc,  tliat 
is,  the  Gulph  of  Persia. 

That  therefore  the  Eed  Sea,  or  Arabian  Gulph,  received 
its  name  from  personal  derivation,  thoiigh  probable,  is  but 
uncertain  ;  that  both  the  seas  of  one  name  should  have  one 
common  denominator,  less  probable ;  that  there  is  a  gross 
and  material  redness  in  either,  not  to  be  affirmed  ;  that  there 
is  an  emphatical  or  appearing  redness  in  one,  not  well  to  be 
denied.  And  this  is  sufficient  to  make  good  the  allegory  of 
the  Christians,  and  in  this  distinction  may  we  justify  the  name 

N  2 

180  or    THE    BLACKNESS    OF    NEGROES.  [bOOK  TI. 

of  the  Black  Sea,  given  uuto  Pontus  Euxmus ;  the  name  of 
Xanthus,  or  the  Yellow  Eiver  of  Phrjgia ;  and  the  name  of 
Mar  Vermeio,  or  the  Eed  Sea  in  America. 


(y  tJie  BlacJcness  of  Negroei. 

It  is  evident,  not  only  in  the  general  frame  of  nature,  that 
things  most  manifest  unto  sense,  have  proved  obscure  imto 
the  imderstanding  ;  but  even  in  proper  and  appropriate  ob- 
jects, vpherein  we  affirm  the  sense  cannot  err,  the  faculties  of 
reason  most  often  fail  us.  Thus  of  colours  in  general,  under 
whose  gloss  and  varnish  all  things  are  seen,  few  or  none  have 
yet  beheld  the  true  nature,  or  positively  set  down  their  incon- 
trollable  causes.  Which  while  some  ascribe  uuto  the  mixture 
of  the  elements,  others  to  the  graduality  of  opacity  and  light, 
they  have  left  our  endeavours  to  grope  them  out  by  twilight, 
and  by  darkness  almost  to  discover  that  whose  existence  is 
evidenced  by  light.  The  chemists  have  laudably  reduced 
their  causes  unto  sal,  sulphur,  and  mercury,  and  had  they 
made  it  out  so  well  in  this  as  in  the  objects  of  smell  and  taste, 
their  endeavours  had  been  more  acceptable  :  for  whereas  they 
refer  sapor  unto  salt,  and  odor  imto  sulphur,  they  vary  much 
concerning  colour  ;  some  reducing  it  uuto  merciu-y ;  some  to 
sulphur ;  others  unto  salt.  Wherein  indeed  the  last  conceit 
doth  not  oppress  the  former ;  and  though  sulphur  seem  to 
carry  the  master-stroke,  yet  salt  may  have  a  strong  co-opera- 
tion. For  beside  the  fixed  and  terrestrious  salt,  there  is  in 
natural  bodies  a  sal  nitre  referring  unto  sulphur ;  there  is 
also  a  volatile  or  armoniack  salt  retaining  unto  mercury ;  by 
which  salts  the  colovu-s  of  bodies  are  sensibly  qualified,  and 
receive  degrees  of  lustre  or  obscurity,  superficiality  or  pro- 
fundity, fixation  or  volatility. 

Their  general  or  first  natures  being  thus  obscure,  there 
will  be  greater  difficulties  in  their  particular  discoveries ;  for 
beiug  farther  removed  from  tlieir  simplicities,  they  fall  into 
more  complexed  considerations  ;  and  so  require  a  subtiler  act 
of  reason  to  distinguish  and  call  forth  tlieir  natures.  Thus 
although  a  man  understood  the  general  nature  of  colours,  yet 

CHAP.  X.]  OF    TUE    BLACKNESS    OF    NEGEOES.  181 

were  it  no  easy  problem  to  resolve,  why  grass  is  green  ?  Wliy 
garlic,  molyes,  and  porrets  have  white  roots,  deep  green  leaves, 
and  black  seeds  ?  Why  several  docks  and  sorts  of  rhubarb 
with  yellow  roots,  send  forth  purple  flowers  ?  Why  also  from 
lactory  or  milky  plants,  which  have  a  white  and  lacteous  juice 
dispersed  through  every  part,  there  arise  flowers  blue  and 
yellow  ?  moreover,  beside  the  special  and  first  digressions 
ordamed  from  the  creation,  which  might  be  urged  to  salve 
the  variety  in  every  species,  why  shall  the  marvel  of  Peru 
produce  its  flowers  of  different  colours,  and  that  not  once,  or 
constantly,  but  every  day,  and  variously  ?  Why  tulips  of  one 
colour  produce  some  of  another,  and  running  through  almost 
all,  should  still  escape  a  blue?^  And  lastly,  why  some  men,  yea 
and  they  a  mighty  and  considerable  part  of  mankind,  should 
first  acquire  and  still  retain  the  gloss  and  tincture  of  black- 
ness ?  Which  whoever  strictly  enquires,  shall  find  no  less  of 
darkness  in  the  cause, than  in  the  effect  itself;  there  arising 
unto  examination  no  such  satisfactory  and  unquarrellable  rea- 
sons, as  may  confirm  the  causes  generally  received,  which  are 
but  two  in  number ; — the  heat  and  scorch  of  the  sun,  or  the 
curse  of  Grod  on  Cham  and  his  posterity. 

The  first  was  generally  received  by  the  ancients,  who  in 
obscurities  had  no  higher  recourse  than  unto  nature  ;  as  may 
appear  by  a  discourse  concerning  this  point  in  Strabo  :  by 
Aristotle  it  seems  to  be  implied,  in  those  problems  which  en- 
quire, why  the  sun  makes  men  black,  and  not  the  fire  ?  why 
it  whitens  wax,  yet  blacks  the  skin  ?  by  the  word  Ethiops 
itself,  applied  to  the  memorablest  nations  of  negroes,  that  is, 
of  a  burnt  and  torrid  countenance.  The  fancy  of  the  fable 
infers  also  the  antiquity  of  the  opinion ;  which  deriveth  the 
complexion  from  the  deviation  of  the  sun  :  and  the  conflagra- 
tion of  all  things  under  Phaeton.  But  this  opinion,  though 
generally  embraced,  was  I  perceive  rejected  by  Aristobulus,  a 
very  ancient  geographer,  as  is  discovered  by  Strabo.  It  hath 
been  doubted  by  several  modern  writers,  particularly  by 
Ortelius  ;  but  amply  and  satisfactorily  discussed  as  we  know 
by  no  man.  We  shall  therefore  endeavour  a  full  delivery 
hereof,  declaring  the  grounds  of  doubt,  and  reasons  of  denial, 

'  should  still  escape  a  hlue.^  Dr.  Shaw  remarks,  in  his  Panorama  oj 
Nature,  p.  619,  that  shells  are  of  almost  all  colours  but  blue.  The  reason 
seems  to  be  the  eflfects  of  salt  water  on  that  colour. — Jeff. 

182  OF    THE    BLACKNESS    OF    KEGROES.         [bOOK  TI. 

which  rightly  uuderstood,  may,  if  not  overthrow,  yet  shrewdly 
shake  the  security  of  this  assertion. 

And  first,  many  which  countenance  the  opinion  in  this 
reason,  do  tacitly  and  upon  consequence  overthrow  it  in 
another.  For  whilst  they  make  the  river  Senega  to  divide 
and  bound  the  Moors,  so  that  on  the  south  side  they  are 
black,  on  the  other  only  tawny,  they  imply  a  secret  causality 
herein  from  the  air,  place,  or  river  ;  and  seem  not  to  derive 
it  from  the  sun,  the  effects  of  whose  activity  are  not  precipi- 
tously abrupted,  but  gradually  proceed  to  their  cessations. 

Secondly,  if  we  affirm  that  this  effect  proceeded,  or  as  we 
will  not  be  backward  to  concede,  it  may  be  advanced  and 
fomented  from  the  fervour  of  the  sun  ;  yet  do  we  not  hereby 
discover  a  principle  sufficient  to  decide  the  question  concern- 
ing other  animals  ;  nor  doth  he  that  affirmeth  that  heat 
makes  man  black,  afford  a  reason  why  other  animals  in  the 
same  habitations  maintain  a  constant  and  agreeable  hue  luito 
those  in  other  parts,  as  lions,  elephants,  camels,  swans,  tigers, 
ostriches,  which,  though  in  Ethiopia,  in  the  disadvantage  of 
two  summers,  and  perpendicular  rays  of  the  sun,  do  yet  make 
good  the  complexion  of  their  species,  and  hold  a  colourable 
correspondence  imto  those  in  milder  regions.  Now  did  this 
complexion  proceed  from  heat  in  man,  the  same  would  be 
communicated  unto  other  animals,  which  equally  participate 
the  influence  of  the  common  agent.  For  thus  it  is  in  the 
effects  of  cold,  in  regions  far  removed  from  the  sim ;  for 
tliereiu  men  are  not  only  of  fail*  complexions,  gray-eyed,  and 
of  light  air ;  but  many  creatures  exposed  to  the  air,  deflect 
in  extremity  from  their  natural  colours  ;  from  brown,  russet, 
and  black,  receiving  the  complexion  of  winter,  and  turning 
perfect  white.  Thus  Olaus  Magnus  relates,  that  after  the 
autumnal  equinox,  foxes  begin  to  grow  white  ;  thus  Michovius 
reporteth,  and  we  want  not  ocular  confirmation,  that  hares 
and  partridges  turn  white  in  the  winter ;  and  thus  a  white 
crow,  a  proverbial  rarity  with  us,  is  none  unto  them ;  but 
that  inseparable  accident  of  porphyry  is  separated  in  many 

Thirdly,  if  the  fervour  of  the  sun,  or  intemperate  heat  of 
clime  did  solely  occasion  this  complexion,  surely  a  migration 
or  change  thereof  might  cause  a  sensible,  if  not  a  total 
mutation ;  which  notwithstanding  experience  will  not  admit. 

CHAP.  X.]     OF  THE  BLACKNESS  OF  NEGROES.       183 

For  Negroes  transplanted,  although  into  cold  and  phlegmatick 
habitations,  continue  their  hue  both  in  themselves,  and  also 
their  generations,  except  they  mix  with  different  complexions ; 
whereby,  notwithstanding  there  only  succeeds  a  remission  of 
their  tinctures,  there  remaining  unto  many  descents  a  strong 
shadow  of  originals,  and  if  they  preserve  their  copulations 
entire,  they  still  maintain  their  complexions.  As  is  very 
remarkable  in  the  dominions  of  the  Grand  Signior,  and  most 
observable  in  the  Moors  in  Brasilia,  which,  transplanted 
about  an  hundred  years  past,  continue  the  tinctures  of  their 
fathers  unto  tliis  day.  And  so  likewise  fair  or  white  people 
translated  into  hotter  countries  receive  not  impressions 
amounting  to  this  complexion,  as  hath  been  observed  in 
many  Europeans  who  have  lived  in  the  land  of  Negroes  : 
and  as  Edvardus  Lopez  testifieth  of  the  Spanish  planta- 
tions, that  they  retained  their  native  complexions  unto  his 

Fourthly,  if  the  fervour  of  the  sun  were  the  sole  cause 
hereof  in  Ethiopia  or  any  land  of  Negroes,  it  were  also  rea- 
sonable that  inhabitants  of  the  same  latitude,  subjected  unto 
the  same  vicinity  of  the  sun,  the  same  diurnal  arch,  and 
direction  of  its  rays,  should  also  partake  of  the  same  hue  and 
complexion ;  which  notwithstanding  they  do  not.  For  the 
inhabitants  of  the  same  latitude  in  Asia  are  of  a  different 
complexion,  as  are  the  inhabitants  of  Cambogia  and  Java ; 
insomuch  that  some  conceive  the  Negro  is  properly  a  native 
of  Africa,  and  that  those  places  in  Asia,  inhabited  now  by 
Moors,  are  but  the  intrusions  of  Negroes,  arriving  first  from 
Africa,  as  we  generally  conceive  of  Madagascar,  and  the 
adjoining  islands,  who  retain  the  same  complexion  unto  this 
day.  But  this  defect  is  more  remarkable  in  America ;  which 
although  subjected  unto  both  the  tropicks,  yet  are  not  the 
inhabitants  black  between,  or  near,  or  under  either :  neither 
to  the  southward  in  Brasilia,  Chili,  or  Peru ;  nor  yet  to  the 
northward  in  Hispaniola,  Castilia,  del  Oro,  or  Nicaragua. 
And  although  in  many  parts  thereof  there  be  at  present 
swarms  of  Negroes  serving  under  the  Spaniard,  yet  were 
they  all  transported  from  Africa,  since  the  discovery  of 
Columbus  ;  and  are  not  indigenous  or  proper  natives  of 

Fifthly",  we  cannot  conclude  this  complexion  in  nations 

184  OF  THE  blace:>"ess  or  negroes.         [book  tt. 

from  the  vicinity  or  habitude  they  hold  unto  the  sun  ;  for 
even  in  Africa  they  be  Negroes  under  the  southern  tropick, 
but  are  not  all  of  this  hue  either  under  or  near  the 
northern.  So  the  people  of  Gualata,  Agades,  Garamantes, 
and  of  Goaga,  all  within  the  northern  tropicks,  are  not 
Negroes  ;  but  on  the  other  side  Capo  Negro,  Cefala,  and 
Madagascar,  they  are  of  a  jetty  black. 

Now  if  to  salve  this  anomaly  we  say,  the  heat  of  the  sun 
is  more  powerful  in  the  southern  tropick,  because  in  the 
sign  of  Capricorn  falls  out  the  perigeum  or  lowest  place  of 
the  sun  in  his  eccentric,  whereby  he  becomes  nearer  unti 
them  than  unto  the  other  in  Cancer,  we  shall  not  absohv 
the  doubt.  And  if  any  insist  upon  such  niceties,  and  will 
presume  a  different  effect  of  the  sun,  from  such  a  difference 
of  place  or  vicinity :  we  shall  balance  the  same  with  the 
concernment  of  its  motion,  and  time  of  revolution,  and  say 
he  is  more  powerful  iu  the  northern  hemisphere,  and  in  the 
apogeum :  for  therein  his  motion  is  slower,  and  so  is  his 
heat  respectively  unto  those  habitations,  as  of  more  diu-a- 
tion,  so  also  of  more  effect.  For  though  he  absolve  his 
revolution  in  365  days,  odd  hours  and  minutes,  yet  by 
reason  of  eccentricity,  his  motion  is  unequal,  and  his  course 
far  longer  in  the  northern  semicircle,  than  in  the  southern ; 
for  the  latter  he  passeth  in  178  days,  but  the  other  takes 
him  187,  that  is,  nine  days  more.  So  is  his  presence  more 
continued  unto  the  northern  inhabitants ;  and  the  longest 
day  in  Cancer  is  longer  imto  us  than  that  in  Capricorn 
unto  tlie  southern  habitator.  Beside,  hereby  we  only  infer 
an  inequality  of  heat  in  different  tropicks,  but  not  an 
equality  of  effects  in  other  parts  subjected  to  the  same. 
For  in  the  same  degree,  and  as  near  the  earth  he  makes  his 
revolution  unto  the  American,  whose  inhabitants,  notwith- 
standing, partake  not  of  the  same  effect.  And  if  herein 
we  seek  a  relief  from  the  dog-star,  we  shall  introduce  an 
effect  proper  unto  a  few,  from  a  cause  common  unto  many  : 
for  upon  the  same  groiuids  that  star  should  have  as  forcible 
a  power  upon  America  and  Asia ;  and  although  it  be  not 
vertical  unto  any  part  of  Asia,  but  only  passeth  by  Beach, 
in  Teova  Incognita ;  yet  is  it  so  unto  America,  and  verti- 
cally passeth  over  the  habitations  of  Peru  and  Brasilia. 

Sixthly,  and  whicli  is  very  considerable,  there  are  Negroes 

CHAP.  X.]     OF  THE  BLACKNESS  OF  NEGROES,        185 

in  Africa  beyond  the  southern  tropick,  and  some  so  far 
removed  from  it,  as  geographically  the  clime  is  not  intem- 
perate, that  is,  near  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  in  36  of  the 
southern  latitude.  Whereas  in  the  same  elevation  north- 
ward, the  inhabitants  of  America  are  fair ;  and  they  of 
Europe  in  Candy,  Sicily,  and  some  other  parts  of  Spam, 
deserve  not  properly  so  low  a  name  as  tawny. 

Lastly,  whereas  the  Africans  are  conceived  to  be  more 
peculiarly  scorched  and  terrified  from  the  sun,  by  addition  of 
dryness  from  the  soil,  from  want  and  defect  of  water,  it  will 
not  excuse  the  doubt.  For  the  parts  which  the  Negroes 
possess,  are  not  so  void  of  rivers  and  moisture,  as  is  pre- 
sumed ;  for  on  the  other  side  the  Mountains  of  the  Moon, 
in  that  great  tract  called  Zanzibar,  there  are  the  mighty 
rivers  of  Suama,  and  Spirito  Santo ;  on  this  side,  the  great 
river  Zaire,  the  mighty  Nile  and  Niger  ;  which  do  not  only 
moisten  and  contemperate  the  air  by  their  exhalations,  but 
refresh  and  humectate  the  earth  by  their  annual  invmda- 
tions.  Beside  in  that  part  of  Africa,  which  with  all  disad- 
vantage is  most  dry  (that  is,  in  situation  between  the 
tropicks,  defect  of  rivers  and  inimdations,  as  also  abundance 
of  sands),  the  people  are  not  esteemed  Negroes  ;  and  that 
is  Libya,  which  with  the  Greeks  carries  the  name  of  all 
Africa.  A  region  so  desert,  dry,  and  sandy,  that  travellers 
(as  Leo  reports)  are  fain  to  carry  water  on  their  camels ; 
whereof  they  find  not  a  drop  sometime  in  six  or  seven  days. 
Tet  is  this  country  accounted  by  geographers  no  part  of 
Terra  Nigritarum,  and  Ptolemy  placeth  therein  the  LeucO' 
jSStldopes,  or  pale  and  tawny  Moors. 

Now  the  ground  of  this  opinion  might  be  the  visible 
quality  of  blackness  observably  produced  by  heat,  fire,  and 
smoke ;  but  especially  with  the  ancients  the  violent  esteem 
they  held  of  the  heat  of  the  sun,  in  the  hot  or  torrid  zone ; 
conceiving  that  part  unhabitable,  and  therefore,  that 
people  in  the  vicinities,  or  frontier  thereof,  could  not  escape 
without  this  change  of  their  complexions.  But  how  far 
they  were  mistaken  in  this  apprehension,  modern  geography 
hath  discovered :  and  as  we  have  declared,  there  are  many 
within  this  zone  whose  complexions  descend  not  so  low  aa 
unto  blackness.  And  if  we  should  strictly  insist  hereon, 
the  possibility  might  fall  into  question ;  that  is,  whethei 

186  OF   THE   BLACKNESS    OF    NEGROES.  [bOOK  TT. 

the  heat  of  the  sun,  whose  fervour  may  swart  a  Hving  part, 
-and  even  black  a  dead  or  dissolving  flesh,  can  yet  in  animals, 
whose  parts  are  successive  and  in  continual  flux,  produce 
this  deep  and  perfect  gloss  of  blackness. 

Thus  having  evinced,  at  least  made  dubious,  the  sun  is 
not  the  author  of  this  blackness,  how,  and  when  this  tinc- 
ture first  began  is  yet  a  riddle,  and  positively  to  determine 
it  surpasseth  my  presumption.  Seeing  therefore  we  cannot 
discover  what  did  eflect  it,  it  may  aflbrd  some  piece  of 
satisfaction  to  know  what  might  procure  it.  It  may  be 
therefore  considered  whether  the  inward  use  of  certain  waters 
or  fountains  of  peculiar  operations,  might  not  at  first  produce 
the  effect  in  question.  For  of  the  like  we  have  records  in 
Aristotle,  Strabo,  and  Pliny,  who  hath  made  a  collection 
hereof,  as  of  two  fountains  in  Boeotia,  the  one  making  sheep 
white,  the  other  black  ;  of  the  water  of  Siberis  which  made 
oxen  black,  and  the  like  eflect  it  had  also  upon  men,  dying 
not  only  the  skin,  but  making  their  hairs  black  and  curled. 
This  was  the  conceit  of  Aristobulus  ;  who  received  so  little 
satisfaction  from  the  other  (or  that  it  might  be  caused  by 
heat,  or  any  kind  of  flre),  that  he  conceived  it  as  reasonable 
to  impute  the  effect  unto  water. 

Secondly,  it  may  be  perpended  whether  it  might  not  fall 
out  the  same  way  that  Jacob's  cattle  became  speckled, 
spotted,  and  ring-straked,  that  is,  by  the  power  and  efficacy 
of  imagination ;  which  produceth  effects  in  the  conception 
correspondent  unto  the  fancy  of  the  agents  in  generation, 
and  sometimes  assimilates  the  idea  of  the  generator  into 
a  reality  in  the  thing  engendered.  For,  hereof  there  pass 
for  current  many  indisputed  examples ;  so  in  Hippocrates 
we  read  of  one,  that  from  an  intent  view  of  a  picture  con- 
ceived a  Negro ;  and  in  the  history  of  Heliodore,*  of  a 
Moorish  queen,  who  upon  aspection  of  the  picture  of 
Andromeda,  conceived  and  brought  forth  a  fair  one. 
And  thus  perhaps  might  some  say  was  the  beginning  of 
this  complexion,  induced  flrst  by  imagination,  which  having 
once  impregnated  the  seed,  found  afterward  concurrent 
co-operations,  which  were  continued  by  climes,  whose  con- 
stitution advantaged  the  first  impression.  Thus  Plotinua 
conceiveth  white  peacocks  first  came  in.     Thus  many  opi- 

•  YiAe^lura  apudTho.  Fienum,  de  viribus  imagination^. 

CHAP.  X.]  OF    THE    BLACKNESS    OF    NEOEOES.  187 

nion  that  from  aspection  of  the  snow,  which  lieth  along  in 
northern  regions,  and  high  mountains,  hawks,  kites,  bears, 
and  other  creatures  become  white ;  and  by  this  way  Austin 
conceiveth  the  devil  provided  they  never  wanted  a  white- 
spotted  ox  in  Egypt ;  for  such  an  one.  they  worshipped,  and 
called  Apis. 

Thirdly,  it  is  not  indisputable  whether  it  might  not  pro- 
ceed from  such  a  cause  and  the  like  foundation  of  tincture, 
as  doth  the  black  jaundice,  which  meeting  with  congenerous 
causes  might  settle  durable  inquinations,  and  advance  their 
generations  unto  that  hue,  which  were  naturally  before  but 
a  degree  or  two  below  it.  And  this  transmission  we  shall 
the  easier  admit  in  colour,  if  we  remember  the  like  hath 
been  effected  in  orgauical  parts  and  figures  ;  the  symmetry 
whereof  being  casually  or  purposely  perverted  their  mor- 
bosities  have  vigorously  descended  to  their  posterities,  and 
that  in  durable  deformities.  This  was  the  beginning  of 
Macrocephali,  or  people  with  long  heads,  whereof  Hippo- 
crates* hath  clearly  delivered  himself:  Cumprimum  editus  est 
infans,  caput  ejus  tenellum  inanihus  effingunt,  et  in  longitudine 
adoJescere  cogunt ;  hoc  institutum  jtrimum  hujusmodi,  natwcB 
dedit  vitium,  successu  verb  temporis  in  naturam  ahiit,  ut 
proinde  instituto  nihil  amplius  opus  esset ;  semen  enim  geni' 
tale  ex  omnibus  corporis  p)('^tibus  provenit,  ex  sanis  quidem 
sanum,  ex  mo7-hosis  inorhosum.  Si  igitur  ex  calvis  calvi,  ex 
ccesiis  ccesii,  et  ex  distort  is,  ut  plurimum,  distorti  gignuntur. 
eademq^ue  in  cceteris  formis  valet  ratio ;  quid  prohihet  cur 
lion  ex  macrocephalis  macrocephali  gignantur?  Thus  as 
Aristotle  observeth,  the  deer  of  Arginusa  had  their  ears 
divided;  occasioned  at  first  by  slitting  the  ears  of  deer. 
Thus  have  the  Chinese  little  feet,  most  Negroes  great  lips 
and  flat  noses ;  and  thus  many  Spaniards,  and  Mediter- 
ranean inhabitants,  which  are  of  the  race  of  Barbary  Moors 
(although  after  frequent  commixture),  have  not  worn  out 
the  Camoyst  nose  unto  this  day. 

Artificial  Negroes,  or  Gipsies,  acquire  their  complexion 
by  anointing  their  bodies  with  bacon  and  fat  substances, 
and  so  exposing  them  to  the  sun.  In  Guinea  Moors  and 
others,  it  hath  been  observed,  that  they  fi-equently  moisten 
their  skins  with  fat  and  oily  materials,  to  temper  the  irksome 
*  De  Aere,  Aquis,  etLocis.  +  FlatNoae. 

188  or    THE    BLACKNESS    OF    KEGROES.  [bOOK  Tt. 

dryness  thereof  from  the  parching  rays  of  the  sun.  Whe- 
ther this  practice  at  first  had  not  some  efficacy  toward  thia 
complexion,  may  also  be  considered.^ 

Lastly,  if  we  still  be  urged  to  particularities,  and  such  as 
declare  how,  and  when  the  seed  of  Adam  did  first  receive 
this  tincture ;  we  may  say  that  men  became  black  in  the 
same  manner  that  some  foxes,  squirrels,  lions,  first  turned 
of  this  complexion,  whereof  there  are  a  constant  sort  in 
divers  countries ;  that  some  choughs  came  to  have  red  legs 
and  bills  ;  that  crows  became  pied.^  All  which  mutations, 
however  they  began,  depend  on  durable  fomidations ;  and 
such  as  may  continue  for  ever.  And  if  as  yet  we  must 
farther  define  the  cause  and  manner  of  this  mutation,  we 
must  confess,  ixi  matters  of  antiquity,  and  such  as  are 
decided  by  history,  if  their  originals  and  first  beginnings 
escape  a  due  relation,  they  fall  into  great  obsciu'ities,  and 
such  as  future  ages  seldom  reduce  unto  a  resolution. 
Thus  if  j'^ou  deduct  the  administration  of  angels,  and  that 
they  dispersed  the  creatures  into  all  parts  after  the  flood, 
as  they  had  congregated  them  into  Noah's  ark  before,  it 
will  be  no  easy  question  to  resolve,  how  several  sorts  of 
animals  were  first  dispersed  into  islands,  and  almost  how 
any  into  America.  How  the  venereal  contagion  began  in 
that  part  of  the  earth,  since  history  is  silent,  is  not  easily 
resolved  by  philosophy.  For  whereas  it  is  imputed  unto 
anthropophagy,  or  the  eating  man's  flesh,  that  cause  hath 
been  common  unto  many  other  countries,  and  there  have 
been  cannibals  or  men-eaters  in  the  three  other  parts  of  the 
world,  if  we  credit  the  relations  of  Ptolemy,  Sti-abo,  and 
PUny.  And  thus  if  the  favourable  pen  of  Moses  had  not 
revealed  the  confusion  of  tongues,  and  positively  declared 
their  division  at  Babel ;  our  disputes  concerning  their 
beginning  had  been  without  end,^  and  I  fear  we  must  have 
left  the  hopes  of  that  decision  unto  Elias.* 
*  £Has  cum  venerit,  solvet  dubium. 

^  Artificial  Negroes,  <fcc.]     First  added  in  the  3rd  edition. 

*  some  choughs,  <£r.]  Tliis,  however,  is  not  a  parallel  case  to  the 
varieties  existing  among  different  individuals  of  the  same  species.  The 
chough  and  the  pied  crow  are  distinct  species. — The  former  (Corvzis 
gracida)  has  ahvays  red  legs  and  bills  ;  the  latter  Corvus  caryocatactes) 
is  always  pied. 

had  w*<  revealed  the  confv^ion,  dx.']    The  question  which  forms  the 

CHAP.  X.]     OF  THE  BLACKNESS  OF  NEGBOES.        189 

And  if  any  will  yet  insist,  and  urge  the  question  farther 
BtUl  upon  me,  I  shall  be  enforced  unto  divers  of  the  like 

subject  of  this  and  the  two  following  chapters,  appears  tome  to  be  very 
much  of  the  same  class  as  those  adverted  to  in  the  present  passage : 
questions  utterly  incapable  of  solution,  in  the  absence  of  positive  infor- 
mation. We  know  the  proximate  cause  of  the  different  complexions 
existing  among  the  blacker  and  t<awny  varieties  of  the  human  race,  to 
b»  the  (UfFerent  hues  of  the  colouring  matter  contained  in  the  rete 
mucosum;  but  as  to  the  originating  cause,  we  can  scarcely  arrive  at 
even  a  probable  conjecture.  There  have  existed  various  opinions  as  to 
the  original  comjjlexion  of  mankind.  Not  only  have  the  Negroes  deemed 
themselves  the  "fairer,"  describing  the  devil  and  all  terrible  objects  as 
being  white  ; — but  they  have  contended  that  our  first  progenitor  was, 
like  themselves,  black.  Job  Ben  Solomon,  an  African  prince,  when  in 
England,  was  in  company  with  Dr.  Watts.  The  Dr.  enquiring  of  him 
why  he  and  his  countrymen  were  black,  since  Adam  was  white  ?  Job 
answered,  "How  you  know  Adam  white  ?  We  think  Adam  black; 
and  we  ask  how  you  came  to  be  white  ?"  A  question  which  it  is  not 
probable  the  Dr.  was  able  to  answer. — Mo.  Rev.  vol.  xxxviii.  p.  541, 
Mr.  Payne  Knight,  in  his  work  On  Taste,  p.  15,  is  of  the  same  opinion, 
that  Adam  in  Paradise  was  an  African  Black!!  Dr.  Pritchard  has  also 
endeavoured  to  show  that  all  men  were  originally  Negroes.  Blumen- 
bach  on  the  other  hand  supposes  the  original  to  have  been  Caucasian. 
The  influence  of  climate  has  been  the  most  generally  assigned  cause  of 
the  blackness  of  Negroes, — by  some  of  the  greatest  naturalists  both  in 
ancient  and  modern  times  ;  for  example  by  Pliny,  BufFon,  Smith,  and 
Bhimenbach.  But  it  is  a  theory  which  surely  a  careful  investigation  of 
facts  will  be  sufficient  to  overthrow.  In  addition  to  our  author's 
observations  to  this  effect,  see  those  of  the  English  editors  of  Cuvier'a 
Animal  Kingdom,  vol.  i.  p.  174. 

Nor  is  the  difficulty  as  to  the  originating  cause  of  the  varieties  in  the 
human  race  confined  to  the  mere  question  of  complexion.  It  extends 
to  the  variations  in  hair  and  beard — to  the  configuration  of  the  head — 
to  the  character  and  expression  of  countenance — the  stature  and 
symmetry  of  the  body — and  to  the  still  more  important — differences  in 
moral  and  intellectual  character.  But  of  what  use  is  it  to  exercise 
ingenuity  as  to  the  reasons  of  these  particular  variations  ?  We  see  that 
the  most  astonishing  variety  pervades  and  adorns  the  whole  range  of 
creation.  Let  us  be  content  to  resolve  it  into  the  highest  cause  to  which 
we  cp.n  ascend,  the  will  of  that  Being  who  has  thus  surrounded  himself 
with  the  glory  of  his  own  works. 

I  subjoin  some  remarks  by  Mr.  Brayley,  bearing  on  a  part  of  the 

In  an  elaborate  paper  by  Dr.  Stark,  on  the  influence  of  colour  on 
heat  and  odours,  published  in  the  Phil.  Trans,  for  1833,  are  contained 
some  observations  and  experimentswhich  tend  to  throw  considerable  light 
upon  this  subject.  Dr.  Franklin,  it  is  stated  by  the  author  of  the 
paper,  from  the  result  of  his  experiments  with  coloured  cloths  on  the 
absorption  of  beat,  drew  the  conclusion,  "  that  black  clothes  are  not  so 

190  or   THE   BLACKNESS    OF   TfEOEOES.  [bOOK   TI. 

nature,  wherein  perhaps  I  shall  receive  no  greater  satisfac- 
tion. I  shall  demand  how  the  camels  of  Bactria  came  to 
have  two  bunches  on  their  backs,  whereas  the  camels  of 
Ai'abia  in  all  relations  have  but  one  P  How  oxen  in  some 
countries  began  and  continue  gibbous  or  bunch-backed  ? 
What  way  those  many  diiferent  shapes,  colours,  hairs,  and 
natures  of  dogs  came  in?-^  How  they  of  some  countries 
became  depilous,  and  vrithout  any  hair  at  aU,  whereas  some 
sorts  in  excess  abound  therewith  ?  How  the  Indian  hare 
came  to  have  a  long  tail,  whereas  that  part  in  others  attains 

fit  to  wear  in  a  hot  sunny  climate  or  season  as  white  ones,  because  in 
such  clothes  the  body  is  more  heated  by  the  sun,  when  we  walk  abroad 
and  are  at  the  same  time  heated  by  the  exercise  :  which  double  heat  is 
apt  to  bring  on  pxitrid,  dangerous  fevers  ;"  that  soldiers  and  seamen  in 
tropical  climates  should  have  a  white  unifonn  ;  that  white  hats  should 
be  generally  worn  in  summer ;  and  that  garden  walls  for  fruit  trees 
would  absorb  more  heat  from  being  blackened. 

"  Count  Rumford  and  Sir  Evrd.  Home,  on  the  contrary,"  Dr.  Stark 
continued,  "  come  to  a  conclusion  entirely  the  reverse  of  this.  The 
count  asserts,  that  if  he  were  called  upon  to  live  in  a  very  warm  climate, 
he  would  blacken  his  skin  or  wear  a  black  shirt ;  and  Sir  Everard,  from 
direct  experiments  on  himself  and  on  a  Negro's  skin,  lays  it  down  as 
evident,  '  that  the  power  of  the  sun's  rays  to  scorch  the  skins  of  animals 
is  destroyed  when  applied  to  a  dark  surface,  although  the  absolute  heat, 
in  consequence  of  the  absorption  of  the  rays,  is  greater.*  Sir  Hum- 
phry Davy  explains  this  fact  by  saying,  '  that  the  radiant  heat  in  the 
sun's  rays  is  converted  into  sensible  heat.'  With  all  deference  to  the 
opinion  of  this  great  man,  it  by  no  means  explains  why  the  surface  of 
the  skin  was  kept  comparatively  cool.  From  the  result  of  the  experi- 
ments detailed  (in  Dr.  Stark's  paper),  it  is  evident,  that  if  a  black  sur- 
face absorbs  caloric  in  greatest  quantity,  it  also  gives  it  out  in  the  same 
proportions,  and  thus  a  circulation  of  heat  is  as  it  were  established, 
calculated  to  promote  the  insensible  perspiration,  and  to  keep  the  body 
cool.  This  view  is  confirmed  by  the  observed  fact  of  the  stronger 
odour  exhaled  by  the  bodies  of  black  people." — Br. 

2  What  way  those  many,  <£•?.]  Rev.  Mr.  Wliite,  in  his  delightful 
Natural  History  of  Sdborne,  describes  a  very  curious  breed  of  edible 
doiTs  from  China — "  such  as  are  fattened  in  that  country  for  the  purpose 
of  beinsj  eaten  :  they  are  about  the  size  of  a  moderate  spaniel ;  of  a 
pale  yellow  colour,  with  coarse  bristling  hair  on  their  backs,  sharp 
upright  ears,  and  peaked  heads,  which  give  them  a  very  fox-like  appear- 
ance. They  bark  much  in  a  short,  thick  manner,  like  foxes  ;  and  have 
a  surly  savage  demeanour,  like  their  ancestors,  which  are  not  domes- 
ticated; but  bred  up  in  sties,  where  they  are  fed  for  the  table  with  rice- 
meal  and  other  farinaceous  food."  On  the  subject  of  canine  varieties 
Sir  W.  Jardine  in  a  note  refers  to  "some  very  interesting  observations, 
in  the  fifth  number  of  the  Journal  of  Agriculture,  by  Mr.  J.  Wilson," 

CHAP.  X.]      or  THE  BLACKNESS  OE  NEQEOES.       191 

no  higher  than  a  scut  ?  How  the  hogs  of  lUyria,  which 
Aristotle  speaks  of,  became  soUpedes  or  whole-hoofed, 
whereas  in  other  parts^  they  are  bisulcous,  and  described 
cloven-hoofed,  by  God  himself?  All  which,  with  many 
others,  must  needs  seem  strange  unto  those  that  hold  there 
were  but  two  of  the  miclean  sort  in  tlie  ark ;  and  are  forced 
to  reduce  these  varieties  to  unknown  originals. 

However  therefore  this  complexion  was  first  acquired,  it 
is  evidently  maintained  by  generation,  and  by  the  tincture 
of  the  skin  as  a  spermatical  part  traduced  from  father  unto 
son ;  so  that  they  which  are  strangers  contract  it  not,  and 
the  natives  which  transmigrate,  amit  it  not  without  com- 
mixture, and  that  after  divers  generations.  And  this 
affection  (if  the  story  were  true)  might  wonderfully  be  con- 
firmed,  by  what  Maginus  and  others  relate  of  the  emperor 
of  Ethiopia,  or  Prester  John,  who,  derived  from  Solomon, 
is  not  yet  descended  into  the  hue  of  his  country,  but 
remains  a  Mulatto,  that  is,  of  a  mongrel  complexion  vmto 
this  day.  Now  although  we  conceive  this  blackness  to  be 
seminal,  yet  are  we  not  of  Herodotus'  conceit,  that  their 
seed  is  black.  An  opinion  long  ago  rejected  by  Aristotle, 
and  since  by  sense  and  enquiry.  His  assertion  against  the 
historian  was  probable,  that  all  seed  was  white ;  tliat  is, 
without  great  controversy  in  viviparous  animals,  and  such 
as  have  testicles,  or  preparing  vessels,  wherein  it  receives 
a  manifest  dealbation.  And  not  only  in  them,  but  (for 
ought  I  know)  in  fishes,  not  abating  the  seed  of  plants ; 
whereof  at  least  in  most,  though  the  skin  and  covering  be 
black,  yet  is  the  seed  and  fructifying  part  not  so  :  as  may 
be  observed  in  the  seeds  of  onions,  piony,  and  basil. 
Most  controvertible  it  seems  in  the  spawn  of  frogs  and 
lobsters,  whereof  notwithstanding  at  the  very  first  the 
spawn  is  white,  contracting  by  degrees  a  blackness,  answer- 
able in  the  one  unto  the  colour  of  the  shell,  in  the  other 
unto  the  porwigle  or  tadpole ;  that  is,  that  animal  which 

3  m  other  parts.]  Not  in  all,  for  about  Aug.  1625,  at  a  farm  4  miles 
fi-om  Winchester,  I  beheld  with  wonder  a  great  heard  of  swine,  whole 
footed,  and  taller  then  any  other  that  ever  I  sawe. —  Wr. 

In  several  of  the  examples  in  this  paragraph,  the  same  error  haa 
been  committed,  as  in  that  of  the  "  chough  "  and  "pied  crow,"  just 
before ;  viz.  the  confounding  of  species  with  varieties. 

192  OF   THE   BLACKNESS    OF   NEGROES.  [bOOK  Tl. 

first  proceedeth  from  it.  And  thus  may  it  also  be  in  the 
generation  and  sperm  of  Negroes ;  that  being  first  and  in 
its  naturals  white,  but  upon  separation  of  parts,  accidents 
before  invisible  become  apparent ;  there  arising  a  shadow 
or  dark  efflorescence  in  the  outside,  whereby  not  only 
their  legitimate  and  timely  births,  but  their  abortions  are 
also  dusky,  before  they  have  felt  the  scorch  and  fervor  of 
the  sun. 


Of  the  same. 

A  SECONB  opinion''  there  is,  that  this  complexion  was 
first  a  curse  of  God  derived  \mto  them  from  Cham,  upon 
whom  it  was  inflicted  for  discovering  the  nakedness  of  Noah. 
Which  notwithstanding  is  sooner  afiirmed  than  proved,  and 
carried  with  it  sundry  improbabilities.  For  first,  if  we 
derive  the  curse  on  Cham,  or  in  general  upon  his  posterity, 
we  shall  denigrate  a  greater  part  of  the  earth  than  was  ever 
so  conceived,  and  not  only  paint  the  Ethiopians  and  reputed 
sons  of  Cush,  but  the  people  also  of  Egypt,  Arabia,  Assyria, 
and  Clialdea,  for  by  this  race  were  these  countries  also 
peopled.  And  if  concordantly  unto  Berosus,  the  fragment 
of  Cato  de  Originihus,  some  things  of  Halicarnasseus,  Macro- 
bius,  and  out  of  them  Leandro  and  Annius,  we  sliall  con- 
ceive of  the  travels  of  Camese  or  Cham,  we  may  introduce 
a  generation  of  Negroes  as  high  as  Italy,  which  part  was  never 

*  a  second  opinion.]  Possevine,  in  his  2  torn,  and  252  page,  does 
much  applaud  himself  as  the  first  inventor  of  this  conceite.  But  Scaliger, 
in  his  244  exercitation,  sifting  that  quere  of  Cardan,  why  those  that 
inhabite  the  hither  side  of  the  river  Senega,  in  AfFrick,  are  dwarfish  and 
ash  colour  ;  those  on  the  other  side  are  tall  and  Negroes  ;  rejects  all 
arguments  drawn  from  naturall  reasons  of  the  soile,  &c.  and  concludes 
that  the  Asanegi  on  this  side  the  river  formerly  inhabited  on  both  sides 
of  it,  but  were  driven  out  of  their  countrye  into  this  side  of  the  river 
by  the  black  Moores,  drawne  thither  by  the  richnes  of  the  soile  on  the 
further  side.  And  doubtles  considering  that  the  maritime  Moors  of 
Barbarye,  who  lye  900  miles  on  this  side  the  tropicke,  are  blacker 
then  those  of  the  posteritye  of  Chus,  in  Arabia,  which  lyes  under  the 
tropick  ;  wee  must  needs  conclude  that  this  is  but  a  poore  conceyte,  not 
unlike  many  other  roving  phancyes  wherein  the  Jesuit  is  wont  to  vaunt 
himselfo. —  Wr. 

CHAP.  XI.]     OP  THE  BLACKNESS  OF  NEGEOES.       193 

culpable  of  deformity,  but  hath  produced  the  magnified 
examples  of  beauty. 

Secondly,  the  curse  mentioned  in  Scripture  was  not 
denounced  upon  Cham,  but  Canaan,  his  youngest  son ; 
and  the  reasons  thereof  are  divers.  The  first  from  the 
Jewish  tradition,  whereby  it  is  conceived  that  Canaan  made 
the  discovery  of  the  nakedness  of  Noah,  and  notified  it  unto 
Cliam.  Secondly,  to  have  cursed  Cham,  had  been  to  curse 
all  his  posterity,  whereof  but  one  was  guilty  of  the  fact. 
And  lastly,  he  spared  Cham  because  he  had  blessed  him 
before.  Now  if  we  confine  this  curse  unto  Canaan,  and 
think  the  same  fulfilled  in  his  posterity,  then  do  we  induce 
this  complexion  on  the  Sidonians,  then  was  the  promised 
land  a  tract  of  Negroes,  for  from  Canaan  were  descended 
the  Canaanites,  Jebusites,  Amorites,  Grirgashites,  and 
Hivites,  which  were  possessed  of  that  land. 

Thirdly,  although  we  shoidd  place  the  original  of  this 
curse  upon  one  of  the  sons  of  Cham,  yet  were  it  not  known 
from  which  of  tliem  to  derive  it.  For  the  particularity  of 
their  descents  is  imperfectly  set  down  by  accountants,  nor 
is  it  distinctly  determinable  from  whom  thereof  the  Ethio- 
pians are  proceeded.  For  whereas  these  of  Africa  are 
generally  esteemed  to  be  the  issue  of  Chus,  the  elder  son  of 
Cham,  it  is  not  so  easily  made  out.  For  the  land  of  Chus, 
which  the  Septuagint  translates  Ethiopia,  makes  no  part  of 
Africa,  nor  is  it  the  habitation  of  blackamoors,  but  the 
country  of  Arabia,  especially  the  Happy  and  Stony  posses- 
sions and  colonies  of  all  the  sons  of  Chus,  excepting  Nimrod 
and  Havilah,  possessed  and  planted  wholly  by  the  children 
of  Chus,  that  is,  by  Sabtah  and  Eamah,  Sabtacha,  and  the 
sons  of  Raamah,  Dedan,  and  Sheba ;  according  unto  whose 
names  the  nations  of  tliose  parts  have  received  their 
denominations,  as  may  be  collected  from  Pliny  and  Ptolemy, 
and  as  we  are  informed  by  credible  authors,  they  hold  a  fair 
analogy  in  their  names  even  unto  our  days.  So  the  wife  of 
Moses  translated  in  Scripture  an  Ethiopian,  and  so  confirmed 
by  the  fabulous  relation  of  Josephus,  was  none  of  the 
daughters  of  Africa,  nor  any  Negro  of  Ethiopia,  but  the 
daughter  of  Jethro,  prince  and  priest  of  Midian,  which  was 
a  part  of  Arabia  the  Stony,  bordering  upon  the  Red  Sea.  So 
the  queen  of  Sheba  came  not  unto  Solomon  out  of  Ethiopia, 

VOL.  II.  O 

194  OP    THE    BLACKNESS    OE    NE0R0E8.  [BOOK   TI. 

'out  from  Arabia,  and  that  part  thereof  which  bore  the  name 
of  the  first  planter,  the  son  of  Chus.  So  whether  the  eunuch, 
wliich  Philip  the  deacon  baptized,  were  servant  unto  Can- 
dace,  queen  of  the  African  Ethiopia  (although  Damianus  a 
Goes,  Codiguus,  and  the  Ethiopic  relations  aver  it),  is  yet 
by  many,  and  with  strong  suspicions,  doubted.  So  that  the 
army  of  a  million,  which  Zerah,  king  of  Ethiopia,  is  said  to 
bring  against  Asa,  was  drawn  out  of  Arabia,  and  the  plan- 
tations of  Chus ;  not  out  of  Ethiopia,  and  the  remote 
habitations  of  the  Moors.  For  it  is  said  that  Asa  pursuing 
his  victory  took  from  him  the  city  Grerar  ;  now  Gerar  was  no 
cit}^  in  or  near  Ethiopia,  but  a  place  between  Cadesh  and 
Zur,  where  Abraham  formerly  sojourned.  Since  therefore 
these  African  Ethiopians  are  not  convinced  by  the  common 
acception  to  be  the  sons  of  Chus,  whether  they  be  not  the 
posterity  of  Phut  or  Mizraim,  or  both,  it  is  not  assuredly 
determined.  For  Mizraim,  he  possessed  Egypt,  and  the  east 
parts  of  Africa.  From  Lubym,  his  son,  came  the  Libyans, 
and  perhaps  from  them  the  Ethiopians.  Phut  possessed 
Mauritania,  and  the  western  parts  of  Africa,  and  from  these 
perhaps  descended  the  Moors  of  the  west,  of  Mandinga, 
Meleguette,  and  Guinea.  But  from  Canaan,  upon  whom  the 
curse  was  pronounced,  none  of  these  had  their  original ;  for 
he  was  restrained  unto  Canaan  and  Syria,  although  in  after 
ages  many  colonies  dispersed,  and  some  thereof  upon  the 
coasts  of  Africa,  and  prepossessions  of  his  elder  brothers. 

Fourthly,  to  take  away  all  doubt  or  any  probable  divari- 
cation, the  curse  is  plainly  specified  in  the  text,  nor  need  we 
dispute  it,  like  the  mark  of  Cain ;  Servus  servorum  erit 
fratribus  suis, — "  Cursed  be  Canaan,  a  servant  of  servants 
shall  he  be  imto  his  brethren ;"  which  was  after  fulfilled  in 
the  conquest  of  Canaan,  subdued  by  the  Israehtes,  the  pos- 
terity of  Sem.  "Which  prophecy  Abraham  well  understanding, 
took  an  oath  of  his  servant  not  to  take  a  wife  for  his  son 
Isaac  out  of  the  daughters  of  the  Canaanites,  and  the  like^ 
was  performed  by  Isaac  in  the  behalf  of  his  son  Jacob.  As 
for  Cham  and  his  other  sous,  this  cui'se  attained- them  not; 
for  ]Srimrod,  the  son  of  Chus,  set  up  his  kingdom  in  Babylon, 
and  erected  the  first  great  empire  ;  Mizraim  and  his  pos- 
terity grew  miglity  monarchs  in  Egypt ;  and  the  empire  ol 
the  Etliiopians  ha"h  been  as  large  as  either.     Kor  did  the 


curse  descend  in  general  upon  the  posterity  of  Canaan,  for 
the  Sidonians,  Arkites,  Hamathites,  Sinites,  Arvadites,  and 
Zemeritcs  seem  exempted.  But  why  there  being  eleven 
sons,  five  only  were  condemned,  and  six  escaped  the  male- 
diction, is  a  secret  beyond  discovery.^ 

Lastly,  whereas  men  affirm  this  colour  was  a  curse,  I 
cannot  make  out  the  propriety  of  that  name,  it  neither 
seeming  so  to  them,  nor  reasonably  unto  us,  for  they  take 
so  much  content  therein,  that  they  esteem  deformity  by 
other  colours,  describing  the  devd  and  terrible  objects  white  ; 
and  if  we  seriously  consult  the  definitions  of  beauty,  and 
exactly  perpend  what  wise  men  determine  thereof,  we  shall 
not  apprehend  a  curse,  or  any  deformity  therein.  For  first, 
some  place  the  essence  thereof  in  the  proportion  of  parts, 
conceiving  it  to  consist  in  a  comely  commensurability  of  the 
whole  unto  the  parts,  and  the  parts  between  themselves, 
which  is  the  determination  of  the  best  and  learned  writers. 
Now  hereby  the  Moors  are  not  excluded  from  beauty,  there 
being  in  this  description  no  consideration  of  colours,  but  an 
apt  connection  and  frame  of  parts  and  the  whole.  Others 
there  be,  and  those  most  in  number,  which  place  it  not  only 
in  proportion  of  parts,  but  also  in  grace  of  colour.  But  to 
m.&.  -^olour  essential  unto  beauty,  there  will  arise  no  slender 
d-'^^'.'Liicy.  Tor  Aristotle,  in  two  definitions  of  pulchritude, 
and  Galen  in  one,  ha\  c  made  no  mention  of  colour.  Neither 
will  it  agree  unto  the  beauty  of  animals,  wherein  notwith- 
standing here  is  an  approved  pulchritude.  Thus  horses  are 
handsome  under  any  colour,  and  the  symmetry  of  parts 
obscures  the  consideration  of  complexions.  Thus  in  con- 
colour  animals  and  such  as  are  confined  unto  one  colour,  we 
measure  not  their  beauty  thereby  ;  for  if  a  crow  or  blackbird 
grow  white,  we  generaUy  account  it  more  pretty ;  and  in 
almost  a  monstrosity  descend  not  to  opinion  of  deformity. 
By  this  way  likewise  the  Moors  escape  the  curse  of  deformity, 
there  concurring  no  stationary  colour,  and  sometimes  not 
any  unto  beauty. 

The  Platonick  contemplators  reject  both  these  descriptions 

founded  upon  parts  and  colours,  or  either,  as  M.  Leo,  the 

Jew,  hath  excellently  discoursed  in  his  Gejiealogy  of  Love, 

defining  beauty  a  formal  grace,  which  delights  and  moves 

*  Nor  did  the  cv/ne,  tfcc]     First  added  in  2nd  edition. 

o  2 

196  OF    THE   BLACKNESS    OF   NEGEOES.  [bOOK  VI. 

them  to  love  which  comprehend  it.  This  grace,  say  they, 
discoverable  outwardly,  is  the  resplendoiir  and  ray  of  some 
interior  and  invisible  beauty,  and  proceedeth  from  the  forms 
of  compositions  amiable.  Whose  faculties  if  they  can  aptly 
contrive  their  matter,  they  beget  in  the  subject  an  agreeable 
and  pleasing  beauty  ;  if  overruled  thereby,  they  evidence 
not  their  perfections,  but  riui  into  deformity.  For  seeing 
that  out  of  the  same  materials,  Thersites  and  Paris,  mon- 
strosity and  beauty  may  be  contrived,  the  forms  and 
operative  faculties  introduce  and  determine  their  perfections. 
Which  in  natural  bodies  receive  exactness  in  every  kind, 
according  to  the  first  idea  of  the  Creator,  and  in  contrived 
bodies  the  fancy  of  the  artificer,  and  by  this  consideration  of 
beauty,  the  Moors  also  are  not  excluded,  but  hold  a  common 
share  therein  with  all  mankind. 

Lastly,  in  whatsoever  its  theory  consisteth,  or  if  in  the 
general  we  allow  the  common  conceit  of  symmetry  and  of 
colour,  yet  to  descend  unto  singularities,  or  determine  in 
what  symmetry  or  colour  it  consisted,  were  a  slippery  desig- 
nation. For  beauty  is  determined  by  opinion,  and  seems  to 
have  no  essence  that  holds  one  notion  with  aU  ;  that  seeming 
beauteous  unto  one,  which  hath  no  favour  with  another ; 
and  that  unto  every  one,  according  as  custom  hath  made  it 
natural,  or  sympathy  and  conformity  of  minds  shall  make 
it  seem  agreeable.  Thus  flat  noses  seem  comely  unto  the 
Moor,  an  aqueline  or  hawked  one  unto  the  Persian,  a  large 
and  prominent  nose  mato  the  Roman  ;  but  none  of  all  these 
are  acceptable  in  our  opinion.  Thus  some  think  it  most 
ornamental  to  wear  their  bracelets  on  their  wrists,  others 
say  it  is  better  to  have  them  about  their  ankles  ;  some  think 
it  most  comely  to  wear  their  rings  and  jewels  in  the  ear, 
others  will  have  them  about  their  privities  ;  a  third  will  not 
think  they  are  complete  except  they  hang  them  in  their  lips, 
cheeks,  or  noses.  Thus  Homer  to  set  ofi"  Minerva,  calleth 
her  yXaucwTTtc,  that  is,  gray,  or  light-blue  eyed ;  now  this 
unto  us  seems  far  less  amiable  than  the  black.  Thus  we 
that  are  of  contrary  complexions  accuse  the  blackness  of  the 
Moors  as  ugly  ;  but  the  spouse  in  the  Canticles  excuseth 
this  conceit,  in  that  description  of  hers,  I  am  black  but 
comely.  And  howsoever  Cerberus,  and  the  furies  of  hell  be 
described  by  the  poets  under  this  complexion,  yet  in  the 


beauty  of  our  Saviour,  blackness  is  commended,  when  it  is 
said,  his  locks  are  bushy  and  black  as  a  raven.  So  that  to 
infer  this  as  a  curse,  or  to  reason  it  as  a  deformity,  is  no  vray 
reasonable ;  the  two  foundations  of  beauty,  symmetry  and 
complexion,  receiving  such  various  apprehensions,  that  no 
deviation  will  be  expounded  so  high  as  a  curse  or  undeniable 
deformity,  without  a  manifest  and  confessed  degree  of 

Lastly,  it  is  a  very  injurious  method  unto  philosophy,  and 
a  perpetual  promotion  of  ignorance,  in  points  of  obscurity, 
nor  open  unto  easy  considerations,  to  fall  upon  a  present 
refuge  unto  miracles ;  or  recur  unto  immediate  contrivance 
from  the  unsearchable  hands  of  God.  Thus,  in  the  conceit 
of  the  evil  odour  of  the  Jews,  Christians,  without  a  further 
research  into  the  verity  of  the  thing,  or  enquiry  into  the 
cause,  draw  up  a  judgment  upon  them  from  the  passion  of 
their  Saviour.  Thus  in  the  wondrous  effects  of  the  clime  of 
Ireland,  and  the  freedom  from  all  venomous  creatures,  the 
credulity  of  common  conceit  imputes  this  immunity  unto 
the  benediction  of  St.  Patrick,  as  Beda  and  Gyraldus  have 
left  recorded.  Thus  the  ass  having  a  pecuUar  mark  of  a  cross 
made  by  a  black  list  down  his  back,  and  another  athwart,  or 
at  right  angles  down  his  shoulders  :  common  opinion  ascribes 
this  ligure  unto  a  peculiar  signation,  since  that  beast  had 
the  honour  to  bear  our  Saviour  on  his  back.  Certainly  this 
is  a  course  more  desperate  than  antipathies,  sympathies,  or 
occult  qualities  ;  wherein  by  a  final  and  satisfactive  discern- 
ment of  faith,  we  lay  the  last  and  particular  effects  upon  the 
first  and  general  cause  of  all  things ;  whereas  in  the  other, 
we  do  but  palliate  our  determinations,  until  our  advanced 
endeavours  do  totally  reject,  or  partially  salve  their  evasions. 


A  Digression  concei-ning  Blackniess. 

TnEEE  being  therefore  two  opinions  repugnant  unto  each 
other,  it  may  not  be  presumptive  or  sceptical  to  doubt  of 
both.  And  because  we  remain  imperfect  in  the  general 
theory  of  colours,  we  shall  deliver  at  present  a  short  dis- 

198         A   DIGEESSTON     CONCEEXINO    BLACKNESS.       [bOOK  TI. 

coverj  of  blackness  ;  wherein  although  perhaps  we  afford  no 
greater  satisfaction  than  others,  yet  shall  we  empirically  and 
sensibly  discourse  hereof;  deducing  the  causes  of  blackness 
from  such  originals  in  nature,  as  we  do  generally  observe 
things  are  denigrated  by  art.  And  herein  I  hope  our  pro- 
gression will  not  be  thought  unreasonable  ;  for,  art  being 
the  imitation  of  nature,  or  nature  at  the  second  hand,  it  is 
bat  a  sensible  expression  of  effects  dependent  on  the  same, 
though  more  removed  causes :  and  therefore  the  works  of 
the  one  may  serve  to  discover  the  other.  And  though 
colours  of  bodies  may  arise  according  to  the  receptions, 
refraction,  or  modification  of  light ;  yet  are  there  certain 
materials  which  may  dispose  them  unto  such  qualities." 

And  first,  things  become,  by  a  sooty  or  fnliginous  matter 
proceeding  from  the  sulphur  of  bodies,  torrified ;  not  taking 
fiiUgo  strictly,  but  in  opposition  unto  dr/Lue,  that  is,  any  kind 
of  vaporous  or  madefying  excretion,  and  comprehending 
:\yadv/.ua(Tic,  that  is,  as  Aristotle  defines  it,  a  separation  of 
moist  and  dry  parts  made  by  the  action  of  heat  or  fire,  and 
colouring  bodies  objected.  Hereof  in  his  Meteors,  from  the 
qualities  of  the  subject,  he  raiseth  three  kinds ;  the  exhala- 
tions from  ligneous  and  lean  bodies,  as  bones,  hair,  and  the 
like,  he  called  Kc'nrroc,  fumiis ;  from  fat  bodies,  and  such  as 
have  not  their  fatness  conspicuous  or  separated,  he  termeth 
\iyvic,  fuligo,  as  wax,  resin,  pitch,  or  turpentine  ;  that  from 
unctuous  bodies,  and  such  whose  oiliness  is  evident,  he 
named  tcriaaa  or  nidor.  Now  every  one  of  these  do  blacken 
bodies  objected  unto  them,  and  are  to  be  conceived  in  the 
sooty  and  fuliginous  matter  expressed. 

I  say,  proceeding  from  the  sulphur  of  bodies  torrified, 
that  is,  the  oil,  fat,  and  unctuous  parts,  wherein  consist  the 
principles  of  flammability.  Not  pure  and  refined  sulpliur, 
as  in  the  spirits  of  wine  often  rectified ;  but  containing 
terrestrious  parts,  and  carrying  with  it  the  volatile  salt  of 
the  body,  and  such  as  is  distinguishable  by  taste  in  soot : 
nor  vulgar  and  usual  sulphur,  for  that  leaves  none  or  very 
little  blackness,  except  a  metalline  body  receive  the 

I  say,  torrified,  singed,  or  suffering  some  impression  from 
fire ;  thus  are  bodies  casually  or  artificially  denigrated,  which 

'  And  though  colours,  l-c]    First  added  in  the  6th  edit. 


in  tlieir  naturals  are  of  another  comple^rion ;  thus  are  char- 
coals made  black  by  an  infection  of  their  own  siiffitus  ;  so  is 
it  true  what  is  affirmed  of  combustible  bodies,  adusta  nigra, 
perusta  alba :  black  at  first  Irom  the  fuliginous  tincture, 
which  being  exhaled  they  become  whijbe,  as  is  perceptible  in 
ashes.  And  so  doth  fire  cleanse  and  purify  bodies,  because 
it  consumes  the  sulphurous  parts,  -which  before  did  make 
them  foul,  and  therefore  refines  those  bodies  which  will  never 
be  mundified  by  water.  Thus  camphire,  of  a  white  sub- 
stance, by  its  fuligo  afibrdeth  a  deep  black.  So  is  pitch 
black,  although  it  proceed  from  the  same  tree  with  resin,  the 
one  distilling  forth,  the  other  forced  by  fire.  So  of  the 
suffitus  of  a  torch,  do  painters  make  a  velvet  black ;  so  is 
lamp-black  made  ;  so  of  burnt  hart-horns  a  sable  ;  so  is  bacon 
denigrated  in  chimneys  ;  so  in  fevers  and  hot  distempers 
from  choler  adust  is  caused  a  blackness  in  our  tongues, 
teeth,  and  excretions  ;  so  are  ustilago,  brant-corn  and  trees 
black  by  blasting ;  so  parts  cauterized,  gangrenated,  side- 
rated,  and  mortified,  become  black,  the  radical  moisture,  or 
vital  sulphur  suffering  an  extinction,  and  smothered  in  the 
part  aftected.  So  not  only  actual  but  potential  fire — not 
burning  fire,  but  also  corroding  water — will  induce  a  black- 
ness. So  are  chimneys  and  furnaces  generally  black,  except 
they  receive  a  clear  and  manifest  sulphur ;  for  the  smoke  of 
sulphur  will  not  black  a  paper,  and  is  commonly  used  by 
women  to  whiten  tiffanies,  which  it  performeth  by  an  acid, 
vitriolous,  and  penetrating  spirit  ascending  from  it,  by 
reason  whereof  it  is  not  apt  to  kindle  anything :  nor  will  it 
easily  light  a  candle,  until  that  spirit  be  spent,  and  the  flame 
approacheth  the  match.  This  is  that  acid  and  piercing  spirit 
which,  with  such  activity  and  compunction  invadeth  the 
brains  and  nostrils  of  those  that  receive  it.  And  thus  when 
Bellonius  affirmeth  the  charcoals  made  out  of  the  wood  ot 
oxycedar  are  white,  Dr.  Jordan,  in  his  judicious  discourse 
of  mineral  waters,  yieldeth  the  reason,  because  their  vapours 
are  rather  sulphureous  than  of  any  other  combustible  sub- 
stance. So  we  see  that  Tinby  coals  will  not  black  linen 
hanged  in  the  smoke  thereof,  but  rather  whiten  it  by  reason 
of  the  drying  and  penetrating  quality  of  sulphur,  which  will 
make  red  roses  white.  And  therefore  to  conceive  a  general 
blackness  in  heU,  and  yet  therein  the  piu-e  and  refined  flames 


of  sulphur,  is  no  philosophical  conception,  nor  will  it  well 
consist  with  the  real  effects  of  its  nature. 

These  are  the  advenient  and  artificial  ways  of  denigration, 
answerably  whereto  may  be  the  natural  progress.  These 
are  the  ways  whereby  culinary  and  common  fires  do  operate, 
and  correspondent  hereunto  may  be  the  effects  of  fire 
elemental.  So  may  bitumen,  coals,  jet,  black-lead,  and  divers 
mineral  earths  become  black ;  being  either  fuliginous  con- 
cretions in  the  earth,  or  suffering  a  scorch  from  denigrating 
principles  in  their  formation.  So  men  and  other  animals 
receive  different  tinctures  from  constitution  and  complexional 
efflorescences,  and  descend  still  lower,  as  they  partake  of  the 
fuliginous  and  denigrating  humour.  And  so  may  the 
Ethiopians  or  Negroes  become  coal-black,  from  fuliginous 
efflorescences  and  complexional  tinctures  arising  from  such 
probabilities,  as  we  have  declared  before. 

The  second  way  whereby  bodies  become  black,  is  an  atra- 
mentous  condition  or  mixture,  that  is,  a  vitriolate  or 
copperas  ^  quality  conjoining  with  a  terrestrious  and  astrin- 
gent humidity  ;  for  so  is  atramentum  scriptorium,  or  writing 
ink  commonly  made  by  copperas  cast  upon  a  decoction  or 
infusion  of  galls.  I  say  a  vitriolous  or  copperas  quality  ; 
for  vitriol  is  the  active  or  cliief  ingredient  in  ink,  and  no 
other  salt  that  I  know  will  strike  the  colour  with  galls : 
neither  alum,  sal-gem,  nitre,  nor  ammoniack.  Now,  artificial 
copperas,  and  such  as  we  commonly  use,  is  a  rough  and 
acrimonious  kind  of  salt  drawn  out  of  ferreous  and  eruginous 
earths,  partakmg  chiefly  of  iron  and  copper ;  the  blue  of 
copper,  the  green  most  of  iron.  Nor  is  it  unusual  to  dis- 
solve fragments  of  iron  in  the  liquor  thereof,  for  advantage 
in  the  concretion.  I  say,  a  terrestrious  or  astringent  hu- 
midity ;  for  without  this  there  will  ensue  no  tincture ;  for 
copperas  in  a  decoction  of  lettuce  or  mallows  affords  no 
black,  which  with  an  astringent  mixture  it  will  do,  though 
it  be  made  up  with  oil,  as  in  printing  and  painting  ink.^ 
But  whereas  in  this  composition  we  use  only  nut-galls,  that 
is,  an  excrescence  from  the  oak,  therein  we  follow  and  beat 
upon  the  old  receipt ;  for  any  plant  of  austere  and  stiptick 

*  copper as.'\     Eeade  coppei'-i-ust. 

^  as  in  printing,  <tc.]  There  is  noe  copper-rust  in  printinge  ink,  which 
iB  made  of  lamp  black  and  oyle. —  Wr. 


parts  will  suffice,  as  I  have  experimented  in  bistort,  myro- 
halans,  nnjrtus  hrahantica,  halaustium,  and  red  roses.  And 
indeed,  most  decoctions  of  astringent  plants,  of  what  colour 
soever,  do  leave  in  the  liquor  a  deep  and  muscadine  red ; 
which  by  additon  of  vitriol  descends  into  a  black :  and  so 
Dioscorides  in  his  receipt  of  ink,  leaves  out  gall,  and  with 
copperas  makes  use  of  soot.^ 

Now,  if  we  ei)  quire  in  what  part  of  vitriol  this  atramental 
and  denigrating  condition  lodgeth,  it  will  seem  especially  to 
lie  in  the  mare  fixed  salt  thereof.  For  the  phlegm  or  aqueous 
evaporation  will  not  denigrate ;  nor  yet  spirits  of  vitriol, 
which  carry  with  them  volatile  and  nimbler  salt.  For  if 
upon  a  decoction  of  copperas  and  gall,  be  poured  the  spirits 
or  oil  of  vitriol,  the  liquor  will  relinquish  his  blackness  ;  the 
gall  and  parts  of  the  copperas  precipitate  unto  the  bottom, 
and  the  ink  grow  clear  again,  which  it  will  not  so  easily  do 
in  common  ink,  because  that  gum  is  dissolved  therein,  which 
hindereth  the  separation.  But  colcothar,  or  vitriol  burnt, 
though  unto  a  redness,  containing  the  fixed  salt,  will  make 
good  ink  ;  and  so  will  the  Uxivium,  or  lye  made  thereof  with 
warm  water ;  but  the  terra  or  insipid  earth  remaining, 
aftbrds  no  black  at  all,  but  serves  in  many  things  for  a  gross 
and  useful  red.  And  though  spirits  of  vitriol,  projected 
upon  a  decoction  of  galls,  will  not  raise  a  black,  yet  if  these 
spirits  be  any  way  fixed,  or  return  into  vitriol  again,  the 
same  will  act  their  former  parts,  and  denigrate  as  before. 
And  if  we  yet  make  a  more  exact  enquiry,  by  what  this  salt 
of  \'itriol  more  peculiarly  gives  this  colour,  we  shall  find  it 
to  be  from  a  metalline  condition,  and  especially  an  iron  pro- 
perty or  ferreous  participation.  For  blue  copperas^  which 
deeply  partakes  of  the  copper,  will  do  it  but  weakly,  verdigris 
which  is  made  of  copper  will  not  do  it  at  all.  But  the 
filings  of  iron  infused  in  vinegar,  will  with  a  decoction  of 
galls  make  good  ink,  without  any  copperas  at  all ;  and  so 
will  infusion  of  load-stone,  which  is  of  affinity  with  iron. 
And  though  more  conspicuously  in  iron,  yet  such  a  calcau- 
thous  or  atramentous  quality  we  will  not  wholly  reject  in  other 
metals  ;  whereby  we  often  observe  black  tinctures  in  their 
solutions.     Thus  a  lemon,  quince,  or  sharp  apple  cut  with  a 

'  soot.']     B  it  he  meant  torche  or  lamp  soote. —  Wr. 
s  copperas.      Reade  copper-rust,  and  soe  itt  is. —  Wr. 

202       A  digressiojS'  concerning  blackness,     [book  vi. 

knife  becomes  immediately  black.  And  from  the  like  cause, 
articliokes.  So  sublimate  beat  up  with  whites  of  eggs,  if 
touched  with  a  knife,  becomes  incontinently  black.  So 
aqua  fort  is,  whose  ingredient  is  vitriol,  will  make  white 
bodies  black.  So  leather,  dressed  with  the  bark  of  oak,  is 
easily  made  black  by  a  bare  solution  of  copperas.  So  divers 
mineral  waters  and  such  as  participate  of  iron,  upon  an 
infusion  of  galls,  become  of  a  dark  colour,  and  entering  iipon 
black.  So  steel  infused,  makes  not  only  the  liquor  dusky, 
but,  in  bodies  wherein  it  concurs  with  proportionable  tinc- 
tures, makes  also  the  excretions  black.  And  so  also  from 
this  vitriolous  quaUty,  mercurius  dulcis,  and  vitriol  vomitive, 
occasions  black  ejections.  But  whether  this  denigrating 
quality  in  copperas  proceedeth  from  an  iron  participation,  or 
rather  in  iron  from  a  ^ntriolous  communication ;  or  whether 
black  tinctures  from  metallical  bodies  be  not  from  vitriolous 
parts  contained  in  the  sulphur,  since  common  sul2)hur  con- 
taineth  also  much  vitriol,  may  admit  consideration.  However 
in  this  way  of  tincture,  it  seemeth  plain,  tliat  iron  and  vitriol 
are  the  powerful  denigrators.^ 

Such  a  condition  there  is  naturally  in  some  living  creatures. 
Thus  that  black  humour  by  Aristotle  named  ^o\vc,  and  com- 
monly translated  atramentum,  may  be  occasioned  in  the 
cuttle-fish.  Such  condition  there  is  naturally  in  some  plants, 
as  blackberries,  walnut-rinds,  black  cherries  ;  whereby  they 
extinguish  inilammations,  corroborate  the  stomach,  and  are 
esteemed  specifical  in  the  epilepsy.  Such  an  atramentous 
condition  there  is  to  be  found  sometime  in  the  blood,  when 
that  which  some  call  acetum,  vitriolum,  concurs  with  parts 
prepared  for  this  tincture.  And  so  from  these  conditions 
the  Moors  might  possibly  become  Negroes,  receiving  atra- 
mentous impressions  in  some  of  those  ways,  whose  possibility 
is  by  us  declared. 

Nor  is  it  strange  that  we  affirm  there  are  vitriolous  parts, 
qualities,  and  even  at  some  distance  vitriol  itself  in  living 
bodies  ;  for  there  is  a  sour  stiptick  salt  diffused  through  the 
earth,  which  passing  a  concoction  in  plants,  becometh 
milder  and  more  agreeable  unto  the  sense ;  and  this  is  that 
vegetable  vitriol,  whereby  divers  plants  contain  a  grate- 
ful sharpness,  as  lemons,  pomegranates,  cherries ;  or  an 
'  But  whether,  t£'t'.]     First  added  in  3rd  edition. 


austere  and  inconcocted  roughness,  as  sloes,  medlars,  and 
quinces.  And  that  not  only  vitriol  is  a  cause  of  blackness, 
but  the  salts  of  natural  bodies  do  carry  a  powerful  stroke  in 
the  tincture  and  varnish  of  all  things,  we  shall  not  deny,  if 
we  contradict  not  experience,  and  the  visible  art  of  dyers, 
who  advance  and  graduate  their  colours  with  salts.'*  Tor 
the  decoctions  of  simples  which  bear  the  visible  colours  of 
bodies  decocted,  are  dead  and  evanid,  without  the  commix- 
tion  of  alum,  argol,  and  the  like.  And  this  is  also  apparent 
in  chemical  preparations.  So  cinnabar^  becomes  red  by  the 
acid  exhalation  of  sulphur,  which  otherwise  presents  a  pure 
and  niveous  white.  So  spirits  of  salt  upon  a  blue  paper 
make  an  orient  red.  So  tartar,^  or  vitriol  upon  an  infusion 
of  violets  affords  a  delightful  crimson.  Thus  it  is  wonderful 
what  variety  of  colours  the  spirits  of  saltpetre,  and  especially, 
if  they  be  kept  in  a  glass  while  they  pierce  the  sides  thereof; 
I  say,  what  orient  greens  they  will  project.  Prom  the  like 
spirits  in  the  earth  the  plants  thereof  perhaps  acquire  their 
verdure.  And  from  such  solary*  irradiations  may  those 
wondrous  varieties  arise,  which  are  observable  in  animals, 
as  mallard's  heads,  and  peacock's  feathers,  receiving  intention 
or  alteration  according  as  they  are  presented  unto  the  light. 

Thus  saltpetre,  ammoniack,  and  mineral  spirits  emit  delect- 
able and  various  colours ;  and  common  aqua  fortis  will  in 
some  green  and  narrow-monthed  glasses,  about  the  verges 
thereof,  send  forth  a  deep  and  gentianella  blue. 

Thus  have  we  at  last  drawn  our  conjectures  unto  a  period  ; 
wherein  if  our  contemplations  afford  no  satisfaction  unto 
others,  I  hope  our  attempts  will  bring  no  condemnation  on 
ourselves :  for  (besides  that  adventures  in  knowledge  are 
laudable,  and  the  essays  of  weaker  heads  afford  oftentimes 
improveable  hints  unto  better),  although  in  this  long  journey 
we  miss  the  intended  end,  yet  are  there  many  things  of 
truth  disclosed  by  the  way ;  and  the  collateral  verity  may 
unto  reasonable  speculations  somewhat  requite  the  capitjil 

*  Whence  the  colours  of  plants,  &c.  may  arise. 

*  saltsJ]     And  allums,  which  are  a  kind  of  salte. —  Wr. 

*  cinnahar.]  Soe  the  oyle  of  tartar  poured  on  the  filing  of  Brasil 
wood  make  an  excellent  red  inke. —  Wr. 

*  tartar.]  A  drop  of  the  oyle  of  sulphur  turns  conserve  of  red  rosei 
into  a  acarlat. —  Wr. 

234  OF  GYPSIES.  [book  vl 


Of  Gypsies. 

GrEEAT  \ronder  it  is  not,  we  are  to  seek,  in  the  original  of 
Ethiopians,  and.  natural  Negroes,  being  also  at  a  loss  con- 
cerning the  original  of  Gypsies^  and  counterfeit  Moors, 
observable  in  many  parts  of  Europe,  Asia,  and  Africa. 

''  Chap.  xiii.  &  xiv.  first  appeared  in  Snd  edition. 

*  concerning  the  original  of  Gypsies.]  This  question,  unlike  the  greater 
number  of  those  which  have  occupied  the  attention  of  Sir  Thomas, 
would  seem  less  and  less  likely  to  be  answered,  as  years  roll  on.  While 
the  progress  of  science  and  the  discoveries  which  reward  the  patience 
and  acuteness  of  modern  investigation,  are  daily  affording  us  satis- 
factory explanations  of  various  phenomena  in  nature,  the  origin  of 
Gypsies  is  a  question  which  the  lapse  of  time  is  daily  removing  further 
from  our  reach.  Little  has  therefore  been  done  towards  its  solution, 
but  to  collect  and  compare  former  opinions  and  speculations.  The  cri- 
terion, which  seems  the  most  to  be  relied  upon,  is  that  of  language. 
Sir  Thomas  gives  us  no  authority  for  his  assertion  that  the  dialect  of 
the  Gypsies  is  Sclavonian  :  an  assertion  which  inclines  him  to  the 
opinion  that  they  came  originally  from  the  north  of  Europe.  A  very 
different  theory  was  suggested  by  Biittner,  and  advocated  after  great 
labour  and  research  -wdth  every  appearance  of  probability,  by  Grellman. 
He  has  given  a  comparative  vocabulary  showing  a  striking  affinity 
between  the  Gj'jjsy  and  Hindoostanee  languages.  Captain  Richardson, 
in  the  Asiatic  Researches  (vol.  vii.  p.  451),  has  carried  the  point  still 
further,  and  established  an  affinity  between  them  and  a  tribe  in  India, 
called  the  Bazeegurs,  Professor  Pallaf  and  other  writers  have  remarked 
this  similarity  of  language.  Dr.  Pritchard  is  decidedly  of  opinion 
that  their  origin  was  Indian.  Mr.  Hoyland,  of  Sheffield,  with  the 
benevolent  object  of  bettering  their  condition,  took  great  pains  some 
years  ago  to  investigate  their  history,  and  especially  their  present 
state  ;  and  published  a  volume  on  this  subject,  entitled,  "A  Historical 
Swvey  of  the  Customs,  Habits,  and  Present  State  of  the  Gypsies," 
8vo.  York,  1816. 

Brand  (in  his  Observations  on  Popndar  Antiquities,  vol.  ii.  432)  speaks 
of  the  Gypsies  as  of  Hindoo  origin,  probably  of  the  lowest  caste,  called 
Pariars,  or  Suders  ;  and  says,  they  probably  emigrated  about  140S,  in 
consequence  of  the  conquests  of  Tinmr  Beg.  Park  mentions  a  wan- 
dering tribe  named  Lihey,  whom  he  had  seen  in  his  travels  in  Africa, 
very  similar  in  their  habits  and  customs  to  the  Gypsies.  A  different 
solution  has  b^^en  proposed  by  an  anonymous  writer  in  the  Gentleman's 
Magazine  (vol.  Ixxii.  291),  who  thinks  it  very  pj-obable  that  they  are 
the  fulfilment  of  the  prophecy  in  Gen.  xvi.  respecting  the  descendants 

CHAP.  XIII.]  or  GIPSIES.  205 

Common  opinion  derivetli  them  from  Egypt,  and  from 
tlience  they  derive  themselves,  according  to  their  own 
account  hereof,  as  Munster  discovered  in  the  letters  and  pass 
which  they  obtained  from  Sigismund  the  emperor.  That 
they  first  came  out  of  lesser  Egypt,,  that  having  defected 
from  the  Christian  rule,  and  relapsed  unto  pagan  rites,  some 
of  every  family  were  enjoined  this  penance  to  wander  about 
the  world.  Or,  as  Aventinus  delivereth,  they  pretend  for 
this  vagabond  course  a  judgment  of  God  upon  their  fore- 
fathers, who  refused  to  entertain  the  Virgin  Mary  and  Jesus, 
when  she  fled  into  their  country. 

Which  account  notwithstanding  is  of  little  probability : 

of  Ishmael.  He  observes  that  they  inhabited  in  the  first  place  the 
wilderness  of  Paran  ;  that  they  increased  prodigiously,  and,  under  the 
appellation  of  Al  Arab  al  inosfd-reba,  or  institious  Arabs,  hived  off  from 
Arabia  Deserta  and  Petrsea,  then  too  naiTow  to  contain  them,  into  the 
neighbouring  country  of  Egypt.  So  that  both  the  African  and  Asiatic 
shores  of  the  Red  Sea  became  inhabited  by  these  nomadic  Arabs.  He 
therefore  rather  inclines  to  suppose  the  Gypsies,  who  made  their  appear- 
ance in  Europe  in  the  early  part  of  the  15th  century,  to  have  been  a 
migration  of  these  Arabs,  whose  country  had  been  the  theatre  of  the 
ferocious  contests  between  Tamerlane  and  Bajazet — than  to  have  been 
Suders  driven  from  India  by  Timur  Beg.  In  corroboration  of  his 
theory  he  remarks,  the  greater  propinquity  of  Arabia  and  Egypt  to 
Europe.  He  concludes  by  noticing  a  subsequent  migration  led  from 
Egypt,  a  century  later,  by  Zinganeus — when  that  country  was  invaded 
by  Solyman  the  Great. 

The  appellations  Egyptians  and  Zinganees  are  readily  accounted  for  on 
the  supposition  of  this  writer.  We  are  not,  after  all,  perhaps,  precluded 
from  availing  ourselves,  to  a  certain  extent,  of  both  theories. 

An  amusing  account  ia  given,  in  the  Gentleman's  Magazine,  for  Dec. 
1801,  of  a  Gypsy  supper  in  the  New  Forest.  Dr.  Knox  relates,  in  his 
last  Winter  Evening,  the  following  incident,  in  proof  of  the  piety  of  the 
Gypsies:  "A  large  party  had  requested  leave  to  rest  their  weary 
limbs,  during  the  night,  in  the  shelter  of  a  barn  ;  and  the  owner  took 
the  opportunity  of  listening  to  their  conversation.  He  found  their 
last  employment  at  night,  and  their  first  in  the  morning,  was  prayer. 
And  though  they  could  teach  their  children  nothing  else,  they  taught 
them  to  supplicate,  in  an  uncouth  but  pious  language,  the  assistance  of 
a  friend,  in  a  world  where  the  distinctions  of  rank  are  little  regarded. 
I  have  been  credibly  infonned,  that  these  poor  neglected  brethren  are 
very  devout,  and  remarkably  disposed  to  attribute  all  events  to  the 
interposition  of  a  particular  Providence." 

It  may  be  doubted,  perhaps,  with  too  much  probability,  whether  hia 
benevolent  inference  in  their  favour  would  be  borne  out  by  more  inti- 
mate acquaintance  with  their  general  character. 

206  OF    GYPSIES.  [book  TI. 

for  the  general  stream  of  writers,  who  enquire  into  their  ori- 
ginal, insist  not  upon  this  ;  and  are  so  little  satisfied  in  their 
descent  from  Egypt,  that  they  deduce  them  from  several 
other  nations.  Polydore  Virgil  accounting  them  originally 
Syrians ;  Philippus  Bergomas  fetcheth  them  from  Chaldea ; 
Eneas  Sylvius  from  some  part  of  Tartary ;  Bellonius  no  fur- 
ther than  Wallachia  and  Bulgaria ;  nor  Aventinus  than  the 
confines  of  Hmigaria.* 

That  they  are  no  Egyptians,  BeUonius  maketh  evident  :t' 
who  met  great  droves  of  Gypsies  in  Egypt,  about  Grand, 
Cairo,  Mr.tserea,  and  the  villages  on  the  banks  of  Nilus,  who 
notwithstanding  were  accounted  strangers  unto  that  nation, 
and  wanderers  from  foreign  parts,  even  as  they  are  esteemed 
•with  us. 

That  they  came  not  out  of  Eg}^)t  is  also  probable,  because 
their  first  appearance  was  in  Germany,  since  the  year  1.400 ; 
nor  were  tbey  observed  before  in  other  parts  of  Europe, 
as  is  deducible  from  Munster,  Genebrard,  Crantsius,  and 

But  that  they  first  set  out  not  far  from  Germany,  is  also 
probable  from  their  language,  which  was  the  Sclavonian 
tongue ;  and  when  they  wandered  afterward  into  France, 
they  were  commonly  called  Bohemians,  which  name  is  still 
retained  for  Gypsies.  And  therefore  when  Crantsius  deli- 
vereth,  they  first  a])peared  about  the  Baltick  Sea;  when 
BeUonius  deriveth  them  from  Bulgaria  and  WaUachia,  and 
others  from  about  Hungaria,  they  speak  not  repugnantly 
hereto :  for  the  language  of  those  nations  was  Sclavonian,  at 
least  some  dialect  thereof 

But  of  what  nation  soe\'er  they  were  at  first,  they  are  now 
almost  of  all :  associating  unto  them  some  of  every  country 
where  they  wander.     AVhen  they  will  be  lost,  or  whether  at 
all  again,  is  not  without  some  doubt ;  for  unsettled  nations  i 
have  out-lasted  others  of   fixed  habitations.     And  though 
Gypsies  have  been  banished  by  most  Christian  princes,  yetj 
have  they  found  some  coimtenance  from  the  great  Turk,  who  I 
suftereth  them  to  live  and  maintain  publick  stews  near  the] 
imperial  city  in  Pera,  of  whom  he  often  maketh  a  politick! 
advantage,  employing  them  as  spies  into  other  nations,  under! 
which  title  they  were  banished  by  Charles  the  Eifth. 

■  *  Feywind.  de  Cwdaa  didascal.  multipl.  t  Observat,  1.  2. 

CHAP.  XIV.]  or    GYPSIES  AND  OTHEES.  207 


Of  some  others. 

We  commonly  accuse  the  fancies  of  elder  times  in  the  im- 
proper figures  of  heaven  assigned  unto  constellations,  which 
do  not  seem  to  answer  them,  either  in  Grreek  or  Barbarick 
spheres.  Tet  equal  incongruities  have  been  commonly  com- 
mitted by  geographers  and  historians,  in  tlie  figural. resem- 
blances of  several  regions  on  earth.  While  by  Livy  and 
.Tulius  E-usticus  the  island  of  Britain  is  made  to  resemble  a 
long  dish  or  two-edged  axe  :  Italy  by  Numatianus  to  be  like 
an  oak-leaf,  and  Spain  an  ox-hide  ;  while  the  fancy  of  Strabo 
makes  the  habitated  earth  like  a  cloak :  and  Dionysius  Afer 
will  have  it  like  a  sling  ;  with  many  others  observable  in  good 
writers,*  yet  not  made  out  from  the  letter  or  signification  : — 
acquitting  astronomy  in  the  figures  of  the  zodiack  ;  wherein 
they  are  not  justified  unto  strict  resemblances,  but  rather 
made  out  from  the  effects  of  sun  or  moon  in  these  several 
portions  of  heaven,  or  from  peculiar  influences  of  those  con- 
stellations, which  some  way  make  good  their  names. 

Whi'h  notwithstanding  being  now  authentic  by  prescrip- 
tion, 11  ay  be  retained  in  their  naked  acceptions,  and  names 
translated  from  substances  known  on  earth.  And  there- 
fore the  learned  Hevelius,  iu  his  accurate  Selenography,  or 
description  of  the  moon,  hath  well  translated  the  known 
appellations  of  regions,  seas,  and  mountains,  unto  the  parts 
of  that  luminary ;  and  rather  than  use  invented  names  or 
human  denominations,  with  wdtty  congruity  hath  placed 
Mount  Sinai,  Taurus,  Maeotis  Pal  us,  the  Mediterranean  Sea, 
Mauritania,  Sicily,  and  Asia  Minor  in  the  moon. 

More  hardly  can  we  find  the  Hebrew  letters  in  the  heavens 
made  out  of  the  greater  and  lesser  stars,  which  put  together 
do  make  up  words,  wherein  cabalistieal  speculators  conceive 
they  read  events  of  future  things.f  And  how,  from  the  stars 
in  the  head  of  Medusa,  to  make  out   the    word   Charab, 

*  Tacit,  de  vita  Jul.  Agric.  Jimctin.  in  Sph.  I.  de  Sacro  bosco,  cap.  2. 
+  The  cabala  of  the  stars. 

208  or  GYPSIES  AND  OTHERS.  [bOOK  TT. 

and  thereby  desolation  presignified  unto  Greece  or  Javan 
numerally  characterized  in  that  word,  requireth  no  rigid 

It  is  not  easy  to  reconcile  the  different  accounts  of  lon- 
gitude, while  in  modern  tables  the  hundred  and  eightieth 
degree  is  more  than  thirty  degrees  beyond  that  part  where 
Ptolemy  placeth  an  180.  Nor  will  the  wider  and  more 
western  term  of  longitude,  from  whence  the  moderns  begin 
their  commensuration,  sufficiently  salve  the  difference,  f 
The  ancients  began  the  measure  of  longitude  from  the  For- 
tunate Islands  or  Canaries,  the  moderns  from  the  Azores  or 
islands  of  St.  Michael ;  but  since  the  Azores  are  but  fifteen 
degrees  more  west,  why  the  moderns  should  reckon  180, 
where  Ptolemy  accounteth  above  220,  or  though  they  take 
in  fifleen  degrees  at  the  west,  why  they  should  reckon  thirty 
at  the  east,  beyond  the  same  measure,  is  yet  to  be  deter- 
mined, nor  would  it  be  much  advantaged,  if  we  should  con- 
ceive that  the  compute  of  Ptolemy  were  not  so  agreeable 
unto  the  Canaries,  as  the  Hesperides  or  islands  of  Capo 
Verde. J 

Whether  the  compute  of  months  from  the  first  appearance 
of  the  moon,  which  divers  nations  have  followed,  be  not  a 
more  perturbed  way  than  that  which  accounts  from  the  con- 
junction may  seem  of  reasonable  doubt  ;§  not  only  from  the 
uncertainty  of  its  appearance  in  foul  and  cloudy  weather, 
but  unequal  time  in  any,  that  is,  sooner  or  later,  according 
as  the  moon  shaU  be  in  the  signs  of  long  descension,  as 
Pisces,  Aries,  Taurus,  in  the  perigeum  or  swiftest  motion, 
and  in  the  northern  latitude ;  whereby  sometimes  it  may  be 
seen  the  very  day  of  the  change,  as  did  observably  happen, 
1654,  in  the  months  of  April  and  May.  Or  whether  also 
the  compute  of  the  day  be  exactly  made  from  the  visible 
arising  or  setting  of  the  sun,  because  the  sun  is  sometimes 
naturally  set,  and  under  the  horizon,  when  visibly  it  is 
above  it ;  from  the  causes  of  refraction,  and  such  as  make  us 
behold  a  piece  of  silver  in  a  bason,  when  water  is  put  upon 
it,  which  we  could  not  discover  before,  as  under  the  verge 

*  Qre§arel  out  of  R.  Cliomer.         f  A  than.  Kircher.  in  proaemio. 
X  Robertus  Rues  de  r/lobis.  §  Hevel.  Selenog.  cap.  9. 

CHAP.  XIV.]  OP    GYPSIES   AND    OTHEES,  209 

Whether  the  globe  of  the  earth  be  but  a  point  in  respect 
of  the  stars  and  firmament,  or  how  if  the  rays  thereof  do  fall 
upon  a  point,  they  are  received  in  such  variety  of  angles, 
appearing  greater  or  lesser  from  difterences  of  refraction  ? 

Whether  if  the  motion  of  the  heavens  should  cease  awhile, 
all  things  would  instantly  perish  ;  and  whether  this  assertion 
doth  not  make  the  frame  of  sublunary  things  to  hold  too 
loose  a  dependency  upon  the  first  and  conserving  cause,  at 
least  impute  too  much  unto  the  motion  of  the  heavens, 
whose  eminent  activities  are  by  heat,  light,  and  influence, 
the  motion  itself  being  barren,  or  chiefly  serving  for  the  due 
application  of  celestial  virtues  unto  sublunary  bodies,  as 
Cabeus  hath  learnedly  observed. 

Whether  comets  or  blazing  stars  be  generally  of  such 
terrible  effects,  as  elder  times  have  conceived  them  ;  ^  for 
since  it  is  found  that  many,  from  whence  these  predictions 
are  drawn,  have  been  above  the  moon,  why  tliey  may  not  be 
qualified  from  their  positions,  and  aspects  which  they  hold 
with  stars  of  favoiu^able  natures,  or  why,  since  they  may  be 
conceived  to  arise  from  the  effluviums  of  other  stars,  they 
may  not  retain  the  benignity  of  their  originals  ;  or  since  the 
natures  of  the  fixed  stars  are  astrologically  differenced  by  the 
planets,  and  are  esteemed  martial  or  jovial,  according  to  the 
colours  whereby  they  answer  these  planets,  why,  although 
the  red  comets  do  carry  the  portentious  of  Mars,  the  brightly 
white  should  not  be  of  the  influence  of  Jupiter  or  Venus, 
'  answerably  unto  Cor  Scorpii  and  Arcturus,  is  not  absurd  to 
1  doubt. 

j  ^  Whether  comets,  <tr.]  Aristotle  considered  them  to  be  accidental 
I  fires  or  meteors,  kindled  in  the  atmosphere.  Kepler  supposed  them  to 
'   be  monsters,  generated  in  celestial  space  ! 

'  Dr.  Thomas  Burnet  says,  that  the  comets  seem  to  him  to  be  nothing 
else  but  (as  one  may  say)  the  dead  bodies  of  the  fixed  stars  unburied, 
,f  and  not  as  yet  composed  to  rest ;  they,  like  shadows,  wander  up  and 
I  down  through  the  various  regions  of  the  heavens,  till  they  have  found 
'  out  fit  places  for  their  residence,  which  having  pitched  upon,  they  stop 
''  their  irregular  course,  and  being  turned  into  planets,  move  circularly 
i'  about  some  star. — Charles  Blount'' s  Miscellaneous  Works,  p.  63. 
I  Tycho  Brahe  first  ascertained,  by  observations  on  the  comet  of  1577, 
[I  that  comets  are  permanent  bodies,  like  the  planets. 

TOL.  11. 





Tliat  the  Forbidden  Fruit  was  an  Apple. 

That  tlie  forbidden  frmt  of  Paradise  was  an  apple,  is 
commonly  believed,  coniirmed  by  tradition,  perpetuated  by 
writings,  verses,  pictures  ;  and  some  have  been  so  bad  pro- 
sodians,  as  from  thence  to  derive  the  Latin  word  malum, 
because  that  fruit  was  the  first  occasion  of  evil :  wherein  not- 
withstanding determinations  are  presumptuous,  and  many 
I  perceive  are  of  another  belief.  For  some  have  conceived 
it  a  vine  ;i  in  the  mystery  of  whose  fruit  lay  the  expiation 
of  the  transgression.  Groropius  Becanus,  reviving  the  conceit 
of  Barcephas,  peremptorily  conciudeth  it.  to  be  the  Indian 
fig-tree,  and  by  a  witty  allegory  labours  to  confirm  the  same. 
Again,  some  fruits  pass  under  the  name  of  Adam's  apples, 
•which  in  common  acception  admit  not  that  appellation :  the 
one  described  by  Matthiolus  under  the  name  of  Pomum 
Adami,  a  very  fair  fruit,  and  not  unlike  a  citron,  but  some- 
what rougher,  chopped  and  crannied,  vulgarly  conceived  the 
marks  of  Adam's  teeth :  another,  the  fruit  of  tliat  plant 
wliich  Serapion  termeth  Musa,  but  the  eastern  Christians 
commonly  the  apples  of  Paradise ;  not  resembling  an  apple 
in  figure,  and  in  taste  a  melon  or  cucumber.^     Which  fruits 

'  a  vine.]  By  the  fatal  influence  of  whose  fruit  the  nakedness  both 
of  Adam  and  of  Noah  were  exposed.     See   the  Targum   of  Jonathan. 

-  again,  A-C]  Tlie  fruit-shops  of  London  exhibit  a  large  kind  of 
citron  labelled,  Forbidden  Fruit,  respecting  which,  and  the  Pomum 
4.dami  of  Matthiolus,   I  have  the  following  obliging  and  satisfactory 


although  they  have  received  appellations  suitable  unto  the 
tradition,  yet  we  cannot  from  thence  infer  they  were  this 
fruit  in  question.  JSTo  more  than  Arbor  vitcB,  so  commonly 
called,  to  obtain  its  name  from  the  tre.e  of  life  in  Paradise, 
or  Arhor  Jud(B,  to  be  the  same  which  supplied  the  gibbet 
unto  Judas. 

Again,  there  is  no  determination  in  the  text ;  wherein  is 
only  particularised,  that  it  was  the  fruit  of  a  tree  good  for 
food,  and  pleasant  unto  the  eye,  in  which  regards  many  excel 
the  apple  :  and  therefore  learned  men  do  wisely  conceive  it 
inexplicable ;  and  Philo  puts  determination  unto  despair, 
when  he  affirmeth  the  same  kind  of  fruit  was  never  pro- 
duced since.  Surely  were  it  not  requisite  to  have  been  con- 
cealed, it  had  not  passed  unspecified  ;  nor  the  tree  revealed 
which  concealed  their  nakedness,  and  that  concealed  which 
revealed  it ;  for  in  the  same  chapter  mention  is  made  of  fig- 
leaves.  And  the  like  particulars,  although  they  seem  tin- 
circumstantial,  are  oft  set  down  in  Holy  Scripture ;  so  is  it 
specified  that  Elias  sat  under  a  juniper- tree,  Absalom  hanged 
by  an  oak,  and  Zaccheus  got  up  into  a  sycamore. 

And  although,  to  condemn  such  indeterminables,  unto  him 
that  demanded  on  what  hand  Venus  was  wounded,  the  phi- 
losopher thought  it  a  sufiicient  resolution,  to  re-inquire  upon 
what  leg  King  Philip  halted  ;  and  the  Jews  not  undoubtedly 
resolved  of  the  sciatica  side  of  Jacob,  do  cautiously  in  their 
diet  abstain  from  the  sinews  of  both  j^  yet  are  there  many 
nice  particulars  which  may  be  authentically  determined. 
That  Peter  cut  off  the  right  ear  of  Malchus,  is  beyond  all 
doubt.  That  our  Saviour  eat  the  Passover  in  an  upper 
room,  we  may  determine  from  the  text.  And  some  we  may 
concede  which  the  Scripture  plainly  defines  not.  That  the 
dial  of  Ahaz**  was  placed  upon  the  west  side  of  the  temple, 

;  notice  from  my  friend  Professor  Lindley  : — "  The  forbidden  fruit  of  the 

London  markets  is  a  variety  of  the  Citrus  decunmna,  and  is  in  fact  a 

I  small  sort  of  shaddock.     But  as  to  the  Pomum,  Adami,  no  one  can 

I  make  out  exactly  what  it  was.     The  common  Italian  Poino  cl'Adamo  is 

;  a  variety  of  Citrus  limetta :  that  of  Paris  is  a  thick-skinned  orange  ; 

and  at  least  three  other  things  have  been  so  called.     I  do  not  think  it 

possible  to  ascertain  what  Matthiolus  meant  beyond  the  fact  that  it 

was  a  Citrus  of  some  kind." 

*  of  both.]  And  this  superstition  befooles  them  alike  in  both. —  Wr. 

*  dial  of  Ahaz.]     Suggestions  have  been  made  respecting  this,   aa 


212  AN   APPLE    THE    FORBIDDEK    ERriT.  [bOOK  TII. 

we  will  not  deny,  or  contradict  the  description  of  Adrico- 
mius ;  that  xlbraham's  servant  put  his  hand  under  his  right 
thigh,  we  shall  not  question ;  and  that  the  thief  on  the  right 
hand  was  saved,  and  the  other  on  the  left  reprobated,  to  make 
good  the  method  of  the  last  judicial  dismission,  we  are  ready 
to  admit.  But  surely  in  vain  we  inquire  of  what  wood  waa 
Moses'  rod,  or  the  tree  that  sweetened  the  waters.  Or,  though 
tradition  or  human  histoiy  might  aftbrd  some  light,  whether 
the  crown  of  thorns  was  made  oi paliurus  ;  whether  the  cross 
of  Christ  were  made  of  those  four  woods  in  the  distich  of 
Durantes,*  or  only  of  oak,  according  unto  Lipsius  and 
Goropius,  we  labour  not  to  determine.  Por  though  hereof 
prudent  symbols  and  pious  allegories  be  made  by  wiser 
conceivers  ;  yet  common  heads  will  fly  unto  superstitious 
applications,  and  hardly  avoid  miraculous  or  magical 

Now  the  ground  or  reason  that  occasioned  this  expression 
by  an  apple,  might  be  the  community  of  this  fruit,  and  which 
is  often  taken  for  any  other.  So  the  goddess  of  gardens  is 
termed  Pomona ;  so  the  proverb  expresseth  it,  to  give  apples 
unto  Alcinous  ;  so  the  fruit  which  Paris  decided  was  called 
an  apple  ;  so  in  the  garden  of  Hesperides  (which  many  con- 
ceive a  fiction  drawn  from  Paradise)  we  read  of  golden 
apples  guarded  by  the  dragon.  And  to  speak  strictly  in 
this  appellation,  they  placed  it  more  safely  than  any  other; 
for,  beside  the  great  variety  of  apples,  the  word  in  Greek 
comprehendeth  oranges,^  lemons,  citrons,  quinces ;  and  as 
Ruellius  defineth,t  such  fruits  as  have  no  stone  within,  and 
a  soft  covering  without ;  excepting  the  pomegranate ;  and 

*  Pes  Cedrus  est,  tnmcus  Cujpressus,  Oliva  supremum,  Palmaqiie  trans- 
versum  Ohristi  sunt  in  cruce  lignwm. 

f  Ruel.  De  Stirpium  Natura. 

well  as  some  other  miracles,  wliich  seem  to  me  to  proceed  too  much  on 
the  principle  of  endeavouring  to  lessen  them,  so  as  to  bring  them  within 
the  compass  of  belief.  Thus  the  dial  only,  not  the  sun,  is  supposed  to 
have  gone  backwards  ;  and  that  not  really,  but  only  apparently, — by  a 
"miraculous  refi'action."  Is  it  not  better  to  take  the  literal  meaning, 
content  to  believe  that  to  omnipotence  one  miracle  is  no  greater  than 
another  ? 

*  wcyrd  in  Gveeh.^  Not  only  in  Greeke  but  in  Latin  also,  all  these  are 
cald  by  the  very  name  of  apple  trees,  3.BAIalv^  aurantia,  citria,  cydonia, 
(jranata. —  Wr. 


will  extend  much  further  in  the  acception  of  Spigelius,*  who 
compreheudeth  all  round  fruits  uuder  the  name  of  apples, 
not  excluding  nuts  and  plums. ^ 

It  hath  been  promoted  in  some  constructions  from  a  pas- 
sage in  the  Canticles,  as  it  runs  in  the  Vulgar  translation,  Suh 
arbore  malo  suscitavi  te,  ihi  corrupta  est  mater  tua,  ibi  violata 
est  genitrix  fua.f  Which  words,  notwithstanding  paraboli- 
cally  intended,  admit  no  literal  inference,  and  are  of  little 
force  in  our  translation  :  "  I  raised  thee  under  an  apple-tree, 
there  thy  mother  brought  thee  forth,  there  she  brought  thee 
forth  that  bare  thee."  So  when,  from  a  basket  of  summer 
fruits  or  apples,  as  the  Vulgar  rendereth  them,  God  by  Amos 
foretold  the  destruction  of  his  people,  we  cannot  say  they 
had  any  reference  luito  the  fruit  of  Paradise,  which  was  the 
destruction  of  man  ;  but  thereby  was  declared  the  propin- 
quity of  their  desolation,  and  that  their  tranquillity  was  of  no 
longer  duration  than  those  horary  J.  or  soon-decaying  fruits 
of  summer.  Nor,  when  it  is  said  in  the  same  translation, 
Poma  desiderii  animcs  tticd  discesserunt  a  te, — "  the  apples 
that  thy  soul  lusted  after  are  departed  from  thee,"  is  there 
any  allusion  therein  unto  the  fruit  of  Paradise  ;  but  thereby 
is  threatened  imto  Babylon,  that  the  pleasures  and  delights 
of  their  palate  should  forsake  them.  And  we  read  in  Pierius, 
that  an  apple  was  the  hieroglyphick  of  love,  and  that  the 
statue  of  Venus  was  made  with  one  in  her  hand.  So  the 
little  cupids  in  the  figures  of  Philostratus  §  do  play  with 
apples  in  a  garden ;  and  there  want  not  some  who  have 
symbolized  the  apple  of  Paradise  unto  such  constructions.^ 

Since  therefore  after  this  fruit,  curiosity  fruitlessly  in- 
quireth,  and  confidence  blindly  determineth,  we  shall  sur- 
cease our  inquisition ;  rather  troubled  that  it  was  tasted, 
than  troubling  ourselves  in  its  decision ;  this  only  we  observe, 
when  things  are  left  uncertain,  men  will  assure  them  by 
determination.  Which  is  not  only  verified  concerning  the 
fruit,  but  the  serpent  that  persuaded ;  many  defining  the 
kind  or  species  thereof.      So  Bonaventure  and  Comestor 

*  Isagoge  in  rem  Herbariam.  +  Cant.  viii. 

J  Fructns  bonei.  §  Philostrat.  figure  vi.  Dc  amoribus. 

^  and  will  extend,  <f:c.]     First  added  in  2nd  edition. 
'  So  the  Utde  cupids,  &cJ]     First  added  in  2nd  edition. 

214         MAN  HATH  ONE  BIB  LESS  THAN  WOMAN.      [bOOK  YII. 

affirm  it  was  a  dragon,  Engubinus  a  basilisk,  Delrio  a  viper, 
and  others  a  common  snake.^  Wherein  men  still  continue 
the  delusion  of  the  serpent,  who  ha\Tng  deceived  Eve  in  the 
main,  sets  her  posterity  on  work  to  mistake  in  the  circum- 
stance, and  endeavours  to  propagate  errors  at  any  hand. 
And  those  he  surely  most  desireth  which  concern  either  God 
or  himself;  for  they  dishonom*  God,  who  is  absolute  truth 
and  goodness ;  but  for  himself,  who  is  extremely  e\Tl,  and 
the  worst  we  can  conceive,  by  aberration  of  conceit  they 
may  extenuate  his  depravity,  and  ascribe  some  goodness  unto 


That  a  Man  hath  one  Rib  less  than  a  Woman. 

That  a  man  hath  one  rib  less  than  a  woman,  is  a  common 
conceit,  derived  from  the  history  of  Genesis,  wherein  it  stands 
deUvered,  that  Eve  was  framed  out  of  a  rib  of  Adam  ;  whence 
it  is  concluded  the  sex  of  men  still  wants  that  rib  our  father 
lost  in  Eve.  And  this  is  not  only  passant  with  the  many,  but 
was  urged  against  Columbus  in  an  anatomy  of  his  at  Pisa, 
where  having  prepared  the  skeleton  of  a  woman  that  chanced 
to  have  thirteen  ribs  on  one  side,  there  arose  a  party  that 
cried  him  do^Ti,  and  even  unto  oaths  affirmed,  this  was  the 
rib  wherein  a  woman  exceeded.  AYere  this  true,  it  would 
ocularly  silence  that  dispute  out  of  which  side  Eve  was  framed; 
it  would  determine  the  opinion  of  Oleaster,  that  she  was  made 
out  of  the  ribs  of  both  sides,  or  such  as  from  the  expression 
of  the  text  *  maintain  there  was  a  plurality  of  ribs  required ; 
and  might  indeed  decry  the  parabolical  exposition  of  Origen, 
Cajetan,  and  such  as  fearing  to  concede  a  monstrosity,  or 
mutilate  the  integrity  of  Adam,  preventively  conceive  the 
creation  of  thirteen  ribs. 

But  this  wiU  not  consist  with  reason  or  inspection.  For  if 
we  survey  the  skeleton  of  both  sexes,  and  therein  the  compage 
of  bones,  we  shall  readily  discover  that  men  and  women  have 
*  Os  ex  ossibus  meis. 

*  snaJx.^  Itt  seemes  to  bee  none  of  these  but  rather  that  species 
which  Scaliger,  the  gi-eat  secretary  of  nature,  with  noe  reference  to  this 
Btorye,  wittily  cals  (Exercitat.  226,  §)  tyxtXavOjowTrpve. —  Wr. 


four  and  twenty  ribs ;  that  is,  twelve  on  each  side,  seven 
greater,  annexed  uuto  the  sternon,  and  five  lesser  which  come 
short  thereof.  Wherein  if  it  sometimes  happen  that  either 
sex  exceed,  the  conformation  is  irregular,  deflecting  from 
the  common  rate  or  number,  and  no  more  inferrible  upon 
mankind  than  the  monstrosity  of  the  son  of  Kapha,  or  the 
vitious  excess  in  the  number  of  fingers  and  toes.  And 
although  some  diflerence  there  be  in  figure,  and  the  female 
OS  innominatum  be  somewhat  more  protuberant,  to  make  a 
fairer  cavity  for  the  infant ;  the  coccyx  sometime  more  re- 
flected, to  give  the  easier  delivery  ;  and  the  ribs  themselves 
seem  a  little  flatter ;  yet  are  they  equal  in  number.  And 
therefore,  while  Aristotle  doubteth  the  relations  made  of 
nations,  which  had  but  seven  ribs  on  a  side,  and  yet  deliver- 
eth,  that  men  have  generally  no  more  than  eight ;  as  he 
rejecteth  their  history,  so  can  we  not  accept  of  his  anatomy. 
Again,  although  we  concede  there  wanted  one  rib  in  the 
skeleton  of  Adam,  yet  were  it  repugnant  unto  reason  and 
common  observation  that  his  posterity  should  want  the  same. 
For  we  observe  that  mutilations  are  not  transmitted  from 
father  unto  son ;  the  blind  begetting  such  as  can  see,  men 
with  one  eye  children  with  two,  and  cripples  mutilate  in 
their  own  persons  do  come  out  perfect  in  their  generations. 
For  the  seed  conveyeth  with  it  not  only  the  extract  and 
single  idea  of  every  part,  whereby  it  transmits  their  perfec- 
tions or  infirmities ;  but  double  and  over  again ;  whereby 
sometimes  it  multipliciously  delineates  the  same,  as  in 
twins,  in  mixed  and  numerous  generations.  Parts  of  the 
seed  do  seem  to  contain  the  idea  and  power  of  the  whole ; 
so  parents  deprived  of  hands  beget  manual  issues,  and  the 
defect  of  those  parts  is  supplied  by  the  idea  of  others.  So 
in  one  grain  of  corn  appearing  similarly  and  insufficient  for 
a  plural  germination,  there  lieth  dormant  the  virtuality  of 
many  other ;  and  from  thence  sometimes  proceed  above  an 
hundred  ears.  And  thus  may  be  made  out  the  cause  of 
multiparous  productions ;  for  though  the  seminal  materials 
disperse  and  separate  in  the  matrix,  the  formative  operator 
will  not  delineate  a  part,  but  endeavovu"  the  formation  of  the 
whole ;  effecting  the  same  as  far  as  the  matter  mil  permit, 
and  from  dividing  materials  attempt  entii'e  formations.  And 
therefore,  though  wondrous  strange,  it  may  not  be  impossible 


■wliat  is  confirmed  at  Lausdun  concerning  the  countess  of 
Holland ;  nor  what  Albertus  reports  of  the  birth  of  an 
hundred  and  fifty.  And  if  we  consider  the  magnalities  of 
generation  in  some  things,^  we  shall  not  controvert  its  pos- 
sibilities in  others:  nor  easily  question  that  great  work, 
whose  wonders  are  only  second  unto  those  of  the  creation, 
and  a  close  apprehension  of  the  one,  might  perhaps  afford  a 
glimmering  light,  and  crepusculous  glance  of  the  other. 


Of  Methuselah. 

"What  hath  been  eveiy  where  opinioned  by  all  men,  and 
in  all  times,  is  more  than  paradoxical  to  dispute  ;  and  so, 
that  Methuselah  was  the  longest  liver  of  all  the  posterity  of 
Adam,  we  quietly  believe :  but  that  he  must  needs  be  so,  is 
perhaps  below  paralogy  to  deny.^  For  hereof  there  is  no 
determination  from  the  text ;  wherein  it  is  only  particularised 
he  was  the  longest  liver  of  all  the  patriarchs  whose  age  is 
there  expressed ;  but  that  he  out-lived  all  others,  we  cannot 
well  conclude.-     For  of  those  nine  whose  death  is  mentioned 

9  And  if  we  consider,  d-c]  "Many  things  are  useful  and  convenient, 
which  are  not  necessary  :  and  if  God  had  seen  man  might  not  want  it, 
how  easy  had  it  been  for  him  which  made  the  woman  of  that  bone,  to 
turn  the  flesh  into  another  bone?  But  he  saw  man  could  not  com- 
plain of  the  want  of  that  bone,  which  he  had  so  multiplied,  so  animated. 
O  God,  we  can  never  be  losers  by  thy  changes,  we  have  nothing  but 
what  is  thine,  take  from  us  thine  own  when  thou  wilt ;  we  are  sure  thou 
canst  not  but  give  us  better  ! " — Bj:).  Hall's  Contemj}.  book  i.  chap.  2. 

'  is  jicrhaps  heloxo  jMi-alogij  to  deny.]  "  To  deny  it  is  not  hastily  to  be 
condemned  as  false  reasoning." 

'  we  cannot,  <tc.]  If  the  learned  author  had  looked  into  the  text. 
Gen.  V.  hee  woulde  have  dasht  this  unnecessary  and  frivolous  discourse, 
for  in  that  the  Holy  Ghost  does  particularly  mention  all  the  9  patriarchs' 
ao-es,  as  of  men  to  whom  God  gave  such  long  life  for  the  peopling  of  the 
world  :  and  tooke  away  all  the  rest  of  the  world,  not  only  in  Caine's 
race  but  in  all  the  other  patriarchal  familyes,  men,  women,  and  children, 
that  they  might  not  live  to  propagate  that  wickedness  which  had  over- 
spread the  world  by  the  marriage  of  Seth's  posterityes  with  Caine's 
female  issue.  Itt  is  fit  to  beleeve  that  God  would  never  grant  to  any 
of  Caine's  posterity  longer  live  then  to  the  longest  liver  among  the 
patriarchs,  when  he  intended  to  cutt  off  even  that  life  of  theirs  whicll 


before  the  flood,  the  text  espresseth  that  Enoch  was  the 
shortest  liver ;  who  saw  but  three  hundred  sixty-five  years. 
But  to  afiirm  from  hence,  none  of  the  rest,  whose  age  is  not 
expressed,  did  die  before  that  time,  is  surely  an  illation 
whereto  we  cannot  assent. 

Again  many  persons  there  were  in  those  days  of  longevity, 
of  whose  age  notwithstanding  there  is  no  account  in  Scrip- 
ture ;  as  of  the  race  of  Cain,  the  wives  of  the  nine  patriarchs, 
with  all  the  sons  and  daugliters  that  every  one  begat : 
whereof  perhaps  some  persons  might  out-live  Methuselah  ; 
the  text  intending  only  the  masculine  line  of  Seth,  con- 
ducible  unto  the  genealogy  of  our  Saviour,  and  the  antedi- 
luvian chronology.  And  therefore  we  must  not  contract  the 
lives  of  those  which  are  left  in  silence  by  Moses  ;  for  neither 
is  the  age  of  Abel  expressed  in  the  Scripture,  yet  is  he  con- 
ceived far  elder  than  commonly  opinioned  ;  and  if  we  allow 
the  conclusion  of  his  epitaph  as  made  by  Adam,  and  so  set 
down  by  Salian,  Posuit  incerens  pater,  cui  a  filio  justius 
positum  foret,  anno  ah  ortu  rerum  130  ;  ab  Ahele  nato  129, 
we  shall  not  need  to  doubt.  AVhich  notwithstanding 
Cajetan  and  others  confirm  ;  nor  is  it  improbable,  if  we  con- 
ceive that  Abel  was  born  in  the  second  year  of  Adam,^  and 
Seth  a  year  after  the  death  of  Abel ;  for  so  it  being  said, 
that  Adam  was  an  hundred  and  tliirty  years  old  when  he 
begat  Seth,  Abel  must  perish  the  year  before,  which  was  one 
hundred  and  twenty-nine. 

And  if  the  account  of  Cain'*  extend  unto  the  deluge,  it 
may  not  be  improbable  that  some  thereof  exceeded  any  of 
Seth.  Nor  is  it  unlikely  in  life,  riches,  power,  and  temporal 
blessings,   they  might  surpass  them  in  this  world,  whose 

hee  permitted  them  to  prolong  till  their  sinns  were  fulfild  :  and  there- 
fore tooke  away  Mathuselah  also  the  yeare  that  hee  sent  the  flood  to 
take  away  all  (universally)  then  living,  save  Noah  and  his  immediate 
family.  — ■  Wr. 

^  second  year,  ttc]  Abel's  birth  is  not  deducible  necessarily  from 
Scripture  :  his  death  is  more  probable. —  Wr. 

*  Cain.']  Betweene  the  creation  and  the  flood  were  1656  yeares,  to 
which,  though  Cain's  owne  accompt  did  not  reach,  yet  his  posteritye 
did.  For  upon  them  was  the  flood  sent,  yet  not  on  them  onlye,  for 
aU  the  posterityes  of  the  patriarchal  familyes,  which  doubtless  were 
innumerable,  did  all  perish  in  the  flood,  excepting  only  eight  persons. 
—  Wr. 

218  OF   METHUSELAH.  fsoOK  TIT. 

lives  related  unto  the  next.  For  so  when  the  seed  of  Jacob 
was  under  affliction  and  captivity,  that  of  Ishmael  and  Esau 
flourished  and  grew  mighty,  there  proceeding  from  the  one 
twelve  princes,  from  the  other  no  less  than  fourteen  dukes 
and  eight  kings.  And  whereas  the  age  of  Cain  and  his 
posterity  is  not  delivered  in  the  text,  some  do  salve  it  from 
the  secret  method  of  Scripture,  which  sometimes  whoUy 
omits,  but  seldom  or  never  delivers  the  entire  duration  of 
wicked  and  faithless  persons,  as  is  observable  in  the  history 
of  Esau,  and  the  kings  of  Israel  and  Judah.  And  therefore 
when  mention  is  made  that  Ishmael  lived  127  years,  some 
conceive  he  adhered  unto  the  faith  of  Abraham,  for  so  did 
others  who  were  not  descended  from  Jacob,  for  Job  is 
thought  to  be  an  Idumean,  and  of  the  seed  of  Esau. 

Lastly,  although  we  rely  not  thereon,  we  will  not  omit 
that  conceit  urged  by  learned  men,  that  Adam  was  elder^ 
than  Methuselah  ;  inasmuch  as  he  was  created  in  the  perfect 
age  of  man,  which  was  in  those  days  50  or  60  years,  for  about 
that  time  we  read  that  they  begat  children ;  so  that  if  unto 
930  we  add  60  years,  he  will  exceed  Methuselah  ;  and  there- 
fore if  not  in  length  of  days,  at  least  in  old  age  he  surpassed 
others  ;  he  was  older  than  all,  who  was  never  so  young  as 
any.  For  though  he  knew  old  age,  he  was  never  acquainted 
with  puberty,  youth,  or  infancy,  and  so  in  a  strict  account 
he  begat  children  at  one  year  old.  And  if  the  usual  com- 
pute will  hold,  that  men  are  of  the  same  age  which  are  born 
within  compass  of  the  same  year,  Eve  was  as  old  as  her  hus- 
band and  parent  Adam,  and  Cain,  their  son,  coetaneous  unto 

Now  that  conception,  that  no  man^  did  ever  attain  unto 

*  Adam  was  eldei'.'\  This  phrase,  as  itt  is  commonly  used,  signifies 
elder  in  time,  and  then  itt  sayes  nothing,  for  who  denyes  itt  ?  But  in 
lengthe  of  dayes  from  the  birthe  Adam  was  not  soe  old  as  Mathu- 
selah  by  20  yeares.—  W>: 

^  that  no  man,  itc]  This  is  most  true  de  facto,  though  the  reason  bee 
but  symbolical,  and  concludes  nothing  necessarilye.  For  granting  that 
Adam  was  created  in  the  perfect  age  of  man,  as  then  itt  was,  which  was 
rather  100  then  60,  yet  he  lived  noe  more  then  930  in  all,  viz.  solar, 
sydereal,  tropick  years.  To  which  if  you  add  those  hypothecall  60 
yeares  (for  they  are  not  reall  but  imaginary  only),  yet  soe  Adam 
would  not  reach  to  1000  by  10  yeares,  and  therefore  the  saying  is  most 
time. —  Wr. 


a  thousand  years,  because  none  should  ever  be  one  day  old 
in  the  sight  of  tlie  Lord,  unto  whom,  according  to  that  of 
David,  "  A  thousand  years  are  but  one  day,"  doth  not 
advantage  Methuselah.  And  being  deduced  from  a  popular 
expression,  which  will  not  stand  a  metaphysical  and  strict 
examination,  is  not  of  force  to  divert  a  serious  inquirer. 
For  unto  God  a  thousand  years  are  no  more  than  one 
moment,  and  in  his  sight  Methuselah  lived  no  nearer  one 
day  than  Abel,  for  all  parts  of  time  are  alike  unto  him,  unto 
whom  none  are  referrible,  and  all  things  present  unto  whom 
nothing  is  past  or  to  come  ;  and  therefore,  although  we  be 
measured  by  the  zone  of  time,  and  the  flowing  and  continued 
instants  thereof  do  w'eave  at  last  a  line  and  circle  about  the 
eldest,  yet  can  we  not  thus  commensurate  the  sphere  of 
Trismegistus,^  or  sum  up  the  unsuccessive  and  stable  dura- 
tion of  Grod. 


That  there  tvas  no  Rainbow  before  tJie  Flood, 

That  there  shall  no  rainbow  appear  forty  years  before  the 
end  of  the  world,  and  that  the  preceding  drought  unto  that 
great  shame  shall  exhaust  the  materials  of  this  meteor,  was 
an  assertion  grounded  upon  no  solid  reason  ;  but  that  there 
was  not  any  in  sixteen  hundred  years,  that  is,  before  the 
flood,  seems  deducible  from  Holy  Scripture,  Gen.  ix.,  "  I  do 
set  my  bow  in  the  cloud,  and  it  shall  be  for  a  token  of  a 
covenant  between  me  and  the  earth."  From  whence  not- 
withstanding we  cannot  conclude  the  non-existence  of  the 
rainbow,  nor  is  that  chronology  naturally  established,  which 
computeth  the  antiquity  of  eftects  arising  from  physical  and 
settled  causes,  by  additional  impositions  from  voluntary 
determinators.  Now  by  the  decree  of  reason  and  philosophy, 
the  rainbow  hath  its  ground  in  nature,  as  caused  by  the  rays 
of  the  sun,  falling  vipon  a  rorid  and  opposite  cloud,  whereof 
some    reflected,    others   refracted,   beget  that   semicircidar 

^  sphere  of  Trismegistus.'\  Trismegistus  sayd  God  was  a  circle,  whose 
center,  that  is,  his  presentiall  and  immutable  essence,  fi'om  whence  all 
things  have  their  beinge,  is  every  where,  but  his  circumference,  that 
is,  his  incomprehensible  infinity,  ia  noe  where. —  Wr. 


variety  we  generally  call  the  rainbow,  whicli  must  succeed 
upon  concurrence  of  causes  and  subjects  aptly  predisposed. 
Ajid  therefore  to  conceive  there  was  no  rainbow  before, 
because  God  chose  this  out  as  a  token  of  the  covenant,  is  to 
conclude  the  existence  of  things  from  their  signalities,  or  of 
what  is  objected  unto  the  sense,  a  coexistence  with  that 
which  is  internally  presented  unto  the  understanding.  With 
equal  reason  we  may  infer  there  was  no  water  before  the 
institution  of  baptism,  nor  bread  and  wine  before  the  Holy 

Again,  while  men  deny  the  antiquity  of  one  rainbow,  they 
anciently  concede  another.  For  beside  the  solary  iris  which 
Grod  showed  unto  Noah,  there  is  a  1  unary,  whose  efficient  is 
the  moon,  visible  only  in  the  night,  most  commonly  called  at 
full  moon,  and  some  degrees  above  the  horizon.  JSTow  the 
existence  hereof  men  do  not  controvert,  although  effected 
by  a  difterent  luminary  in  the  same  way  with  the  other. 
And  probably  it  appeared  later,  as  being  of  rare  appearance 
and  rarer  observation,  and  many  there  are  which  think  there 
is  no  such  thing  in  nature  ;  and  therefore  by  casiial  spec- 
tators they  are  looked  upon  like  prodigies,  and  significations 
made,  not  signified  by  their  natures. 

Lastly,  we  shall  not  need  to  conceive  God  made  the  rain- 
bow at  this  time,  if  we  consider  that  in  its  created  and  pre- 
disposed nature,  it  was  more  proper  for  this  signification, 
than  any  other  meteor  or  celestial  appearancy  whatsoever. 
Thunder  and  lightning  had  too  much  terror  to  have  been 
tokens  of  mercy.  Comets  or  blazing  stars  appear  too  seldom 
to  put  us  in  mind  of  a  covenant  to  be  remembered  often,  and 
might  rather  signify  the  world  should  be  once  destroyed  by 
fire,  than  never  again  by  water.  The  galaxia  or  milky  circle 
had  been  more  probable ;  for  beside  that  unto  the  latitude 
of  thirty,  it  becomes  their  horizon  twice  in  four  and  twenty 
hours,  and  unto  such  as  live  under  the  equator,  in  that  space 
the  whole  circle  appeareth,  part  thereof  is  visible  luito  any 
situation  ;  but  being  only  discoverable  in  the  night,  and  when 
the  air  is  clear,  it  becomes  of  luifrequent  and  comfortless 
signification.  A  fixed  star  had  not  been  visible  unto  all  the 
globe,  and  so  of  too  narrow  a  signality  in  a  covenanc  con- 
cerning all.  But  rainbows  are  seen  unto  all  the  world,  and 
every  position  of  sphere.    Unto  our  own  elevation  they  may 


appear  in  the  morning,  while  the  sun  hath  attained  about 
forty-five  degrees  above  the  horizon,  which  is  conceived  the 
largest  semidiameter  of  any  iris,  and  so  in  the  afternoon  when 
it  hath  declined  unto  that  altitude  again,  which  height  the 
sun  not  attaining  in  winter,  rainbows  may  happen  with  us 
at  noon  or  any  time.  Unto  a  right  position  of  sphere  they 
may  appear  three  houtJ  after  the  rising  of  the  sun,  and  three 
before  its  setting ;  for  the  sun  ascending  fifteen  degrees  an 
hour,  in  three  attaineth  forty-five  of  altitude.  Even  unto  a 
parallel  sphere,  and  such  as  live  under  the  pole,  for  half  a 
year  some  segments  may  appear  at  any  time  and  under  any 
quarter,  the  sun  not  setting  but  walking  round  about  them. 

But  the  propriety  of  its  election  most  properly  appeareth 
in  the  natural  signification  and  prognostic  of  itself;  as  con- 
taining a  mixed  signality  of  rain  and  fair  weather.  For, 
being  in  a  rorid  cloud  and  ready  to  drop,  it  declareth  a  plu- 
vious disposure  in  the  air ;  but  because,  when  it  appears,  the 
sun  must  also  shine,  there  can  be  no  universal  showers,  and 
consequently  no  deluge.  Thus,  when  the  windows  of  the 
great  deep  were  open,  in  vain  men  looked  for  the  rainbow  ; 
for  at  that  time  it  could  not  be  seen,  which  after  appeared 
unto  Noah.  It  might  be  therefore  existent  before  the  flood, 
and  had  in  nature  some  ground  of  its  addition.  Unto  that 
of  nature  God  superadded  an  assurance  of  its  promise,  that 
is,  never  to  hinder  its  appearance  or  so  to  replenish  the 
heavens  again,  as  that  we  should  behold  it  no  more.  And 
thus,  without  disparaging  the  promise,  it  might  rain  at  the 
same  time  when  Grod  showed  it  unto  Noah  ;  thus  was  there 
more  therein  than  the  heathens  understood  when  they  called 
it  the  nuncia  of  the  gods,  and  the  laugh  of  weeping  heaven  ;* 
and  thus  may  be  elegantly  said,  I  put  my  bow,  not  my 
arrow  in  the  clouds,  that  is,  in  the  menace  of  rain,  the  mercy 
of  fair  weather. 

Cabalistical  heads,  who  from  that  expression  in  Isaiah,  f  do 
make  a  book  of  heaven,  and  read  therein  the  great  concern- 
ments of  earth,  do  literally  play  on  this,  and  from  its  semi- 
circular figure  (resembling  the  Hebi'ew  letter  caph,  whereby 
is  signified  the  uncomfortable  number  of  twenty,  at  which 
years  Joseph  was  sold,  which  Jacob  lived  under  Laban,  and 

*  Risus  plorantis  Olym/pi.  "f  Isa,  xxxiv.  4 


at  whicli  men  were  to  go  to  war),  do  note  a  propriety  in  its 
signification ;  as  thereby  declaring  the  dismal  time  of  the 
deluge.  And  Christian  conceits  do  seem  to  strain  as  high, 
■vrhile,  from  the  irradiation  of  the  sun  upon  a  cloud,  they 
apprehend  the  mystery  of  the  sun  of  righteousness  ia  the 
obscurity  of  flesh,  by  the  colours  green  and  red,  the  two 
destructions  of  the  world  by  fire  and  water,  or  by  the  colours 
of  blood  and  water,  the  mysteries  of  baptism,  and  the  Holy 

Laudable  therefore  is  the  custom  of  the  Jews,  who  upon 
the  appearance  of  the  rainbow,  do  magnify  the  fidelity  of 
God  in  the  memory  of  his  covenant,  according  to  that  of 
Syracides,  "  Look  upon  the  rainbow,  and  praise  him  that 
made  it."  And  though  some  pious  and  Christian  pens  have 
only  symbolized  the  same  from  the  mystery  of  its  colours, 
yet  are  there  other  affections  which  might  admit  of  theo- 
logical allusions.  Nor  would  he  find  a  more  improper 
subject,  that  should  consider  that  the  colours  are  made  by 
refraction  of  light,  and  the  shadows  that  limit  that  light ; 
that  the  centre  of  the  sun,  the  rainbow,  and  the  eye  of  the 
beholder  must  be  in  one  right  line,  that  the  spectator  must 
be  between  the  sun  and  the  rainbow,  that  sometime  three 
appear,  sometime  one  reversed.  With  many  others,  con- 
siderable in  meteorological  divmity,  which  would  more 
sensibly  make  out  the  epithet  of  the  heathens,*  and  the 
expression  of  the  son  of  Syrach,  "  Very  beautiful  is  the  rain- 
bow, it  compasseth  the  heaven  about  with  a  glorious  circle, 
and  the  hands  of  the  Moat  High  have  bended  it." 


Of  Shem,  Ham,  and  Japhetk. 
CoNCEENiNa  the  three  sons  of  Noah,  Shem,  Ham,  and 
Japheth,  that  the  order  of  their  nativity  was  according  to 
that  of  enumeration,^  and  Japheth,  the  youngest  son  (as 
*  Thaumancias. 
*  Cahalistical  heads,  dx.]     The  present  paragraph  was  first  added  in 
the  2nd  edition,  in  which  also  tiie  same  subject  was  first  noticed  in  the 
last  chapter  of  book  vi. 

"  that  the  order  of  their  nativity,  &c.'\  Mr.  C.  T.  Beke,  in  the  5th  chapter 

CHAP,  v.]  OP  SHEM,  HA.M,  AND    JAPHETH.  223 

most  believe,  ae  Austin  and  others  account),  the  sons  of 
Japhetli,  and  Europeans  need  not  grant,  nor  will  it  so  well 
concord  unto  the  letter  of  the  text,  and  its  readiest  interpre- 
tations. For  so  is  it  said  in  our  translation,  Shem  the 
father  of  all  the  sons  of  Heber,  the  brother  of  Japheth  the 
elder,  so  by  the  Septuagint,  and  so  by  that  of  Tremellius. 
And  therefore  when  the  Vulgar  reads  it,  Fratre  JapJiet 
majore,  the  mistake,  as  Junius  observeth,  might  be  committed 
by  the  neglect  of  the  Hebrew  accent,  which  occasioned 
Jerome  so  to  render  it,  and  many  after  to  believe  it.  Nor 
is  that  argument  contemptible  which  is  deduced  from  their 
chronology,  for  probable  it  is  that  Noah  had  none  of  them 
before,  and  begat  them  from  that  year  when  it  is  said  he 
was  five  hundred  years  old,  and  begat  Shem,  Ham,  and 
Japheth.  Again  it  is  said  he  was  six  hundred  years  old  at 
the  flood,  and  that  two  years  after  Shem  was  but  an  hundred  ; 
therefore  Shem  must  have  been  born  when  Noah  was  five 
hundi'ed  and  two,  and  some  other  before  in  the  year  of  five 
hundred  and  one. 

of  his  Origines  BihliccB,  takes  some  pains  to  prove  not  only  that  Shem 
and  not  Japheth  was  Noah's  eldest  son  (a  point  admitting  some  contro- 
versy), but  that  "the  order  in  which  the  names  of  these  three  great 
progenitors  of  the  human  species  are  invariably  placed  when  mentioned 
together  in  the  sacred  volume,  may  therefore  be  regarded  as  the  order 
of  their  birth."  Whereas  "it  is  plainly  delivered,"  as  Sir  Thomas 
remarks,  that  Ham,  whose  name  stands  invariably  second,  was  the 
youngest  son — a  fact  which  absolutely  overthrows  this  argument  in 
favour  of  Shem's  primogeniture,  leaving  the  way  open  to  consideration 
on  other  grounds.  Mr.  Beke  contends  that  its  probability  is  "  strength- 
ened by  the  situation  of  the  country,  which,  in  his  opinion,  was  occu- 
pied by  Shem  and  his  descendants,  namely,  that  in  which  Noah  himself 
resided,  while  the  possessions  of  Ham  and  Japheth,  Shem's  younger 
brothers,  were  situated,  as  they  would  naturally  be  imagined  to  have 
been,  on  either  side  of  the  paternal  seat."  He  further  endeavours  to 
invalidate  the  argument  against  Shem's  seniority,  drawn  from  the 
10th  Gen.  ver.  21, — "  unto  Shem  also  the  father  of  all  the  children  of 
Eber,  the  brother  of  Japheth  the  elder," — by  an  examination  of  similar 
passages  which  would  admit,  if  not  favour  the  interpretation  which  Sir 
Thomas  notices,  as  given  to  this  passage  by  the  Vulgate  and  others, 
viz.,  "the  elder  brother  of  Japheth."  Neither  does  he  admit  the  chro- 
nology to  be  conclusive  against  Shem,  but  concludes,  after  a  lengthened 
consideration  of  the  point,  that  "  there  could  not  have  been  a  sufficient 
interval  between  the  500th  year  of  Noah's  life,  and  the  birth  of  the 
father  of  Arphaxad  (Shem),  to  allow  of  the  intervention  of  an 
elder  son." 

224  OF    SHEM,    HAM,    AND    JAPHETH,  [BOOK  Til. 

Now  whereas  the  Scripture  affordeth  the  priority  of  order 
unto  Shem,  we  cannot  from  thence  infer  his  primogemture. 
For  in  Shem  the  holy  line  was  continued,  and  therefore, 
however  born,  his  genealogy  was  most  remarkable.  So  is 
it  not  unusual  in  Holy  Scripture  to  nominate  the  younger 
before  the  elder.  So  it  is  said,  that  Terah  begat  Abraham,* 
Nachor,  and  Haram ;  whereas  Haram  was  the  eldest. 
So  Eebeccaf  is  termed  the  mother  of  Jacob  and  Esau. 
Nor  is  it  strange  the  younger  should  be  first  in  nomination, 
who  have  commonly  had  the  priority  in  the  blessings  of 
Grod,  and  been  first  in  his  benediction.  So  Abel  was 
accepted  before  Cain,  Isaac  the  younger  preferred  before 
Ishmael  the  elder,  Jacob  before  Esau,  Joseph  was  the 
youngest  of  twelve,  and  Dav-id  the  eleventh  son  and  minor 
cadet  of  Jesse. 

Lastly,  though  Japheth  were  not  elder  than  Shem,  yet 
must  we  not  affirm  that  he  was  younger  than  Cham  ;  for  it 
is  plainly  delivered,  that,  after  Shem  and  Japheth  had 
covered  Noah,  he  awaked  and  knew  what  his  youngest  son 
had  done  unto  him ;  vide  6  vewrepog  is  the  expression  of  the 
Septuagint,  Filius  minor  of  Jerome,  and  minimus  of  Tre- 
mellius.  And  upon  these  grounds  perhaps  Josephus  doth 
vary  from  the  Scripture  enumeration,  and  nameth  them 
Shem,  Japheth,  and  Cham  :  which  is  also  observed  by  the 
Annian  Berosus,  Noah  cum  tribus  Jiliis,  Semo,  Jepeto, 
Cliem..  And  therefore,  although  in  the  priority  of  Shem 
and  Japheth,  there  may  be  some  difficulty,  though  Cyril, 
Epiphanius,  and  Austin  have  accounted  Shem  the  elder, 
and  Salian  the  annalist,  and  Petavius  the  chronologist, 
contend  for  the  same ;  yet  Cham  is  more  plainly  and  con- 
fessedly named  the  youngest  in  the  text. 

And  this  is  more  conformable  unto  the  Pagan  history 
and  G-entile  account  hereof,  unto  whom  Noah  was  Satan, 
whose  symbol  was  a  ship,  as  related  imto  the  ark,  and  who 
is  said  to  have  divided  the  world  between  his  three  sons. 
Ham  is  conceived  to  be  Jupiter,  who  was  the  youngest  son, 
worshipped  by  the  name  of  Hauion,  which  was  the  Egyptian 
and  African  name  for  Jupiter,  who  is  said  to  have  cut  off 
the  genitals  of  his  father,  derived  from  the  history  of  Ham, 

*  Gen.  xi.  ^  Gen.  xxviii. 

CHAP.  TI.]  THE   TOWEE   OF   BABEL.  225 

who  beheld  the  nakedness  of  his,  and  by  no  hard  mistake 
might  be  confirmed  from  the  text,*  as  Bochartusf  hath  well 


Tliat  the  Tower  of  Babel  was  erected  against  a  second  Deluge. 

An  opinion  there  is  of  some  generality,  that  our  fathers 
after  the  flood  attempted  the  tower  of  Babel,  to  secure 
themselves  against  a  second  deluge.  Which,  however 
affirmed  by  Josephus  and  others,  hath  seemed  improbable 
unto  many  who  have  discoursed  hereon.  For  (beside  that 
they  could  not  be  ignorant  of  the  promise  of  God  never  to 
drown  the  world  again,^  and  had  the  rainbow  before  their 
eyes  to  put  them  in  mind  thereof),  it  is  improbable  from 
the  nature  of  the  deluge ;  which,  being  not  possibly 
causable  from  natural  showers  above,  or  watery  eruptions 
below,  but  requiring  a  supernatural  hand,^  and  such  as  all 

*  Gen.  ix.  22. 

t  Reading  Veiaggod,  etahseidit,  for  Veiegged,  et  nunciavit. — Bochartus 
de  Geographid  ^acrd. 

"  And  this  is  more  conformable,  etc.]  This  paragraph  added  in  2nd 

'  the  promise  of  God,  <i:c.']  This  was  an  argument  of  beleef  in  the 
family  of  Sem  in  the  Old  Testament,  and  to  the  familyes  of  Japhet  now 
in  the  new,  that  could  not  break  his  promise.  But  to  the  familyes  of 
Ham,  whereof  Nimrod  was  the  cheefe,  it  was  of  noe  force  :  with  them 
itt  was  niore  easie  to  slight  first  and  then  to  forget  that  promise  :  when 
as  they  had  now  forgot  God  himselfe,  as  appeares  by  this  bold 
attempt,  which  therfore  most  deservedly  ended  in  confusion. —  Wr. 

*  requiring  a  supernatural  hand.'\  A  late  writer,  speaking  of  the 
Mosaic  account  of  the  deluge,  says,  "Wliat  a  scene  of  terrific  and 
awful  desolation  does  this  narrative  convey  !  How  puerile  those  com- 
ments which  exhibit  animals  and  men  escaping  to  the  highest  grounds 
and  hills  as  the  flood  advanced.  The  impossibility  of  such  escape 
may  be  immediately  seen.  Neither  man  nor  beast  under  such  circum- 
stances could  either  advance  or  flee  to  any  distance.  Any  animal, 
found  in  the  plain  when  the  flood  began,  would  thus  be  merged  in 
water  seven  or  eight  feet  deep  in  a  quarter  of  an  hour  '  And  were  he 
to  attempt  advancing  up  the  rising  ground,  a  cataract  of  sheet  water 
several  feet  deep  would  be  gushing  all  the  way  in  his  face,  besdes 
impending  water-spouts  from  the  'flood-gates'  of  heaven,  momentarily 
bursting  over  him  ;  he  would  instantly  become  a  prey  to  those  ' "  ighty 
waters.'  " 

VOL.  II.  Q 


acknoivledge  irresistible,  must  needs  disparage  tlieir  know- 
ledge aud  judgment  in  so  successless  attempts. 

Again,  they  must  probably  hear,  and  some  might  know, 
that  the  waters  of  the  flood  ascended  fifteen  cubits  above 
the  highest  mountains.  Now,  if  (as  some  define)  the  per- 
pendicular altitude  of  the  highest  mountains  be  fotu"  miles, 
or  (as  others)  but  fifteen  furlongs,  it  i^  not  easily  con- 
ceived how  such  a  structure  could  be  effected,  except  we 
allowed  the  description  of  Herodotus  concerning  the  tower 
of  Belus ;  whose  lowest  story  was  in  height  and  breadth 
one  fui'long,  and  seven  more  built  upon  it ;  abating  that  of 
the  Annian  Berosus,  the  traditional  relation  of  Jerome,  and 
fabulous  account  of  the  Jews.  Probable  it  is,  that  what 
they  attempted  was  feasible,  otherwise  they  had  been  amply 
fooled  in  the  fruitless  success  of  their  labours,  nor  needed 
God  to  have  hindered  them,  saying,  "  Nothing  will  be 
restrained  from  them,  which  they  begin  to  do."^ 

It  was  improbable  from  the  place,  that  is,  a  plain  in  the 
land  of  Shinar.  And  if  l;he  situation  of  Babylon  were 
such  at  first  as  it  was  in  the  days  of  Herodotus,  it  was 
rather  a  seat  of  amenity  and  pleasure,  than  conducing 
unto  this  intention :  it  being  in  a  very  great  plain,  and  so 
improper  a  place  to  provide  against  a  general  deluge  by 
towers  and  eminent  structures,  that  they  were  fain  to  make 
provisions  against  particular  and  annual  inundations  by 
ditches  and  trenches,  after  the  manner  of  Egypt.  And 
therefore  Sir  Walter  Raleigh*  accordingly  objecteth  :  if  the 
nations  which  followed  Nimrod  still  doubted  the  siu'prise 
of  a  second  flood,  according  to  the  opinions  of  the  ancient 
Hebrews,  it  soundeth  HI  to  the  ear  of  reason,  that  they 
would  have  spent  many  years  in  that  low  and  overflown 
valley  of  Mesopotamia.  And  therefore  in  this  situation, 
they  chose  a  place  more  likely  to  have  secured  them  from 
the  world's  destruction  by  fire,  than  another  deluge  of 
water :  and,  as  Pierius  observeth,  some  have  conceived  that 
this  was  their  intention. 

Lastly,   the  reason   is   delivered  in  the  text.     "Let  us 

*  History  of  the  World. 

^  whose  lowest  story,  <£-c.]  Tliis  passage  was  altered  and  enlarged  in 
the  2nd  edition. 


build  us  a  city  and  a  tower,  whose  top  may  reach  unto 
heaven,  and  let  us  make  us  a  name,  lest  we  be  scattered 
abroad  upon  the  whole  earth  ;"  as  we  have  already  begun  to 
wander  over  a  part.  These  were  the  open  ends  proposed 
vmto  the  people ;  but  the  secret  design  of  Kimrod,  was  to 
settle  unto  himself  a  place  of  dominion,  and  rule  over  his 
brethren,  as  it  after  succeeded,  according  to  the  delivery 
of  the  text,  "The  beginning  of  his  kingdom  was  Babel." 


Of  the  Mand/raTces  of  Leah. 

"We  shall  not  omit  the  mandrakes^  of  Leah,  according  to 
the  history  of  Genesis.  "  And  Reuben  went  out  in  the 
days  of  wheat-harvest,  and  found  mandrakes  in  the  field, 
and  brought  them  unto  his  mother  Leah.  Then  Rachel 
said  unto  Leah,  Give  me,  I  pray  thee,  of  thy  son's  man- 
drakes :  and  she  saith  unto  her.  Is  it  a  small  matter  that 
thou  hast  taken  my  husband,  and  wouldst  thoii  take  my 
son's  mandrakes  also  ?  And  Rachel  said.  Therefore  he 
shall  lie  with  thee  this  night  for  thy  son's  mandrakes." 
From  whence  hath  arisen  a  common  conceit,  that  Rachel 
requested  these  plants  as  a  medicine  of  fecundation,  or 
whereby  she  might  become  fruitful.  Which  notwithstand- 
ing is  very  questionable,  and  of  incertain  truth. 

For,  first,  from  the  comparison  of  one  text  with  another, 
whether  the  mandrakes  here  mentioned  be  the  same  plant 
which  holds  that  name  with  us,  there  is  some  cause  to 
doubt.  The  word  is  used  in  another  place  of  Scripture,* 
when  the  church  inviting  her  beloved  into  the  fields,  among 
the  delightful  fruits  of  grapes  and  pomegranates,  it  is  said, 

*  Cant.  vii. 

■•  mandrakes,']  For  a  brief  description  of  a  plant  bearing  this  name, 
see  vol.  i. 

Ross  concludes  a  page  of  criticism  on  our  author's  reasons  for  reject- 
ing the  popular  opinion  of  Rachel's  motives  for  requesting  the  man- 
drakes— by  the  following  pithy  expostulation  : — "To  be  brief,  I  wouUl 
know,  whether  it  be  a  greater  error  in  me  to  affirm  that  which  la 
denied  by  some,  or  in  him  to  deny  that  which  is  affirmed  by  all  ?" 


228         OF  THE  MANDRAKES  OF  LEAH.       [bOOK  VII. 

"The  mandrakes  give  a  smell,  and  at  our  gates  are  all 
manner  of  pleasant  fruits."  Now  instead  of  a  smell  of 
delight,  our  mandrakes  afford  a  papaverous  and  impleasant 
odour,  whether  in  the  leaf  or  apple,  as  is  discoverable  in 
their  simplicity  or  mixture.  The  same  is  also  dubious  from 
the  different  interpretations :  for  though  the  Septuagint 
and  Josephus  do  render  it  the  apples  of  mandrakes  in  this 
text,  yet  in  the  other  of  the  Canticles,  the  Chaldee  para- 
phrase termeth  it  balsam.  E.  Solomon,  as  Drusius  ob- 
serveth,  conceives  it  to  be  that  plant  the  Arabians  named 
Jesemin.  Oleaster,  and  Georgius  ]N"enetus,  the  lily  ;  and 
that  the  word  dudaim  may  comprehend  any  plant  that  hath 
a  good  smell,  resembleth  a  woman's  breast,  and  flou- 
risheth  in  wheat-harvest.  Tremellius  interprets  the  same 
for  any  amiable  flowers  of  a  pleasant  and  delightful  odour. 
But  the  Geneva  translators  have  been  more  wary  than  any ; 
for  although  they  retain  the  word  mandrake  in  the  text, 
they  in  eflect  retract  it  in  the  margin  ;  wherein  is  set  down 
the  word  in  the  original  is  dudaim,  which  is  a  kind  of  fruit 
or  flower  imknown. 

Nor  shall  we  wonder  at  the  dissent  of  exposition,  and 
difiiculty  of  definition  concerning  this  text,  if  we  perpend 
how  variously  the  vegetables  of  Scripture  are  expounded, 
and  how  hard  it  is  in  many  places  to  make  out  the  species 
determined.  Thus  are  we  at  variance  concerning  the  plant 
that  covered  Jonas :  which  though  the  Septuagint  doth 
render  colocynthis,  the  Spanish  calahaca,  and  ours  accord- 
ingly a  gourd,  yet  the  Vulgar  translates  it  hedera  or  ivy ; 
and  as  Grotius  observeth,  Jerome  thus  translated  it,  not  as 
the  same  plant,  but  best  apprehended  thereby.  The  Italian 
of  Diodati,  and  that  of  Tremellius  have  named  it  ricinus, 
and  so  hath  ours  in  the  margin ;  for  palma  Christi  is  the 
same  with  ricinus.  The  Geneva  translators  have  herein 
been  also  circumspect,  for  they  have  retained  the  original 
word  kihaion,  and  ours  hath  also  afiixed  the  same  unto  the 

Nor  are  they  indeed  always  the  same  plants  which  are 
delivered  under  the  same  name,  and  appellations  commonly 
received  amongst  us.  So  when  it  is  said  of  Solomon,  that 
he  writ  of  plants,  "  from  the  cedar  of  Lebauus,  imto  the 
hyssop   that   groweth   upon   the   wall,"   that   is  from  the 


greatest  unto  the  smallest,  it  cannot  be  well  conceived  our 
common  hyssop  :  for  neither  is  that  the  least  of  vegetables, 
nor  observed  to  grow  upon  walls ;  but  rather  as  Lemnius 
well  conceiveth,  some  kind  of  the  capillaries,  which  are  very 
small  plants,  and  only  grow  upon  walls  and  stony  places. 
Nor  are  the  four  species  in  the  holy  ointment,  cinnamon, 
myrrh,  calamus,  ancl  cassia,  nor  the  other  in  the  holy  per- 
fume, frankincense,  siacte^  onycha,  and  galbanum,  so  agree- 
ably expounded  unto  those  in  use  with  us,  as  not  to  leave 
considerable  doubts  behind  them.  Nor  must  that  perhaps 
be  taken  for  a  simple  unguent,  which  Matthew  only 
termeth  a  precious  ointment ;  but  rather  a  composition,  as 
Mark  and  John  imply  by  pistick  nard,  that  is  faithfully 
dispensed,  and  may  be  that  famous  composition  described 
by  Dioscorides,  made  of  oil  of  ben,  malahathrum,  juncus 
odoratus,  costus,  amomum,  myrrh,  balsam,  and  nard,*  which 
Galen  affirmeth  to  have  been  in  use  with  the  delicate  dames 
of  Eome,  and  that  the  best  thereof  was  made  at  Laodicea, 
from  whence  by  merchants  it  was  conveyed  unto  other 
parts.  But  how  to  make  out  that  translation  concerning 
the  tithe  of  mint,  anise  and  cummin,  we  are  still  to  seek  ; 
for  we  find  not  a  word  in  the  text  that  can  properly  be 
rendered  anise,  the  Greek  being  ai'/jSoi',  which  the  Latins 
call  anethum,  and  is  properly  Englished  dill.  Lastly,  what 
meteor  that  was,  that  fed  the  Israelites  so  many  years, 
they  must  rise  again  to  inform  us.  Nor  do  they  make  it 
out,t  who  will  have  it  the  same  with  our  manna  ;  nor  will 
any  one  kind  thereof,  or  hardly  all  kinds  we  read  of,  be 
able  to  answer  the  qualities  thereof,  delivered  in  the  Scrip- 
ture ;  that  is,  to  fall  upon  the  groimd,  to  breed  worms,  to 
melt  with  the  sun,  to  taste  like  fresh  oil,  to  be  ground  in 
mills,  to  be  like  coriander  seed,  and  of  the  colour  of 

Again,  it  is  not  deducible  from  the  text  or  concurrent 
sentence  of  comments,  that  Rachel  had  any  such  intention, 
and  most  do  rest  in  the  determination  of  Austin,  that  she 
Jesired  them  for  rarity,  pulchritude,  or  suavity.     Nor  is  it 

*  V.  Matihioli  Epist. 

t  V.  Doctissimum  Chrysostom.     Magnenum  de  Manna. 

Lastly,  <fcc.]     This  passage  was  added  :ii  the  2nd  edition. 

230         OF  THE  MAKDEAKES  OF  LEAH.      [bOOK  TII. 

probable  she  would  have  resigned  her  bed  unto  Leah,  when 
at  the  same  time  she  had  obtained  a  medicine  to  fructify 
herself.  And  therefore  Drucius,  who  hath  expressly  and 
favourably  treated  hereof,  is  so  far  from  conceding  this 
intention,  that  he  plainly  concludeth,  Hoc  quo  modo  ill  is 
in  mentem  venerit,  conjicere  nequeo ; — "  how  this  conceit  fell 
into  men's  minds,  it  cannot  fall  into  mine ;"  for  the  Scrip- 
ture delivereth  it  not,  nor  can  it  be  clearly  deduced  from 
-the  text. 

Thirdly,  if  Eachel  had  any  such  intention,  yet  had  they 
no  such  effect,  for  she  conceived  not  many  years  after,  of 
Joseph  ;  whereas  in  the  mean  time  Leah  had  three  children, 
Issachar,  Zebulou,  and  Dinah. 

Lastly,  although  at  that  time  they  failed  of  this  effect, 
yet  is  it  mainly  questionable  whether  they  had  any  such 
virtue,  either  in  the  opinions  of  those  times,  or  in  their 
proper  nature.  That  the  opinion  was  popular  in  the  laud 
of  Canaan,  it  is  improbable  ;  and  had  Leah  understood  thus 
much,  she  would  not  surely  have  parted  with  fruits  of  such 
a  faculty  ;  especially  unto  Eachel,  who  was  no  friend  unto 
lier.  As  for  its  proper  nature,  the  ancients  have  generally 
esteemed  it  narcotick  or  stupefactive,  and  it  is  to  be  found 
in  the  list  of  poisons,  set  down  by  Dioscorides,  Galen, 
^tius,  jEgineta,  and  several  antidotes  delivered  by  them 
against  it.  It  was,  I  confess,  from  good  antiquity,  and  in 
the  days  of  Theophrastus,  accounted  a  philter  or  plant  that 
conciliates  affection ;  and  so  delivered  by  Dioscorides. 
And  this  intent  might  seem  most  probable,  had  they  not 
been  the  wives  of  holy  Jacob  ;  had  Eachel  presented  them 
unto  him,  and  not  requested  them  for  herself. 

Now  what  Dioscorides  affirmeth  in  favour  of  this  effect, 
that  the  grains  of  the  apples  of  mandrakes  mundify  the 
matrix,  and  applied  with  sulphur  stop  the  fluxes  of  women, 
he  overthrows  again  by  qualities  destructive  unto  concep- 
tion ;  affirming  also  that  the  juice  thereof  piu-geth  upward 
like  hellebore  ;  and  applied  in  pessaries^  provokes  the 
menstruous  flows,  and  procures  abortion.  Petrus  His- 
panus,  or  Pope  Jolm  the  Twentieth,  speaks  more  directly  in 
his  Thesaurus  Pauperum :  wherein  among  the  receipts  of 
fecundation,  he  experimentally  commendeth  the  wine  of 
*  jpessaries.]    Medicines  made  into  an  oblong  shape. 


mandrakes  given  with  triphera  magna.  But  the  soul  of  the 
medicine  may  lie  in  tripliera  magna,  an  excellent  com- 
position, and  for  this  effect  commended  by  Nicolaus. 
And  whereas  Levinus  Lemnius,  that  eminent  physician, 
doth  also  concede  this  effect,  it  is  from  manifest  causes 
and  qualities  elemental  occasionally  producing  the  same. 
Tor  he  imputeth  the  same  unto  the  coldness  of  that  simple, 
and  is  of  opinion  that  in  hot  climates,  and  where  the 
uterine  parts  exceed  in  heat,  by  the  coldness  hereof  they 
may  be  reduced  into  a  conceptive  constitution,  and  crasis 
accommodable  unto  generation ;  whereby  indeed  we  will  not 
deny  the  due  and  frequent  use  may  proceed  unto  some 
effect ;  from  whence,  notwithstanding,  we  cannot  infer  a 
fertilitating  condition  or  property  of  feciuidatiou.  For  in 
this  way  all  vegetables  do  make  fruitful  according  unto  the 
complexion  of  the  matrix ;  if  that  excel  in  heat,  plants 
exceeding  in  cold  do  rectify  it ;  if  it  be  cold,  simples  that 
are  hot  reduce  it ;  if  dry,  moist ;  if  moist,  dry  correct  it ; 
in  which  division  all  plants  are  comprehended.  But  to 
distinguish  thus  much  is  a  point  of  art,  and  beyond  the 
method  of  Rachel's  or  feminine  physic.  Again,  whereas  it 
may  be  thought  that  mandrakes  may  fecundate,  since  poppy 
hath  obtained  the  epithet  of  fruitful,  and  that  fertility  was 
hieroglyphically  described  by  Venus  with  an  head  of  poppy 
in  her  hand  ;  the  reason  hereof  was  the  multitude  of  seed 
within  itself,  and  no  such  multiplying  in  human  generation. 
And  lastly,  whereas  they  may  seem  to  have  this  quality 
(since  opium  itself  is  conceived  to  extimulate  unto  venery, 
and  for  that  intent  is  sometimes  used  by  Turks,  Per- 
sians, and  most  oriental  nations),  although  Winclerus  doth 
seem  to  favour  the  conceit,  yet  Amatus  Lusitanus,  and 
Bodericus  a  Castro,  are  against  it ;  Garcias  ab  Hortc 
refutes  it  from  experiment ;  and  they  speak  probably  whc 
affirm  the  intent  and  effect  of  eating  opium  is  not  so  much 
to  invigorate  themselves  in  coition,  as  to  prolong  the  act^ 
and  spin  out  the  motions  of  carnality. 



Of  the  Three  Kings  of  Collein.'' 

A  COMMON  conceit  there  is  of  the  three  kings  of  Collein, 
conceived  to  be  the  wise  men  that  travelled  unto  our  Saviour 
by  the  direction  of  the  star.  Wherein  (omitting  the  large 
discourses  of  Baronius,  Pineda,  and  Montacutius),  that  they 
might  be  kings,  beside  the  ancient  tradition  and  authority  of 
many  fathers,  the  Scripture  implieth ;  "  The  Grentiles  shall 
come  to  thy  light,  and  kings  to  the  brightness  of  thy  rising. 
The  kings  of  Tharsis  and  the  Isles,  the  kings  of  Arabia  and 
Saba  shall  offer  gifts."  Which  places  most  Christians  and 
many  rabbins  interpret  of  the  Messiah.  Not  that  they  are 
to  be  conceived  potent  monarchs,  or  mighty  kings,  but 
toparchs,  kings  of  cities  or  narrow  territories  ;  such  as  were 
tlie  kings  of  Sodom  and  Gomorrha,  the  kings  of  Jericho  and 
Ai,  the  one  aud  thirty  which  Joshua  subdued,  and  such  as 
some  conceive  the  friends  of  Job  to  have  been. 

But  although  we  grant  they  were  kings,  yet  can  we  not 
be  assured  they  were  three.  For  the  Scriptiu-e  maketh  no 
mention  of  any  number  ;  and  the  number  of  their  presents, 
gold,  myrrh,  and  frankincense,  concludeth  not  the  number 
of  their  persons  ;  for  these  were  the  commodities  of  their 
country,  and  such  as  probably  the  queen  of  Sheba  in  one 
person  had  brought  before  uxito  Solomon.  So  did  not  the 
sons  of  Jacob  divide  the  present  unto  Joseph,  but  are  con- 
ceived to  carry  one  for  them  all,  according  to  the  expression 
of  their  father  ;  "  Take  of  the  best  fruits  of  the  land  in  your 
vessels,  and  carry  down  the  man  a  present."  And  therefore 
their  number  being  uncertain,  what  credit  is  to  be  given 
unto  their  names.  Gasper,  Melchior,  Balthazar,^  what  to  the 

'  Three  lings  of  Collein.]     Cologne  on  the  Ehine. 
*  Gasj^er,  <hc.]    According  to  the  following  distich  in   Festa  Anglo- 
Romana,  p.  7  : 

Tres  reges  regi  regum  tria  dona  ferebant ; 
Myrrham  homini,  uncto  aurum,  thura  dedere  Deo. 

Selden  says,  that  "  our  chusing  kings  and  queens,  on  twelfth  night, 
has  reference  to  the  three  kings." — Table  Talk,  p.  20.  See  also  Universal 
Magazine,  1774  ;  Sir  H.  Piers'a  Westmeath,  1682,  in  Vallancey's  Col- 


charm  thereof  against  the  foiling  sickness,  or  what  unto  their 
habits,  complexions,  and  corporal  accidents,  we  must  rely  on 
their  uncertain  story,  and  received  portraits  of  Collein. 

Lastly,  although  we  grant  them  kings,  and  three  in  num- 
ber, yet  could  we  not  conceive  that  they  were  kings  of  Col- 
lein. For  although  Collein  were  the  chief  city  of  the  Ubii, 
then  called  Ubiopolis,  and  afterwards  x^grippina,  yet  wdl  no 
history  inform  us  there  were  three  kings  thereof.  Beside, 
these  being  rulers  in  their  countries,  and  returning  home, 
would  have  probably  converted  their  subjects  ;  but  according 
unto  Munster,  their  conversion  was  not  wrought  until  seventy 
years  after,  by  Maternus,  a  disciple  of  Peter.  And  lastly,  it 
is  said  that  the  wise  men  came  from  the  east ;  but  Collein  is 
seated  westward  from  Jerusalem  ;  for  Collein  hath  of  longi- 
tude thirty-four  degrees,  but  Jerusalem  seventy-two. 

The  ground  of  all  was  this.  These  wise  men  or  kinga 
were  probably  of  Arabia,  and  descended  from  Abraham  by 
Keturah,  who  apprehending  the  mystery  of  this  star,  either 
by  the  Spirit  of  Grod,  the  prophecy  of  Balaam,  the  prophecy 
which  Suetonius  mentions,  received  and  constantly  believed 
through  all  the  east,  that  out  of  Jewry  one  should  come  that 
should  rule  the  whole  world,  or  the  divulged  expectation  of 
the  Jews  from  the  expiring  prediction  of  Daniel,  were  by 
the  same  conducted  unto  Judea,  returned  into  their  country, 
and  were  after  baptized  by  Thomas.  From  whence  about 
three  hundred  years  after,  by  Helena,  the  empress,  their 
bodies  were  translated  to  Constantinople.  From  thence  by 
Eustatius  vmto  Milan,  and  at  last  by  Henatus,  the  bishop, 
unto  Collein,  where  they  are  believed  at  present  to  remain, 
their  monuments  shown  unto  strangers,  and  having  lost  their 
Arabian  titles,  are  crowned  kings  of  Collein. 

lectan.  i.  No.  1.  p.  124. — A  writer  in  the  Gentleman's  Magazine,  however, 
vol.  xxxiv.  p.  599,  refers  the  twelfth  night  cake  to  the  Roman  custom 
of  casting  dice  to  decide  who  should  be  rex  convivii. 

It  appears  from  Gentleman's  May azine,  that  on  twelfth  day,  1736,  the 
king  and  the  prince,  at  the  chapel-royal,  St.  James's,  made  their  offer- 
mgs  of  gold,  frankincense,  and  myrrh.  These  continue  to  be  annually 
made — by  proxy. — Hone's  Every-day  Booh,  vol.  i.  p.  59. 



Of  the  food  of  John  Baptist,  Locusts  and  Wild  Honey, 

CoNCEE>'iifG  the  food  of  John  Baptist  in  the  wilderness, 
locusts  and  wild  honey,  less  popular  opiniatrity  should  arise, 
we  will  deliver  the  chief  opinions.  The  first  conceived  the 
locusts  here  mentioned  to  be  that  fruit  which  the  Greeks 
name  wpartor,  mentioned  by  Luke  in  the  diet  of  the  prodigal 
son,  the  Latins  siliqua,  and  some  panis  sancti  Johannis,  in- 
cluded in  a  broad  pod,  and  indeed  a  taste  almost  as  pleasant 
as  honey.  But  this  opinion  doth  not  so  truly  impugn  that 
of  the  locusts,  and  might  rather  call  unto  controversy  the 
meaning  of  wild  honey. 

The  second  afnrmeth  that  they  were  the  tops  or  tender 
crops  of  trees  ;  for  so  locusta  also  signifieth.  AVhich  conceit 
is  plausible  in  Latin,  but  will  not  hold  in  G-reek,  wherein 
the  word  is  uKolai ;  except  for  uKplhc,  we  read  atcpu'cpva,  oi 
aKpijxoytQ,  which  signify  the  extremities  of  trees,  of  which 
belief  have  divers  been  ;  more  confidently  Isidore  Pelusiota, 
who  in  his  epistles  plainly  aflirmeth  they  think  unlearnedly 
who  are  of  another  belief.  And  this  so  wrought  upon  Baro- 
nius,  that  he  concludeth  in  neutrality ;  Hcec  cum  scribat 
Isidorus,  definiendum  nobis  non  est,  et  tot  urn  relinquimus 
lectoris  arhitrio  ;  nam  constat  Grcecam  dictionem  aicpiceg,  et 
locust  am,  insecti  genus,  et  arhorum  summitates  significare. 
Sed  fallitur,  saith  Montacutius,  nam  constat  contrarium, 
aKpica  apud  nullum  autJwrem  classicum  uKpucpva  significare. 
But  above  all  Paracelsus  with  most  animosity  promoteth 
this  opinion,  and  in  his  book  De  Melle  spareth  not  his  friend 
Erasmus.  Hoc  a  nonnullis  ita  explicatur  ut  dicant  locustas 
aut  cicadas  Johanni  pro  cibo  fuisse  ;  sed  hi  stultitiam  dissi- 
mulare  non  possunt,  veluti  Jeronymus,  Erasmus,  et  alii  pro- 
phetcB  neoterici  in  Latinitate  immortui. 

A  third  affirmeth  that  they  were  properly  locusts,  that  is, 
a  sheath-winged  and  six-footed  insect,  such  as  is  our  grass- 
hopper. And  this  opinion  seems  more  probable  than  the 
other.^     For  beside  the  authority  of  Origen,  Jerome,  Chry- 

^  and  this  opinion,  <fcc.]  Ross  contends  against  the  Dr.  for  the  greater 
probability  that  John's  diet  wai.<  vegetable — on  the  ground  that,  as   he 


sostom,  Hilary,  and  Ambrose  to  confirm  it,  this  is  the  proper 
signification  of  the  word,  thus  used  in  Scripture  by  the  Sep- 
tuagint ;  Greek  vocabularies  thus  expound  it ;  Suidas  on 
the  word  aKjUQ  observes  it  to  be  that  animal  whereupon  the 
Baptist  fed  in  the  desert :  in  this  sense  the  word  is  used 
by  Aristotle,  Dioscorides,  Galen,  and  several  human  authors. 
And  lastly,  there  is  no  absurdity  in  this  interpretation,  nor 
any  solid  reason  why  we  should  decline  it,  it  being  a  food 
permitted  unto  the  Jews,  whereof  four  kinds  are  reckoned  up 
among  clean  meats.  Besides,  not  only  the  Jews,  but  many 
other  nations,  long  before  and  since,  have  made  an  usual 
food  thereof.  That  the  Ethiopians,  Mauritanians,  and 
Arabians  did  commonly  eat  them,  is  testified  by  Diodorus, 
Strabo,  Solinus,  ^lian,  and  Pliny ;  that  they  still  feed  on 
them  is  confirmed  by  Leo,  Cadamustus,  and  others  John 
therefore,  as  our  Saviour  saith,  "  came  neither  eating  nor 
drinking,"  that  is,  far  from  the  diet  of  Jerusalem  and  other 
riotous  places,  but  fared  coarsely  and  poorly,  according  unto 
the  apparel  he  wore,  that  is,  of  camel's  hair ;  the  place  of 
his  abode — the  wilderuess  ;  and  the  doctrine  he  preached — 
humiliation  and  repentance. 


That  John  the  Evangelist  should  not  die. 

The  conceit  of  the  long  living,  or  rather  not  dying,  of 
John  the  Evangelist,  although  it  seem  inconsiderable,  and 
not  much  weightier  than  that  of  Joseph,  the  wandering  Jew, 
yet  being  deduced  from  Scripture,  and  abetted  by  authors  of 
all  times,  it  shall  not  escape  our  enquiry.  It  is  drawn  from 
the  speech  of  our  Saviour  unto  Peter  after  the  prediction  of 
his  martyrdom :  "  Peter  saith  unto  Jesus,  Lord,  what  shall 
this  man  do  ?     Jesus  saith  unto  him.  If  I  will  that  he  tarry 

Ethiopians,  who  were  accustomed  to  use  locusts  for  food,  almost  all  fell 
a  prey  to  jihthinasis,  it  is  scarcely  to  be  believed  that  John  would  have 
adopted  a  diet  likely  to  entail  so  loathsome  a  disease. — Arcana,  p.  95. 

There  is  one  species  of  the  acacia  tribe  called  the  honey  locust,  bearing 
a  large  and  very  sweet  pod,  which  is  very  commonly  boiled  and  eaten 
in  America ;  and  this  is  supposed  to  have  been  the  food  of  the  Baptist. 

236  ST,  JOHN  TUE  EVAKGELIST.  [bOOK  Vll. 

xintil  I  come,  what  is  that  to  thee  ?  Follow  thou  me.  Then 
went  this  saying  abroad  among  the  brethren,  that  this  dis- 
ciple should  not  die."* 

Xow  the  belief  hereof  hath  been  received  either  grossly 
and  in  the  general,  that  is,  not  distinguishing  the  manner  or 
particular  way  of  this  continuation,  in  which  sense  probably 
the  grosser  and  undiscerning  party  received  it ;  or  more 
distinctly,  apprehending  the  manner  of  his  immortality,  that 
is,  that  John  should  never  properly  die,  but  be  translated 
into  Paradise,  there  to  remain  with  Enoch  and  Elias  until 
about  the  coming  of  Christ,  and  should  be  slain  with  them 
under  Antichrist,  according  to  that  of  the  Apocalypse ;  "  I 
will  give  power  unto  my  two  witnesses,  and  they  shall  pro- 
phesy a  thousand  two  hundred  and  threescore  days  clothed 
in  sackcloth ;  and  when  they  shall  have  finished  their  testi- 
mony, the  beast  that  ascendeth  out  of  the  bottomless  pit 
shall  make  war  against  them,  and  overcome  them  and  kill 
them."  Hereof,  as  Baronius  observeth,  within  three  hun- 
dred years  after  Clirist,  Hippolytus  the  martyr  was  the  first 
assertor,  but  hath  been  maintained  by  Metaphrastes,  by 
Freculphus,  but  especially  by  Georgius  Trapezuntius,  who 
hath  expressly  treated  upon  this  text,  and  although  he  lived 
but  in  the  last  century,  did  still  affirm  that  John  was  not  yet 

The  same  is  also  hinted  by  the  learned  Italian  poet  Dante, 
who  in  his  poetical  survey  of  Paradise,  meeting  with  the  soul 
of  St.  John,  and  desiring  to  see  his  body,  received  answer 
from  him,  that  his  body  was  in  earth,  and  there  should 
remain  with  other  bodies  until  the  number  of  the  blessed 
were  accomplished.^ 

In  teri-a  h  teiTa  il  mio  corpo,  et  saragli 
Tanto  con  gli  altri,  che  1'  numero  nostro 
Con  r  eterno  proposito  s'  agguagli. 

As  for  the  gross  opinion  that  he  should  not  die,  it  is  suffi- 
ciently refuted  by  that  which  first  occasioned  it,  that  is,  the 
Scripture  itself,  and  no  further  ofi"  than  the  very  subsequent 
verse  :  "  Tet  Jesus  said  not  unto  him,  he  should  not  die,  but 
*  John  xxi. 

'  T^e  same  h  also  hinted,  <L'C.]  This  paragraph,  together  with  tha 
Italian  quotation  which  follows  it,  was  first  added  in  the  6th  edition. 


if  I  will  that  he  tarry  till  I  come,  what  is  that  to  thee  ?  " 
And  this  was  written  by  John  himself,  whom  the  opinion 
concerned,  and  (as  is  conceived)  many  years  after,  when 
Peter  had  suffered  and  fulfilled  the  prophecy  of  Christ. 

For  the  particular  conceit,  the  foundation  is  weak,  nor  can 
it  be  made  out  from  the  text  alleged  in  the  Apocalypse ;  for 
beside  that  therein  two  persons  only  are  named,  no  mention 
is  made  of  John,  a  third  actor  in  this  tragedy.  The  same  is 
also  overthrown  by  history,  which  recordeth  not  only  the 
death  of  John,  but  assigneth  the  place  of  his  burial,  that  is, 
Ephesus,  a  city  in  Asia  Minor ;  whither,  after  he  had  been 
banished  into  Patmos  by  Domitian,  he  returned  in  the  reign 
of  Nerva,  there  deceased,  and  was  buried  in  the  days  of 
Trajan.  And  this  is  testified  by  Jerome,  by  Tertullian,  by 
Chrysostom,  andEusebius*  (in  whose  days  his  sepulchre  was 
to  be  seen),  and  by  a  more  ancient  testimony  alleged  also 
by  him,  that  is,  of  Polycrates,  bishop  of  Ephesus,  not  many 
successions  after  John ;  whose  words  are  these,  in  an  epistle 
unto  Victor,  bishop  of  Rome  :  Johannes  ille  qui  suprapectus 
Domini  recumhehat,  doctor  op)timii,s,  apud  Ephesum  dormivit. 
Many  of  the  like  nature  are  noted  by  Baronius,  Jan- 
senius,  Estius,  Lipellous,  and  others. 

Now  the  main  and  primitive  ground  of  this  error  was  a 
gross  mistake  in  the  words  of  Christ,  and  a  false  apprehen- 
sion of  his  meaning ;  understanding  that  positively  which 
was  but  conditionally  expressed,  or  receiving  that  affirma- 
tively which  was  but  concessively  delivered.  Eor  the  words 
of  our  Saviour  run  in  a  doubtful  strain,  rather  reprehending 
than  satisfying  the  curiosity  of  Peter :  as  though  he  should 
have  said,  "  thou  hast  thy  own  doom,  why  enquirest  thou 
after  thy  brother's  ? — what  relief  unto  thy  affliction  will  be 
the  society  of  another's  ? — why  pryest  thou  into  the  secrets 
of  Grod's  will  ?— if  he  stay  until  I  come,  what  concerneth  it 
thee,  who  shalt  be  sure  to  sufter  before  that  time?"  And 
such  an  answer  probably  he  returned,  because  he  foreknew 
John  should  not  sufter  a  violent  death,  but  go  unto  his 
grave  in  peace.  Which  had  Peter  assuredly  known,  it 
might  have  cast  some  water  on  his  flames,  and  smothered 
those  fires  which  kindled  after  unto  the  honour  of  hia 

*  De  Scri]^tor.  Ecclesiast.  De  am  ma. 


Now  why  among  all  tlie  rest  Jolm  only  escaped  the  death 
of  a  martyr,  the  reason  is  given :  because  all  others  fled 
away  or  withdrew  themselves  at  his  death,  and  he  alone  of 
the  twelve  beheld  his  passion  on  the  cross.  "Wherein  not- 
withstanding, the  afiliction  that  he  suffered  could  not 
amount  unto  less  than  martyrdom  :  for  if  the  naked  relation, 
at  least  the  intentive  consideration  of  that  passion,  be  able 
still,  and  at  this  disadvantage  of  time,  to  rend  the  hearts  of 
pious  contemplators,  surely  the  near  and  sensible  vision 
thereof  must  needs  occasion  agonies  beyond  the  compre- 
hension of  flesh  ;  and  the  trajections  of  such  an  object  more 
sharply  pierce  the  martyred  soid  of  John,  than  afterwards 
did  the  nails  the  crucified  body  of  Peter. 

Again,  they  were  mistaken  in  the  emphatical  appre- 
hension, placing  the  consideration  upon  the  words,  "  If  1 
will,"  whereas  it  properly  lay  in  these,  "until  I  come." 
Which  had  they  apprehended,  as  some  have  since,  that  is, 
not  for  his  ultimate  and  last  return,  but  his  coming  in  judg- 
ment and  destruction  upon  the  Jews  ;  or  such  a  coming,  as 
it  might  be  said,  that  generation  should  not  pass  before  it 
was  fulfilled ;  they  needed  not,  much  less  need  we,  sup- 
pose such  diuturnity.  For  after  the  death  of  Peter,  John 
lived  to  behold  the  same  fulfilled  by  Vespasian :  nor  had  he 
then  his  nunc  dimittis,  or  went  out  like  unto  Simeon ;  but 
old  in  accomplished  obscurities,  and  having  seen  the  expire 
of  Daniel's  prediction,  as  some  conceive,  he  accomplished  his 

But  besides  this  original  and  primary  foundation,  divers 
others  have  made  impressions  according  unto  different  ages 
and  persons  by  whom  they  were  received.  Por  some  esta- 
blished the  conceit  in  the  disciples  and  brethren  which  w^ere 
contemporary  unto  him,  or  lived  about  the  same  time  with 
him.  And  this  was,  first,  the  extraordinary  affection  our 
Saviour  bare  unto  this  disciple,  who  hath  the  honour  to  be 
called  the  disciple  whom  Jesus  loved :  now  from  hence  they 
might  be  apt  to  belive  their  Master  would  dispense  with  his 
death,  or  suffer  him  to  live  to  see  him  return  in  glory,  who 
was  the  only  apostle  that  beheld  him  to  die  in  dishonour. 
Another  was  the  belief  and  opinion  of  those  times,  that 
Christ  would  suddenly  come ;  for  they  held  not  generally 
the  same  opinion  with  their  successors,  or  as  descending 


ages  after  so  many  centuries,  but  conceived  his  commg 
would  not  be  long  after  his  passion,  according  unto  several 
expressions  of  our  Saviour  grossly  understood,  and  as  we 
find  the  same  opinion  not  long  after  reprehended  by  St. 
Paul :  *  and  thus,  conceiving  his  coming  would  not  be  long, 
they  might  be  induced  to  believe  his  favourite  should  live 
unto  it.  Lastly,  the  long  life  of  John  might  much  advan- 
tage this  opinion  ;  for  he  survived  the  other  twelve — he  was 
aged  twenty-two  years  when  he  was  called  by  Christ,  and 
twenty-five  (that  is  the  age  of  priesthood)  at  his  death,  and 
lived  ninety-three  years,  that  is  sixty-eight  after  his  Saviour, 
and  died  not  before  the  second  year  of  Trajan :  now,  having 
outlived  all  his  fellows,  the  world  was  confirmed  he  might 
still  live,  and  even  unto  the  coming  of  his  Master. 

The  grounds  which  promoted  it  in  succeeding  ages,  were 
especially  two.  The  first  his  escape  of  martyrdom ;  for 
whereas  all  the  rest  suffered  some  kind  of  forcible  death,  we 
have  no  history  that  he  suffered  any ;  and  men  might  think 
he  was  not  capable  thereof;  for  as  history  informeth,  by  the 
command  of  Domitian  he  was  cast  into  a  caldron  of  burning 
oil,  and  came  out  again  unsinged.  Now  future  ages  appre- 
hending he  suffered  no  violent  death,  and  finding  also  the 
means  that  tended  thereto  could  take  no  place,  they  might 
be  confirmed  in  their  opinion,  that  death  had  no  power  over 
him ;  that  he  might  live  always,  who  could  not  be  destroyed 
by  fire,  and  was  able  to  resist  the  fury  of  that  element  which 
nothing  shall  resist.  The  second  was  a  corruption,  crept 
into  the  Latin  text,  for  si  reading  sic  eum  manere  volo ; 
whereby  the  answer  of  our  Saviour  becometh  positive,  or 
that  he  will  have  it  so ;  which  way  of  reading  was  much 
received  in  former  ages,  and  is  still  retained  in  the  Vulgar 
translation :  but  in  the  Greek  and  original  the  word  is  iav, 
signifying  si  or  if,  which  is  very  different  from  oiJ-w,  and 
cannot  be  translated  for  it :  and  answerable  hereunto  is  the 
translation  of  Junius,  and  that  also  annexed  unto  the  Greek 
by  the  authority  of  Sixtus  Quintus. 

The  third  confirmed  it  in  ages  farther  descending,  and 
proved  a  powerful  argument  unto  all  others  following — be- 
cause ia  Ills  tomb  at  Ephesus  there  was  no  corpse  or  relick 

*  2  Tliess.  ii. 


thereof  to  be  found ;  whereupon  arose  divers  doubts,  and 
many  suspicious  conceptions ;  some  believing  be  was  not 
buried,  some,  that  he  was  buried  but  risen  again,  others,  that 
he  descended  alive  into  his  tomb,  and  from  thence  departed 
after.  But  all  these  proceeded  upon  unveritable  grounds, 
as  Baronius  hath  observed  ;  who  allegeth  a  letter  of  Celestine, 
bishop  of  Rome,  unto  the  council  of  Ephesus,  wherein  he 
declareth  the  relicks  of  John  were  highly  honoured  by  that 
city ;  and  a  passage  also  of  Chrysostom  in  the  homilies  of  the 
apostles,  "  That  John  being  dead,  did  cures  in  Ephesus,  as 
though  he  were  still  alive."  And  so  I  observe  that  Estius 
discussing  this  point,  concludeth  hereupon,  quod  cooyus  ejics 
nunquam  reperiatur,  hoc  non  dicerent  si  veterum  scripta 
diligenter  perlustrassent. 

Now  that  the  first  ages  after  Christ,  those  succeeding,  or 
any  other,  should  proceed  into  opinions  so  far  divided  from 
reason,  as  to  think  of  immortality  after  the  fall  of  Adam,  or 
conceit  a  man  in  these  later  times  should  outlive  our  fathers 
in  the  first, — although  it  seem  very  strange,  yet  is  it  not 
incredible.  For  the  credulity  of  men  hath  been  deluded  into 
the  like  conceits  ;  and,  as  Irenaeus  and  Tertullian  mention, 
one  Menander,  a  Samaritan,  obtained  belief  in  this  very  point, 
whose  doctriae  it  was,  that  death  should  have  no  power  on 
his  disciples,  and  such  as  received  his  baptism  should  receive 
immortality  therewith.  'Twas  surely  an  apprehension  very 
strange ;  nor  usually  falling  either  from  the  absurdities  of 
melancholy  or  vanities  of  ambition.  Some  indeed  have  been 
so  affectedly  vain  as  to  counterfeit  immortality,  and  have 
stolen  their  death,  in  a  hope  to  be  esteemed  immortal ;  and 
others  have  conceived  themselves  dead:  but  surely  few  or 
none  have  fallen  upon  so  bold  an  error,  as  not  to  think  that 
they  could  die  at  all.  The  reason  of  those  mighty  ones, 
whose  ambition  could  suffer  them  to  be  called  gods,  would 
never  be  flattered  into  immortality  ;  but  the  proudest  thereof 
have  by  the  daily  dictates  of  corruption  convinced  the  im- 
propriety of  that  appellation.  And  surely,  although  delusion 
may  run  high,  and  possible  it  is  that  for  a  while  a  man  may 
forget  his  nature,  yet  cannot  this  be  durable.  For  the  incon- 
cealable  imperfections  of  ourselves,  or  their  dady  examples  in 
others,  will  hourly  prompt  us  our  corruption,  ana  loudly  teU 
us  we  are  the  sons  of  earth. 

CHAP.  XI. 1  OF   DATID.       OF  LOt's  WIFE.  241 


Of  some  othera  more  briefly. 

Matty  others  there  are  which  we  resign  unto  divinity, 
and  perhaps  deserve  not  controversy.  Whether  David  were 
punished  only  for  pride  of  heart  for  numbering  the  people,  as 
most  do  hold,  or  whether,  as  Josephus  and  many  maintain,  he 
suffered  also  for  not  performing  the  commandment  of  God 
concerning  capitation,  that  when  the  people  were  numbered, 
for  every  head  they  should  pay  unto  God  a  sliekel,* — we 
shall  not  here  contend.  Surely  if  it  were  not  the  occasion 
of  this  plague,  we  must  acknowledge  the  omission  thereof 
was  threatened  with  that  punishment,  according  to  the  words 
of  the  law :  "  When  thou  takest  the  sum  of  the  children 
of  Israel,  then  shall  they  give  every  man  a  ransom  for  his 
soul  unto  the  Lord,  that  there  be  no  plague  amongst  them."  f 
Now  how  deeply  hereby  God  was  defrauded  in  the  time  of 
David,  and  opulent  state  of  Israel,  will  easily  appear  by  the 
sums  of  former  lustrations.  For  in  the  first,  the  silver  of 
them  that  were  numbered  was  an  hundred  talents,  and  a 
thousand  seven  hundred  and  threescore  and  fifteen  shekels  ; 
a  bekah  for  every  man,  that  is,  half  a  shekel,  after  the  shekel 
of  the  sanctuary  ;  for  every  one  from  twenty  years  old  and 
upwards,  for  six  hundred  thousand,  and  three  thousand  and 
five  hundred  and  fifty  men.  Answerable  whereto  we  read 
in  Josephus,  Vespasian  ordered  that  every  man  of  the  Jews 
should  bring  into  the  Capitol  two  drachms  ;  which  amounts 
unto  iifteen  pence,  or  a  quarter  of  an  ounce  of  silver  with  us  ; 
and  is  equivalent  unto  a  bekah,  or  half  a  shekel  of  the  sanc- 
tuary. For  an  Attick  drachm  is  sevenpence  halfpenny,  or  a 
quarter  of  a  shekel,  and  a  didracTimum,  or  double  drachm,  is 
the  word  used  for  tribute  money,  or  half  a  shekel ;  and  a  stater, 
the  money  found  in  the  fish's  mouth,  was  two  didrachmiims, 
or  a  whole  shekel,  and  tribute  sufficient  for  our  Saviour  and 
for  Peter. 

We  wiU  not  question  the  metamorphosis  of  Lot's  wife,  or 
whether  she  were  transformed  into  a  real  statue  of  salt ; 

*  Exod.  XXX.  f  Exod.  xxxviii. 

TOL.  II.  B 


thougli  some  conceive  that  expression  metapliorical,^  and  no 
more  thereby  than  a  lasting  and  durable  column,  according  to 
the  nature  of  salt,  which  admitteth  no  corruption;^  in  which 
sense  the  covenant  of  God  is  termed  a  covenant  of  salt ;  and 
it  is  also  said,  God  gave  the  kingdom  vmto  David  for  ever, 
or  by  a  covenant  of  salt. 

That  Absalom  was  hanged  by  the  hair  of  the  head,  and 
uot  caught  up  by  the  neck,  as  Josephus  conceiveth,  and  the 
common  argument  against  long  hair  affirmeth,  we  are  uot 
ready  to  deny.  Although  I  confess  a  great  and  learned 
party  there  are  of  another  opinion ;  although  if  he  had  his 
morion  or  helmet  on,  I  could  not  well  conceive  it ;  although 
the  translation  of  Jerome  or  Tremellius  do  not  prove  it,  and 
our  own  seems  rather  to  overthrow  it. 

That  Judas  hanged  himself — much  more  that  he  perished 
thereby  —  we  shall  not  raise  a  doubt.  Although  Jansenius, 
discotu-sing   the   point,  produceth  the  testimony  of  Theo- 

^  We  will  not  question,  <f.-c.]  Dr.  Adam  Clarke  has  given  a  long  note 
on  this  question,  to  which  the  reader  is  referred.  He  enumerates  in 
addition  to  Browne's  two  hypotheses,  a  third  : — viz.  that,  by  continuing 
in  the  plain,  she  might  have  been  struck  dead  with  lightning,  and 
enveloped  and  invested  in  the  bituminous  and  sulphurous  matter  which 
descended.  But  Dr.  C.  evidently  inclines  to  accept  the  metaphorical 
interpretation.  A  number  of  absurd  and  contradictory  stories  (he 
remarks)  have  been  told,  of  the  discovery  of  Lot's  wife  still  remaining 
unchanged — and  indeed  uiichangeable, — her  form  having  still  resident 
in  it  a  continual  miraculous  energy,  reproductive  of  any  part  which  is 
broken  off  :  so  that  though  multitudes  of  visitors  have  brought  away 
each  a  morsel,  yet  does  the  next  find  the  figure — complete  !  The  author 
of  the  poem  De  Sodoma,  at  the  end  of  TertuUian's  works,  and  with  him, 
Irenaeus,  asserts  the  figure  to  certain  indications  of  a  remaining 
portion  of  animal  life,  and  the  latter  father  in  the  height  of  his  absurdity, 
makes  her  an  emblem  of  the  tnie  church,  which,  though  she  suflfers 
much,  and  often  loses  whole  members,  yet  preserves  the  pillar  of  salt, 
that  is,  the  foundation  of  the  true  faith//  Josephus  asserts  that  he 
himself  saw  the  pillar.  S.  Clement  also  says  that  Lot's  wife  was 
remaining,  even  at  that  time,  as  a  pillar  of  salt.  Recent  and  more 
respectable  travellers  however  have  sought  for  her  in  vain,  and  it  is 
now  very  generally  admitted,  either  that  the  statue  does  not  exist — or 
that  some  of  the  blocks  of  rock  salt  met  with  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Dead 
>Sea — are  the  only  remains  of  it. 

^  which,  <L-c.]  Itt  admitteth  noe  corruption  in  other  things,  but 
itselfe  suffers  liquation,  and  corruption  too,  that  is,  looses  its  savour, 
as  appear.s  by  that  remarkable  speech  of  our  Saviour,  Marc.  ix. 
60. —  Wr. 


phylact  and  Euthymius,  that  he  died  not  by  the  gallows  but 
under  a  cart-wheel ;  and  Baronius  also  delivereth,  this  was 
the  opinion  of  the  Greeks,  and  derived  as  high  as  Papias, 
one  of  the  disciples  of  John.  Although,  also,  how  hardly  the 
expression  of  Matthew  is  reconcileable  unto  that  of  Peter — 
and  that  he  plainly  hanged  himself,  with  that,  that  falling 
headlong  he  burst  asunder  in  the  midst  —  with  many  other 
the  learned  Grotius  plainly  doth  acknowledge.  And  lastly, 
although,  as  he  also  urgeth,  the  word  ImiiylaTo  in  Matthew 
doth  not  only  signify  suspension  or  pendulous  illaqueation,  as 
the  common  picture  describeth  it,  but  also  sufibcation,  stran- 
gulation or  interception  of  breath,  which  may  arise  from  grief, 
despair,  and  deep  dejection  of  spirit,  in  which  sense  it  is  used 
in  the  history  of  Tobit  concerning  Sara,  iXvnifir}  acpo^pa  wrrre 
d7rayi'a(70o«, — Ita  fristata  est  ut  strangulatione  premeretur, 
saith  Jiinius  ;  and  so  might  it  happen  from  the  horror  of 
mind  unto  Judas.*  So  do  many  of  the  Hebrews  affirm, 
that  Achitophel  was  also  strangled,  that  is,  not  from  the 
rope,  but  passion.  For  the  Hebrew  and  Arabic  word  in  the 
text  not  only  signifies  suspension,  but  indignation,  as  Grotius 
hath  also  observed. 

Many  more  there  are  of  indifferent  truths,  whose  dubious 
expositions  worthy  divines  and  preachers  do  often  draw 
into  wholesome  and  sober  uses,  whereof  we  shall  not  speak. 
With  industry  we  decline  such  paradoxes,  and  peaceably 
submit  unto  their  received  acceptions. 


Of  the  Cessation  of  Oracles. 

That  oracles  ceased  or  grew  mute  at  the  coming  of 
Christ,^  is  best  understood  in  a  qualified  sense,  and  not 
without  all  latitude,  as  though  precisely  there  were  none 
after,  nor  any  decay  before.     For  (what  we  must  confess 

*  Strangulat  indusus  dolor. 

*  That  oracles  ceased,  d-c]  Browne  betrays,  throughout,  his  full  belief 
in  the  supernatural  ar  d  Satanic  character  of  oracles. 


2'44  OF   THE    CESSATION   OF   GEACLES.  [BOOK  Vll. 

unto  relations  of  antiquity),  some  pre-decay  is  observable 
from  that  of  Cicero,  urged  by  Baronius  ;  Gur  isto  modo  jam 
oracula  Delphis  non  eduntur,  non  modo  cetate,  sed  jam  diu,  ut 
nihil  possit  esse  contemptius.  Tliat  during  his  life  they  were 
not  altogether  dumb,  is  dedvicible  from  Suetonius  in  the  life 
of  Tiberius,  who  attempting  to  subvert  the  oracles  adjoining 
unto  Home,  was  deterred  by  the  lots  or  chances  which  were 
delivered  at  Praeneste.  After  his  death  we  meet  with  many; 
Suetonius  reports,  that  the  oracle  of  Antium  forewarned 
Caligula  to  beware  of  Cassius,  who  was  one  that  conspired 
his  death.  Plutarch  enquiring  why  the  oracles  of  G-reece 
ceased,  excepteth  that  of  Lebadia ;  and  in  the  same  place 
Demetrius  aiiirmeth  the  oracles  of  Mopsus  and  Amphilochus 
were  much  frequented  in  his  days.  In  brief,  histories  are 
frequent  in  examples,  and  there  want  not  some  even  to  the 
reign  of  Julian. 

What  therefore  may  consist  with  history ; — by  cessation 
of  oracles,  with  Montacutius,  we  may  understand  their 
intercision,  not  abscission  or  consummate  desolation ;  their 
rare  delivery,  not  total  dereliction :  and  yet  in  regard  of 
divers  oracles,  we  may  speak  strictly,  and  say  there  was  a 
proper  cessation.  Thus  may  we  reconcile  the  accounts  of 
times,  and  allow  those  few  and  broken  divinations,  whereof 
we  read  in  story  and  undeniable  authors.  For  that  they 
received  this  blow  from  Christ,  and  no  other  causes  alleged 
by  the  heathens,  from  oraculous  confession  they  cannot 
deny  ;  whereof  upon  record  there  are  some  very  remarkable. 
The  first  that  oracle  of  Delphos  dehvered  unto  Augustus. 

Me  puer  Hebrseus  Divos  Deus  ipse  gubernans, 
Cedere  sede  jubet,  tristemque  redire  sub  orcum  ; 
Aris  ergo  dehiiic  tacitus  discedito  nostris. 

An  Hebrew  child,  a  God  all  gods  excelling, 
To  Hell  again  commands  me  from  this  dwelling  ; 
Our  altars  leave  in  silence,  and  no  more 
A  resolution  e'er  from  hence  implore. 

A  second  recorded  by  Plutarch,  of  a  voice  that  was  heard 
to  cry  unto  mariners  at  the  sea,  Great  Pan  is  dead ;  which 
is  a  relation  very  remarkable,  and  may  be  read  in  his  defect 
of  oracles.  A  third  reported  by  Eusebius  in  the  Hfe  of  his 
magnified  Constantine,  that  about  that  time  Apollo  mourned, 

CHAP.  XII.]  OF    THE    CESSAIION    OF    OKACLES.  245 

declaring  his  oracles  were  false,  and  that  the  righteous  upon 
earth  did  hinder  him  from  speaking  truth.  And  a  fourth 
related  by  Theodoret,  and  delivered  by  Apollo  Daphneus 
unto  Julian,  upon  his  Persian  expedition,  that  he  should 
remove  the  bodies  about  him  before  he  could  return  an 
answer,  and  not  long  after  his  temple  was  burnt  with 

All  which  were  evident  and  convincing  acknowledgments 
of  that  power  which  shut  his  lips,  and  restrained  that  delu- 
sion which  had  reigned  so  many  centuries.  But  as  his  malice 
is  vigilant,  and  the  sins  of  men  do  still  continue  a  toleration 
of  his  mischiefs,  he  resteth  not,  nor  will  he  ever  cease  to 
circumvent  the  sous  of  the  first  deceived.  And  therefore, 
expelled  from  oracles  and  solemn  temples  of  delusion,  he 
runs  into  corners,  exercising  minor  trumperies,  and  acting 
his  deceits  in  witches,  magicians,  diviners,  and  such  inferior 
seducers.  And  yet  (what  is  deplorable)  while  we  apply 
ourselves  thereto,  and,  affirming  that  God  hath  left  off  to 
speak  by  his  prophets,  expect  in  doubtful  matters  a  resolu- 
tion from  such  spirits ;  while  we  say  the  devil  is  mute,  yet 
confess  that  these  can  speak  ;  while  we  deny  the  substance, 
yet  practise  the  effect,  and  in  the  denied  solemnity  maintain 
the  equivalent  efficacy ; — in  vain  we  cry  that  oracles  are 
down ;  Apollo's  altar  stdl  doth  smoke ;  nor  is  the  fire  of 
Delphos  out  unto  this  day. 

Impertinent  it  is  unto  our  intention  to  speak  in  general 
of  oracles,  and  many  have  well  performed  it.  The  plainest 
of  others  was  that  of  Apollo  Delphicus,  recorded  by  Hero- 
dotus, and  delivered  unto  Croesus ;  who  as  a  trial  of  their 
omniscience  sent  unto  distant  oracles :  and  so  contrived 
with  the  messengers,  that  though  in  several  places,  yet  at 
the  same  time  they  should  demand  what  Crcesus  was  then  a 
doing.  Among  aU  others  the  oracle  of  Delphos  only  hit  it, 
returning  answer,  he  was  boiling  a  lamb  with  a  tortoise,  in 
a  brazen  vessel,  with  a  cover  of  the  same  metal.  The  style 
is  haughty  in  Greek,  though  somewhat  lower  in  Latin, 

u^Equoria  est  spatium  et  numerus  mihi  notus  arenae, 
Mutum  percipio,  fantis  nihil  audio  vocem. 
Venit  ad  hos  sensus  nidor  testudinis  acris, 
Qute  semel  agnina  coquitur  cum  carne  lebete, 
Aere  inira  atrato,  et  stratum  cui  desuper  aes  esfe, 

246  THE  DEATH  OF  AEISTOTLE.        [bOOK  TLT. 

I  know  the  space  of  sea,  the  number  of  the  sand, 
I  hear  the  silent,  mute  I  understand. 
A  tender  lamb  joined  with  tortoise  flesh. 
Thy  master,  king  of  Lydia,  now  doth  dress. 
The  scent  thereof  doth  in  my  nostrils  hover, 
From  brazen  pot  closed  with  brazen  cover. 

Hereby  indeed  he  acquired  mucli  wealth  and  more  honour, 
and  was  "reputed  by  Crcesus  as  a  deity :  and  yet  not  long 
after,  by  a  vulgar  fallacy  he  deceived  his  favourite  and 
greatest  friend  of  oracles,  into  an  irreparable  overthrow  by 
Cyrus.  And  surely  the  same  success  are  likely  all  to  have, 
that  rely  or  depend  upon  him.  'Twas  the  first  play  he 
practised  on  mortality  ;  and  as  time  hath  rendered  him  more 
perfect  iu  the  art,  so  hath  the  inveterateness  of  his  malice 
more  ready  in  the  execution.  'Tis  therefore  the  sovereign 
degree  of  folly,  and  a  crime  not  only  against  God,  but  also 
our  own  reasons,  to  expect  a  favour  from  the  devil,  whose 
mercies  are  more  cruel  than  those  of  Polyphemus ;  for  he 
devours  his  favourites  first,  and  the  nearer  a  man  approacheth, 
the  sooner  he  is  scorched  by  Moloch.  In  brief,  his  favours 
are  deceitful  and  double-headed,  he  doth  apparent  good,  for 
real  and  convincing  evil  after  it ;  and  exalteth  us  up  to  the 
top  of  the  temple,  but  to  tumble  us  down  from  it. 


Of  the  Death  of  Aristotle, 

That  Aristotle  drowned  himself  in  Euripus,  as  despainng 
to  resolve  the  cause  of  its  reciprocation,  or  ebb  and  flow 
seven  times  a  day,  with  this  determination.  Si  quidem  ego 
non  capio  te,  tit  capies  me,  was  the  assertion  of  Procopius, 
Nazianzeu,  Justin  Martyr,  and  is  generally  believed  among 
us.  Wherein  because  we  perceive  men  have  but  an  imper- 
fect knowledge,  some  conceiving  Eimpus  to  be  a  river,  others 
not  knowing  where  or  in  what  part  to  place  it,  we  first  adver- 
tise, it  generally  signifieth  any  strait,  fret,  or  channel  of  the  sea, 
running  between  two  shores,  as  Julius  Pollux  hath  defined 
it ;  as  we  read  of  Euripus  Hellespontiacus,  PjTrhseus,  and 
this  whereof  we  treat,  JEuripus  Euhoiciis,  or  Chalcidicus,  that 


is,  a  narrow  passage  of  sea  dividing  Attica  and  the  island  of 
Euboea,  now  called  Qolfo  cU  Negroponte,  from  the  name  of  the 
island  and  chief  city  thereof,  famous  in  the  wars  of  Antiochus, 
and  taken  from  the  Venetians  by  Mahomet  the  Great. 

Now  that  in  this  Euripe  or  fret  of  Negroponte,  and  upon 
the  occasion  mentioned,  Aristotle  drowned  himself,  as  many 
affirm,  and  almost  all  believe,  we  have  some  room  to  doubt. 
Tor  without  any  mention  of  this,  we  find  two  ways  delivered 
of  his  death  by  Diogenes  Laertius,  who  expressly  treateth 
thereof;  the  one  from  Eumolus  and  Phavorinus,  that,  being 
accused  of  impiety  for  composing  an  hymn  unto  Hermias 
(upon  whose  concubine  he  begat  his  son  Nicomachus),  he 
withdrew  into  Chalcis,  where  drinking  poison  he  died ;  the 
hymn  is  extant  in  Laertius,  and  the  fifteenth  book  of  Athe- 
naeus.  Another  by  ApoUodorus,^  that  he  died  at  Chalcis  of 
a  natiu-al  death  and  languishment  of  stomach,  in  his  sixty- 
third,  or  great  climacterical  year ;  and  answerable  hereto  is 
the  account  of  Suidas  and  Censorinus.  And  if  that  were 
cleai'ly  made  out,  which  Eabbi  Ben  Joseph  affinneth  he 
found  in  an  Egyptian  book  of  Abraham  Sapiens  Perizol,  that 
Aristotle  acknowledged  all  that  was  written  in  the  law  of 
Moses,  and  became  at  last  a  proselyte,  it  would  also  make 
improbable  this  received  way  of  his  death.*'' 

Again,  beside  the  negative  of  authority,  it  is  also  deniable 
by  reason ;  nor  will  it  be  easy  to  obtrude  such  desperate 
attempts  upon  Aristotle,  from  unsatisfaction  of  reason,  who 
so  often  acknowledged  the  imbecility  thereof.  Who  in 
matters  of  difficulty,  and  such  which  were  not  without  ab- 
strusities, conceived  it  sufficient  to  deliver  conjecturalities. 
And  surely  he  that  could  sometimes  sit  down  with  high  im- 
probabilities, that  could  content  himself,  and  think  to  satisfy 
others,  that  the  variegation  of  birds  was  from  their  living  in 
the  sun,  or  erection  made  by  delibration  of  the  testicles  ; 
would  not  have  been  dejected  unto  death  with  this.  He 
that  was  so  well  acquainted  with  j)  on  and  Trorepor,  utrum 
and  an  quia,  as  we  observe  in  the  queries  of  his  problems, 
with  "i(TU)Q  and  ln\  to  ttoXv,  fortasse  and  plerumqtie,  as  ia 

*  lAcetus  de  Qucesitis.  E2nst. 

•  Another,  <i.-c.]     The  most  probable  account. 

'  And  if  that,  tfec]     First  added  in  the  2nd  edition. 

248  THE  DEATH  OF  AEISTOTLE.       [BOOK  Til. 

observable  tbrougb  all  his  works,  had  certainly  rested  with 
probabilities,  and  glancing  conjectures  in  this.  Nor  would 
his  resolutions  have  ever  run  into  that  mortal  antanaclasis, 
and  desperate  piece  of  rhetorick,  to  be  comprised  in  that  he 
could  not  comprehend.  Nor  is  it  indeed  to  be  made  out, 
that  he  ever  endeavoured  the  particular  of  Euripus,  or  so 
much  as  to  resolve  the  ebb  and  flow  of  the  sea.  Eor,  as 
Vicomercatus  and  others  observe,  he  hath  made  no  mention 
hereof  in  his  works,  although  the  occasion  present  itself  in 
his  Meteors,  wherein  he  disputeth  the  affections  of  the  sea ; 
nor  vet  in  his  Prohlems,  although  in  the  twenty-third  sec- 
tion there  be  no  less  than  one  and  forty  queries  of  the  sea. 
Some  mention  there  is  indeed  in  a  work  of  the  propriety  of 
elements,  ascribed  unto  Aristotle :  *  which  notwithstanding 
is  not  reputed  genuine,  and  was  perhaps  the  same  whence 
this  was  urged  by  Plutarch. 

Lastly,  the  thing  itself  whereon  the  opinion  dependeth, 
that  is,  the  variety  of  the  flux  and  the  reflux  of  Euripus,  or 
whether  the  same  do  ebb  and  flow  seven  times  a  day,  is  not 
incontrovertible.  Eor  though  Pomponius  Mela,  and  after 
him  Solinus  and  Pliny  have  affirmed  it,  yet  I  observe  Thucy- 
dides,  who  speaketh  often  of  Eubcea,  hath  omitted  it.  Pau- 
sanias,  an  ancient  writer,  who  hath  left  an  exact  description 
of  Gi-reece,  and  in  as  particular  a  way  as  Leaudro  of  Italy, 
or  Camden  of  Grreat  Britain,  describing  not  only  the  country 
towns  and  rivers,  but  hills,  springs,  and  houses,  hath  left  no 
mention  hereof.  iEschines  in  Ctesiphon  only  aUudeth  unto 
it ;  and  Strabo,  that  accurate  geographer,  speaks  warily  of 
it,  that  is,  wQ  (patTi,  and  as  men  commonly  reported.  And  so 
doth  also  Maginus,  Velocis  ac  varii  jiuctus  est  mare,  ubi 
quater  in  die,  aut  septies,  ut  alii  dicunt,  reciprocantur  cestus. 
Botero  more  plainly,  II  mar  cresce  e  cala  con  un  impeto  mi- 
rahile  quatra  volte  il  di,  ben  che  eommunimente  si  dica  sette 
volte,  ^c. — "  this  sea  with  wondrous  impetuosity  ebbeth  and 
floweth  fom"  times  a  day,  although  it  be  commonly  said  seven 
times  ;  and  generally  opinioned,  that  Aristotle  despairing  of 
the  reason,  drowned  himself  therein."  In  which  descrip- 
tion by  four  times  a  day,  it  exceeds  not  in  number  the 
motion  of  other  seas,  taking  the  words  properly,  that  is, 

*  De  placitis  PMlosophorum. 


twice  ebbing  and  twice  flowing  in  four  and  twenty  hours. 
And  is  no  more  than  what  Thomaso  Porrchachi  afiirmeth  in 
his  description  of  famous  ishmds,  that  tw-ice  a  day  it  hath 
such  an  impetuous  flood,  as  is  not  witliout  wonder.  Livy 
speaks  more  particularly,  Haud  facile  infestior  classi  statio 
est  et  f return  vpsum  JEuripi,  non  septies  die  (sicut  famafert) 
temporibus  certis  reciprocat,  sed  temere  in  modum  venti,  nunc 
hunc  nunc  illuc  verso  mari,  velut  monte  prcecipiti  devolutus 
torrens  rapitur  : — "  there  is  hardly  a  worse  harbour,  the  fret 
or  channel  of  Euripus  not  certainly  ebbing  or  flowing  seven 
times  a  day,  according  to  common  report :  but  being  uncer- 
tainly, and  in  the  manner  of  a  wind,  carried  hither  and 
thither,  is  whirled  away  as  a  torrent  down  a  hill."  But  the 
experimental  testimony  of  Gillius  is  most  considerable  of 
any ;  who  having  beheld  the  course  thereof,  and  made  en- 
quiry of  millers  that  dwelt  upon  its  shore,  received  answer, 
that  it  ebbed  and  flowed  four  times  a  day,  that  is,  every  six 
hours,  according  to  the  law  of  the  ocean ;  but  that  indeed 
sometimes  it  observed  not  that  certain  course.  And  this 
irregularity,  though  seldom  happening,  together  with  its 
unruly  and  tumultuous  motion,  might  afford  a  beginning 
luito  the  common  opinion.  Thus  may  the  expression  in 
Ctesiphon  be  made  out.  And  by  this  may  Aristotle  be 
interpreted,  when  in  his  Prohlems  he  seems  to  borrow  a 
metaphor  from  Euripus ;  while  in  the  five  and  twentieth 
section  he  enquireth,  why  in  the  upper  parts  of  houses  the 
air  doth  Euripize,  that  is,  is  whiided  hither  and  thither. 

A  later  and  experimental  testimony  is  to  be  found  in  the 
travels  of  Monsieur  Duloir ;  who  about  twenty  years  ago, 
remained  sometime  at  Negroponte,  or  old  Chalcis,  and  also 
passed  and  repassed  this  Euripus ;  who  thus  expresseth 
himself :  "  I  wonder  much  at  the  error  concerning  the  flux 
and  reflux  of  Euripus  ;  and  I  assui-e  you  that  opinion  is  false. 
I  gave  a  boatman  a  crown,  to  set  me  in  a  convenient  place, 
where  for  a  whole  day  I  might  observe  the  same.  It  ebbeth 
and  floweth  by  six  hoiu'S,  even  as  it  doth  at  Venice,  but  the 
course  thereof  is  vehement."^ 

Now  tliat  which  gave  life  unto  the  assertion,  might  be  his 
death  at  Chalcis,  the  chief  city  of  Euboea,  and  seated  upon 

*  A  later  and  experimental,  tfcc]     First  added  in  6th  edition. 

250  THE  DEATH  OF  ARISTOTLE.        [bOOK  TII. 

Euripus,  where  'tis  confessed  by  all  lie  ended  his  days. 
That  he  emaciated  and  pined  away  in  the  too  anxious 
enquiry  of  its  reciprocations,  although  not  drowned  therein, 
as  Ehodiginus  relateth  some  conceived,  was  a  half  confession 
thereof  not  justifiable  from  antiquity.  Surely  the  philosophy 
of  flux  and  reflux  was  very  imperfect  of  old  among  the  Greeks 
and  Latins  ;  nor  could  they  hold  a  sufiicient  theory  thereof, 
who  only  observed  the  Mediterranean,  which  in  some  places 
hath  no  ebb,  and  not  much  in  any  part.  Nor  can  we  affirm 
our  knowledge  is  at  the  height,  who  have  now  the  theory  of 
the  ocean  and  narrow  seas  beside.  While  we  refer  it  unto 
the  moon,  we  give  some  satisfaction  for  the  ocean,  but  no 
general  salve  for  creeks  and  seas  which  know  no  flood  ;  nor 
resolve  why  it  flows  three  or  four  feet  at  Venice  in  the 
bottom  of  the  gulph,  yet  scarce  at  all  at  Ancona,  Durazzo, 
or  Corcyra,  which  lie  but  by  the  way.  And  therefore  old 
abstrusities  have  caused  new  inventions  ;  and  some  from  the 
hypotheses  of  Copernicus,  or  the  diurnal  and  annual  motion 
of  the  earth,  endeavour  to  salve  the  flows  and  motions  of 
these  seas,  illustrating  the  same  by  water  in  a  bowl,  that 
rising  or  falling  to  either  side,  according  to  the  motion  of 
the  vessel ;  the  conceit  is  ingenious,  salves  some  doubts,  and 
is  discovered  at  large  by  Galileo. *** 

But  whether  the  received  principle  and  undeniable  action 
of  the  moon  may  not  be  still  retained,  although  in  some 
difference  of  application,  is  yet  to  be  perpended ;  that  is  not 
by  a  simple  operation  upon  the  surface  or  superior  parts, 
but  excitation  of  the  nitro-sulphureous  spirits,  and  parts 
disposed  to  intumescency  at  the  bottom ;  not  by  attenuation 
of  the  upper  part  of  the  sea,  (whereby  ships  would  draw 
more  water  at  the  flow  than  at  the  ebb,)  but  intergescencies 
caused  first  at  the  bottom,  and  carrying  the  upper  part 
before  them ;  subsiding  and  falling  again,  accorcUng  to  the 
motion  of  the  moon  from  the  meridian,  and  languor  of  the 
exciting  cause :  and  therefore  rivers  and  lakes  who  want 
these  fermenting  parts  at  the  bottom,  are  not  excited  unto 
aestuations ;  and  therefore  some  seas  flow  higher  than  others, 

*  Rog.  Bac.  Doct.  Cabeus  Met.  2. 

®  and  is  discovered  at  large  by  Galileo.]  And  by  the  Lord  Bacon 
rejected  in  his  booke,  De  Fluxu  et  Refiuxii,  Maris. —  Wr, 


according  to  the  plenty  of  these  spirits,  in  their  submarine 
constitutions.  And  therefore  also  the  periods  of  flux  and 
reflux  are  various,  nor  their  increase  or  decrease  equal : 
according  to  the  temper  of  the  terreous  parts  at  the  bottom  ; 
which  as  they  are  more  hardly  or  easily  moved,  do  variously 
begin,  continue,  or  end  their  intumescencies. 

From  the  peculiar  disposition  of  the  earth  at  the  bottom, 
wherein  quick  excitations  are  made,  may  arise  those  agars^ 
and  impetuous  flows  in  some  estuaries  and  rivers,  as  is 
observed  about  Trent  and  Humber  in  England  ;  which  may 
also  have  some  effect  in  the  boisterous  tides  of  Euripus,  not 
only  from  ebullitions  at  the  bottom,  but  also  from  the  sides 
and  lateral  parts,  driving  the  streams  from  either  side,  which 
arise  or  fall  according  to  the  motion  in  those  parts,  and  the 
intent  or  remiss  operation  of  the  first  exciting  causes,  which 
maintain  their  activities  above  and  below  the  horizon ;  even 
as  they  do  in  the  bodies  of  plants  and  animals,  and  in  the 
commotion  of  catarrhs.^ 

How  therefore  Aristotle  died,  what  was  his  end,  or  upon 
what  occasion,  although  it  be  not  altogether  assured,  yet 
that  his  memory  and  worthy  name  shall  live,  no  man  will 
deny,  nor  grateful  scholar  doubt.  And  if  according  to  the 
elogy  of  Solon,  a  man  may  be  only  said  to  be  happy  after  he 
is  dead,  and  ceaseth  to  be  in  the  visible  capacity  of  beati- 
tude ;  or  if  according  unto  his  own  ethicks,  sense  is  not 
essential  unto  felicity,  but  a  man  may  be  happy  without  the 
apprehension  thereof;  surely  in  that  sense  he  is  pyramidally 
happy ;  nor  can  he  ever  perish  but  in  the  Euripe  of  igno- 
~ance,  nor  till  the  torrent  of  barbarism  overwhelmeth  all. 

A  like  conceit  there  passeth  of  Melisigenes,  alias  Homer, 
the  father  poet,  that  he  pined  away  upon  the  riddle  of  the 
fishermen.  But  Herodotus,  who  wi'ote  his  life,  hath  cleared 
this  point ;  delivering,  that  passing  from  Samos  unto  Athens, 
he  went  sick  ashore  upon  the  island  los,  where  he  died,  and 
was  solemnly  interred  upon  the  sea-side ;  and  so  decidingly 
concludeth,  Mv  Tiac  cegritudine  extremum  diem  clausit  Ho- 
merus  in  lo,  non,  ut  arbitrantur  aliqui,  cenigmatis perplexitate 
enectus,  sed  tiwrbo. 

^  agar.'\     The  tumultuous  influx  of  the  tide. 

'  But  whether  the  received  princijile,  <hc.  From  the  peculiar,  &C.} 
rhese  two  paragraphs  were  first  added  in  the  2nd  edition. 



Of  the  V>  isk  of  Philoxenus  to  have  the  Neck  of  a  Crane. 

That  relation  of  Aristotle,  and  conceit  generally  received, 
concerning  Philoxenus,  who  wished  the  neck  of  a  crane, 
that  thereby  he  might  take  more  pleasure  in  his  meat, 
although  it  pass  without  exception,  upon  enquiry  I  find  not 
only  doubtful  in  the  story,  but  absurd  in  the  desire  or  reason 
alleged  for  it.^  For  though  his  wish  were  such  as  is  de- 
livered, yet  had  it  not  perhaps  that  end  to  delight  his  gust 
in  eating,  but  rather  to  obtain  advantage  thereby  in  singing, 
as  is  declared  by  Mirandula.  Aristotle,  saith  he,  in  his 
Ethiclcs  and  Problems,  accuseth  Philoxenus  of  sensuality, 
for  the  greater  pleasure  of  gust  desiring  the  neck  of  a  crane, 
which  desire  of  his  (assenting  unto  Aristotle),  I  have  for- 
merly condemned.  But  since  1  perceive  that  Aristotle  for 
his  accusation  hath  been  accused  by  divers  writers ; — for 
Philoxenus  was  an  excellent  musician,  and  desired  the  neck 
of  a  crane,  not  for  any  pleasure  at  meat,  but  fancying  thereby 
an  advantage  in  singing  or  warbling,  and  dividing  the  notes 
in  music : — and  many  writers  there  are  which  mention  a 
musician  of  that  name ;  as  Plutarch  in  his  book  against 
Usury,  and  Aristotle  himself,  in  the  eighth  of  his  Politicks, 
speaks  of  one  Philoxenus,  a  musician,  that  went  ofl'from  the 
Dorick  dithyrambics  unto  the  Phrygian  harmony. 

Again,  be  the  story  true  or  false,  rightly  applied  or  not, 
the  intention  is  not  reasonable,  and  that  perhaps  neither  one 
way  nor  the  other.     For  if  we  rightly  consider  the  organ  of 

2  That  relation,  &c.'\  Our  author's  observations  on  this  absurd  story 
are  quoted  by  Dr.  John  Bulwer,  in  his  Anthropometanmrphosis,  &c. 
p.  276. 

Ross  goes  into  the  history  of  Philoxenus  at  great  length,  and  adheres, 
as  usual,  most  tenaciously  to  the  legend.  He  contends,  and  with  some 
reason,  that  the  absurdity  of  the  wish,  if  granted,  were  no  argument 
against  its  having  been  expressed,  seeing  that  many  have  entertained 
wishes  far  more  so.  But  he  even  asserts  its  reasonableness,  "that 
there  is  much  pleasure  in  deglutition  of  sweet  meats  and  unnKs,  is 
plain  by  the  practice  of  those  who,  to  supply  the  want  of  long  necks, 
ased  to  suck  their  drink  out  of  long  small  cranes,  or  quills,  or  glassea 
with  long  narrow  snouts,  &c.  &c. ! !  " 


taste,  we  shall  find  the  length  of  the  neck  to  conduce  but 
little  unto  it ;  for  the  tongue  being  the  instrument  of  taste, 
and  the  tip  thereof  the  most  exact  distinguisher,  it  will  not 
advantage  the  gust  to  have  the  neck  extended  ;  wherein  the 
gullet  and  conveying  parts  are  only  seated,  which  partake 
not  of  the  nerves  of  gustation,  or  appertaining  unto  sapor, 
but  receive  them  only  from  the  sixth  pair ;  whereas  the 
nerves  of  taste  descend  from  the  third  and  fourth  propaga- 
tions, and  so  diffuse  themselves  into  the  tongue;  and  therefore 
cranes,  herons,  and  swans,  have  no  advantage  in  taste  beyond 
hawks,  kites,  and  others  of  shorter  necks. 

Nor,  if  we  consider  it,  had  nature  respect  unto  the  taste 
in  the  different  contrivance  of  necks,  but  rather  unto  the 
parts  contained,  the  composure  of  the  rest  of  the  body,  and 
the  manner  whereby  they  feed.  Thus  animals  of  long  legs 
have  generally  long  necks,  that  is,  for  the  conveniency  of 
feeding,  as  having  a  necessity  to  apply  their  mouths  unto 
the  earth.  So  have  horses,  camels,  dromedaries,  long  necks, 
and  all  tall  animals,  except  the  elephant,  who  in  defect 
thereof  is  furnished  with  a  trunk,  without  which  he  could 
not  attain  the  ground.  So  have  cranes,  herons,  storks,  and 
shovelards  long  necks  ;  and  so  even  in  man,  whose  figure  is 
erect,  the  length  of  the  neck  foUoweth  the  proportion  of 
other  parts  ;  and  such  as  have  round  faces  or  broad  chests 
and  shoulders,  have  very  seldom  long  necks.  For  the  length 
of  the  face  twice  exceedeth  that  of  the  neck,  and  the  space 
between  the  throat-pit  and  the  navel,  is  equal  unto  the 
circumference  thereof.  Again,  animals  are  framed  with 
long  necks,  according  unto  tlie  course  of  tlieir  life  or  feeding ; 
so  many  with  short  legs  have  long  necks,  because  they  feed 
in  the  water,  as  swans,  geese,  pelicans,  and  other  fin-footed 
animals.^  But  hawks  and  birds  of  prey  have  short  necks 
and  trussed  legs  ;  for  that  which  is  long  is  weak  and  flexible, 
and  a  shorter  figure  is  best  accommodated  unto  that  inten- 
tion. Lastly,  the  necks  of  animals  do  vary,  according  to  the 
parts  that  are  contained  in  them,  which  are  the  weazand  and 
the  gullet.     Such  as  have  no  weazand  and  breathe  not,  have 

^  fin-footed  amimals.]  Wee  usually  call  tbem  lether-footed, *  but  thia 
ternie  suites  with  the  use  more  significantlye. —  Wr, 

*  Web-footed  rather. 


scarce  any  neck,  as  most  sorts  of  fishes  ;  and  some  none  at 
all,  as  all  sorts  of  pectinals,  soles,  thornback,  flounders,  and 
all  crustaceous  animals,  as  crevises,^  crabs,  and  lobsters. 

All  wliicb  considered,  the  wish  of  Philoxenus  will  hardly 
consist  with  reason.  More  excusable  had  it  been  to  have 
wished  himself  an  ape,^  which  if  common  conceit  speak  true, 
is  exacter  in  taste  than  any.  Rather  some  kind  of  grani- 
vorous  bird  than  a  crane,  for  in  this  sense  they  are  so 
exquisite,  that  upon  the  first  peck  of  their  bill,  they  can 
distinguish  the  qualities  of  hard  bodies,  which  the  sense  of 
man  discerns  not  without  mastication.  Rather  some  rumi- 
nating animal,  that  he  might  have  eat  his  meat  twice  over ; 
or  rather,  as  Theophilus  observed  in  Athenseus,  his  desire 
had  been  more  reasonable,  had  he  wished  himself  an  elephant 
or  a  horse  ;  for  in  these  animals  the  appetite  is  more  vehe- 
ment, and  they  receive  their  viands  in  large  and  plenteous 
manner.  And  this  indeed  had  been  more  suitable,  if  this 
were  the  same  Philoxenus  whereof  Plutarch  speaketh,  who 
was  so  uncivilly  greedy,  that,  to  engross  the  mess,^  he  would 
preventively  deliver  his  nostrils  in  the  dish.'' 

*  crerises.]     Now  called  cray-fish. 

*  an  a/3C.]  I  thiuke  an  ape  is  more  exacte  in  the  smel  then  in  the 
taste  :  for  he  never  tastes  that  which  hee  first  smels  not  too.  And  how 
pleasant  soever  any  food  seeme  to  us,  yf  itt  displease  his  smel,  he  throws 
it  away  with  a  kind  of  indignation. —  Wr. 

^  to  engross  the  'iness.'\  I  was  assured  by  a  friend  that  the  following 
somewhat  similar  exploit  was  performed  in   a   commercial  traveller's 

room  at .     A  dish  of  green  peas  was  served   very  early  in  the 

season.  One  of  the  party,  who  preferred  high-seasoned  peas  to  most 
other  vegetables,  and  himself  to  everybody  besides,  took  an  early 
opportunity  of  offering  his  services  to  help  the  peas,  but  he  began  by 
peppering  them  so  unmercifully,  that  it  was  not  very  probable  they 
would  suit  any  other  palate  than  his  own.  His  neighbour,  perceivinj" 
his  own  chance  thus  demolished,  expostulated  ;  and  was  told  in  reply 
of  the  virtues  of  pe^iyjer,  as  the  only  thing  to  make  green  peas  whole- 
some. He  instantly  drew  forth  his  snuff-box,  and  dextrously  scattered 
its  contents  over  the  dish,  as  the  most  summary  means  which  occurred 
to  him  of  defeating  such  palpable  selfishness  and  gluttony,  observiixg 
drily  that  he  thought  snuff  an  excellent  addition  to  the  pepper. 

'  dish.]  There  have  been  some  whose  slovenleyeness  and  greedines 
have  ijequaled  his,  by  throwing  a  candles  end  into  a  messe  of  creame. 
But,  more  ingenious,  frame  a  peece  of  aple  like  a  candle,  and  therein 
stick  a  clove  to  deceave  others  of  their  deyntyes,  in  fine  eating  the 
counterfet  candle. —  Wi; 

CHAP.  XV.]       OF  THE  LAKE  ASPHALTITES.         255 

As  for  tlie  musical  advantage,  although  it  seem  more  rea- 
sonable, yet  do  we  not  observe  that  cranes  and  birds  of  long 
necks  have  any  musical,  but  harsh  and  clangous  throats. 
But  birds  that  are  canorous,  and  whose  notes  we  most  com- 
mend, are  of  little  throats  and  short  necks,  as  nightingales, 
finches,  linnets,  Canary  birds,  and  larks.  And  truly,  although 
the  weazand,  throttle,  and  tongue  be  the  instruments  of  voice, 
and  by  their  agitations  do  chiefly  concur  unto  these  delightful 
modulations,  yet  cannot  we  distinctly  and  peculiarly  assign 
the  cause  unto  any  particular  formation :  and  I  perceive  the 
best  thereof,  the  nightingale,  hath  some  disadvantage  in  the 
tongue,  which  is  not  acuminate^  and  pointed  as  the  rest, 
but  seemeth  as  it  were  cut  off,  which  perhaps  might  give  the 
hint  unto  the  fable  of  Philomela,  and  the  cutting  off  her 
tongue  by  Tereus. 


Of  ike  Lake  Asphaltites. 

CoNCEENiNG  the  Lake  Asphaltites,  the  Lake  of  Sodom,  or 
the  Dead  Sea,  that  heavy  bodies  cast  therein  sink  not,  but 
by  reason  of  a  salt  and  bituminous  thickness  in  the  water 
float  and  swim  above,  narrations  already  made  are  of  that 
variety,  we  can  hardly  from  thence  deduce  a  satisfactory 
determination,  and  that  not  only  in  the  story  itself,  but  in 
the  cause  alleged.   As  for  the  story,  men  deliver  it  variously.^ 

Counterfeit  candles'  ends  are  now  made  of  peppermint,  which  are 
admirable  imitations  of  the  attractive  originals,  and  would  have  per- 
fectly supplied  the  occasion  related  by  the  Dean. 

®  acuminate.']  Yf  the  acuminate  did  any  thinge  to  the  songe  or 
speech  of  birds,  how  comes  itt  that  the  blunt  toung  in  the  parat  and  the 
gaye  [jay  ?]  speake  best,  and  in  the  bulfinch  expresses  the  most  excellent 
whistle. —  Wr. 

*  As  for  the  story  itself,  d-c]  It  is  to  be  reckoned  among  the  many 
strange  and  incredible  stories,  which  both  ancients  and  moderns  have 
told  respecting  this  lake.  Dr.  Pococke  swam  in  it  for  nearly  a  quarter 
of  an  hour,  and  felt  no  inconvenience.  He  found  the  water  very  clear, 
and  to  contain  no  substances  besides  salt  and  alum.  The  fact  is,  that 
its  waters  are  very  salt,  and  therefore  bodies  float  readily  in  it ;  and 
probably  on  that  account  few  fish  can  live  in  it.  Yet  the  monks  of 
St.  Saba  assured  Dr.  Shaw  that  they  had  seen  fiah  caught  in  the  late, 
—See  Dr.  A  dam  Clarke's  note  in  lo  . 


Some  I  fear  too  largely,  as  Pliny,  who  affirmetli  that  bricks 
will  swim  therein.  Mandevil  goeth  further,  that  iron  swim- 
meth,  and  feathers  sink.  Munster  in  his  Cosmography  hath 
another  relation,  although  perhaps  derived  from  the  poem  of 
Tertullian,  that  a  candle  burning  swimmeth,  but  if  extin- 
guished sinketh.i  Some  more  moderately,  as  Josephus,  and 
many  others,  affirming  that  only  living  bodies  float,  nor 
peremptorily  averring  they  cannot  sink,  but  that  indeed  they 
do  not  easily  descend.  Most  traditionally,  as  Galen,  Pliny, 
Solinus,  and  Strabo,  who  seems  to  mistake  the  Lake  Ser- 
bonis  for  it.  Pew  experimentally,  most  contenting  themselves 
in  the  experiment  of  Vespasian,  by  whose  command  some 
captives  bound  were  cast  therein,  and  found  to  float  as 
though  they  could  have  swimmed.  Divers  contradictorily, 
or  contrarily,  quite  overthrowing  the  point.^  Aristotle,  in 
the  second  of  his  Meteors,  speaks  lightly  thereof,  wo-tteo 
lj.vdoXoyov(Ti,  which  word  is  variously  rendered,  by  some  as  a 
fabulous  account,  by  some  as  a  common  talk.  Biddulphus* 
di\ddeth  the  common  accounts  of  Judea  into  three  parts ; 
the  one,  saith  he,  are  apparent  truths,  the  second  apparent 
falsehoods,  the  tliird  are  dubious  or  between  both,  in  which 
form  he  ranketh  the  relation  of  this  lake.  But  Andrew 
Thevet,  in  his  Cosmograjjhy,  doth  ocularly  overthrow  it,  for 
he  affirmeth  he  saw  an  ass  with  his  saddle  cast  therein  and 
drowned.  Now  of  these  relations  so  different  or  contrary 
unto  each  other,  the  second  is  most  moderate  and  safest  to 
be  embraced,  which  saith  that  living  bodies  swim  therein, 
that  is,  they  do  not  easily  sink,  and  this,  until  exact  experi- 
ment further  determine,  may  be  allowed  as  best  consistent 
with  this  quality,  and  the  reasons  alleged  for  it. 

As  for  the  cause  of  this  effect,  common  opinion  conceives 
it  to  be  the  salt  and  bituminous  thickness  of  the  water. 
This  indeed  is  probable,  and  may  be  admitted  as  far  as  the 
second  opinion  concede th.     Por  certain  it  is  that  salt  water 

*  Biddulphi  Itinerarium,  AnglicL 

'  smikeih.']     Soe  it  will  doe  in  anye  water,  if  kept  upright. — Wr. 

*  divers  contradictorili/.]  This  diversity  may  proceed  fi-om  the  diverse 
experiments  that  have  been  made  on  severall  sides  of  the  lake,  which 
have  not  all  the  like  effecte :  in  some  partes  it  beares  that  which  in 
another  part  will  sinke,  as  hath  been  experimented  by  some  late  tra- 
velers.—  Wr. 


will  support  a  greater  burden  than  fresh  ;  and  we  see  an  egg 
will  descend  in  fresh  water,  which  will  swim  in  brine.  But 
that  iron  should  float  therein,  from  this  cause,  is  hardly 
granted ;  for  heavy  bodies  will  only  swim  in  that  liquor, 
wherein  the  weight  of  their  bulk  exceedeth  not  the  weight 
of  so  much  water  as  it  occupieth  or  taketh  up.  But  surely 
no  water  is  heavy  enough  to  answer  the  ponderosity  of  iron, 
and  therefore  that  metal  will  sink  in  any  kind  thereof,  and 
it  was  a  perfect  miracle  which  was  wrought  this  way  by 
Elisha.  Thus  we  perceive  that  bodies  do  swim  or  sink  in 
ditferent  liquors,  according  unto  the  tenuity  or  gravity  of 
those  liquors  which  are  to  support  them.  So  salt  water 
beareth  that  weight  which  will  sink  in  vinegar ;  vinegar  that 
which  will  fall  in  fresh  water ;  fresh  water  that  which  will 
sink  in  spirits  of  wine  ;  and  that  will  swim  in  spirits  of  wine 
which  will  sink  in  clear  oil ;  as  we  made  experiment  in  globes 
of  wax  pierced  with  light  sticks  to  support  them.  So  that 
although  it  be  conceived  a  hard  matter  to  sink  in  oil,  I 
believe  a  man  should  find  it  very  difficult,  and  next  to  flying 
to  swim  therein.  And  thus  will  gold  sink  in  quicksilver, 
wherein  iron  and  other  metals  swim ;  for  the  bidk  of  gold 
is  only  heavier  than  that  space  of  quicksilver  which  it  con- 
taineth  ;  and  thus  also  in  a  solution  of  one  ounce  of  quick- 
silver in  two  oi  aqua  for  lis,  the  liquor  will  bear  amber,  horn, 
and  the  softer  kinds  of  stones,  as  we  have  made  trial  in. 

But  a  private  opinion  there  is  which  crosseth  the  common 
conceit,  maintained  by  some  of  late,  and  alleged  of  old  by 
Strabo,  that  the  floating  of  bodies  in  this  lake  proceeds  not 
from  the  thickness  of  water,  but  a  bituminous  ebullition 
from  the  bottom,  whereby  it  wafts  up  bodies  injected,  and 
sufFereth  them  not  easily  to  sink.  The  verity  thereof  would 
be  enquired  by  ocular  exploration,  for  this  way  is  also  pro- 
bable. So  we  observe,  it  is  hard  to  wade  deep  in  baths  where 
springs  arise  ;  and  thus  sometime  are  balls  made  to  play 
upon  a  spouting  stream.-* 

And  therefore,  until  judicious  and  ocular  experiment  con- 
firm or  distinguish  the  assertion,  that  bodies  do  not  sink 

^  spouting  stream.]     This  confirmeth  what  I  noted  before,  for,  as  in 
the  hot  bathe,  so  here,  the  bituminous  ebullition  is  but  in  some  places 
stronge,  and  in  some  places  of  the  lake  not  at  all. —  Wr. 
VOL.  II.  S 


herein  at  all,  we  do  not  yet  believe  ;  tliat  they  do,  not  easily, 
or  with  more  difilciilty,  descend  in  this  than  other  water,  we 
shall  readily  assent."*  But  to  conclude  an  impossibility  from 
a  difficulty,  or  affirm  whereas  things  not  easily  sink,  they  do 
not  drown  at  all ;  beside  the  fallacy,  is  a  frequent  addition  in 
human  expression,  and  an  amplification  not  unusual  as  well 
in  opinions  as  relations ;  which  oftentimes  give  indistinct 
accounts  of  proximities,  and  without  restraint  transcend  from 
one  another.  Thus,  foi'asmuch  as  the  torrid  zone  was  con- 
ceived exceeding  hot,  and  of  difficult  habitation,  the  opinions 
of  men  so  advanced  its  constitution,  as  to  conceive  the  same 
unhabitable,  and  beyond  possibility  for  man  to  live  therein. 
Thus,  because  there  are  no  wolves  in  England,  nor  have  been 
observed  for  divers  generations,  common  people  have  pro- 
ceeded into  opinions,  and  some  wise  men  into  affirmations, 
they  will  not  live  therein,  althoiigh  brought  from  other  coun- 
tries. Thus  most  men  affirm,  and  few  here  will  believe  the 
contrary,  that  there  be  no  spiders  in  Ireland  ;  but  we  have 
beheld  some  in  that  country  ;  and  though  but  few,  some  cob- 
webs we  behold  in  Irish  wood  in  England.  Thus  the  croco- 
dile from  an  egg  growing  up  to  an  exceeding  magnitude, 
common  conceit,  and  divers  writers  deliver,  it  hath  no  period 
of  increase,  but  growetli  as  long  as  it  liveth.*  And  thus  in 
brief,  in  most  apprehensions  the  conceits  of  men  extend  the 

••  readily  assent.''\  And  liee  should  adde,  in  some  places  itt  beares,  iii 
others  not. —  Wr. 

^  growetli,  tfcc]  This  may  bee  true  inoughe  in  regard  of  the  vast 
bignes  which  is  reported  of  some  of  them  ;  and  what  should  hinder  ? 
For  in  men  and  creatures  also  kept  for  food,  their  bulke  growes  still 
greater,  though  not  their  stature. — Wr. 

It  is  probably  true,  of  the  whole  order  to  which  the  crocodile  belongs 
{the  saurians),  that  they  have  "  no  period  of  inci'ease"  —  they  have  no 
metamorphosis,  like  many  other  animals  (and  some  in  the  same  class),  to 
place  a  limit,  by  its  completion,  to  the  further  growth  of  the  individual. 
Nor  do  they,  like  the  vertebrate  animals,  ariive  early  at  a  maximum  of 
growth,  which  is  not  afterwards  increased,  except  in  corpulency.  Con- 
geniality of  climate  makes  a  striking  difference  in  magnitude,  at  the 
.same  age,  between  saurians  of  different  countries  (for  example,  the  cro- 
codile of  the  Nile  is  larger  than  any  other  of  its  species),  but  in  all, 
growth,  though  very  slow,  is  probably  continued  through  life  ;  unless, 
indeed,  extreme  o\l  age  may  begin  the  end,  by  ending  the  vital  power 
of  growth,  which  seems  probable,  but  would  not  impugn  our  author's 


considerations  of  things,  and  dilate  their  notions  beyond  the 
propriety  of  their  natures. 

In  the  maps  of  the  Dead  Sea  or  Lake  of  Sodom,  we  meet 
with  tlie  destroyed  cities,  and  in  divers  the  city  of  Sodom 
placed  about  the  middle,  or  far  from  the  shore  of  it ;  but  that 
it  could  not  be  far  from  Segor,  which  was  seated  under  the 
mountains,  near  the  side  of  the  lake,  seems  inferrible  from 
the  sudden  arrival  of  Lot,  who  coming  from  Sodom  at  day- 
break, attained  Segor  at  sun-rising ;  and  therefore  Sodom 
ought  to  be  placed  not  many  miles  from  it,  and  not  in  the 
middle  of  the  lake,  which  is  accounted  about  eighteen  miles 
over ;  and  so  will  leave  about  nine  miles  to  be  passed  in  too 
small  a  space  of  time. 


Of  Divers  other  Bdations,  viz.  : — Of  the  Woman  that  Conceived  in  a 
Bath; — Of  Crassm  that  never  Laughed  hut  once  ;—77Mt  our  Saviour 
never  Laaghed  ; — Of  Sergius  the  Second,  or  Bocca  di  Porco  ; — That 
Tamerlane  was  a  Scythian  Shepherd. 

The  relation  of  Averroes,  and  now  common  in  every 
mouth,  of  the  woman  that  conceived  in  a  bath,  by  attracting 
the  sperm  or  seminal  effluxion  of  a  man  admitted  to  bathe  in 
some  vicinity  unto  her,^  I  have  scarce  faith  to  believe ;  and 
had  I  been  of  the  jury,  should  have  hardly  thought  I  had 
found  the  father  in  the  person  that  stood  by  her.  'Tis  a 
new  and  unseconded  way  in  history  to  fornicate  at  a  distance, 
and  much  offendeth  the  rules  of  physick,  which  say,  there  is  ■ 
no  generation  without  a  joint  emission,  nor  only  a  virtual, 
but  corporal  and  carnal  contaction.  And  although  Aristotle 
and  his  adherents  do  cut  off  the  one,  who  conceive  no  effec- 
tual ejaculation  in  women  ;  yet  in  defence  of  the  other  they 
cannot  be  introduced.  For  if,  as  he  believeth,  the  inordinate 
longitude  of  the  organ,  though  in  its  proper  recipient,  may 

*  hy  attracting,  <f;c.]  No  absurdity,  which  Browne  undertakes  to 
refute— though  so  gross  as  not  to  merit  notice,  appears  too  monstrous 
to  find  acceptance  with  Ross.  He  finds  it  "  quite  possible,  even  as  the 
stomach  attracteth  meat  and  drink,  though  in  some  distance  from  it." 
Tlie  conceit  respecting  Lot  is  not  suggested  by  the  scriptural  acoouut, 
which  only  asserts  that  he  did  not  recognise  his  daughtere. 



be  a  mean  to  inprolificate  the  seed  ;  surelj  the  distance  of 
place,  with  the  commixture  of  an  aqueous  body  must  prove 
an  effectual  impediment,  and  utterly  prevent  the  success  «.if 
a  conception.  And  therefore  that  conceit  concerning  the 
daughters  of  Lot,  that  they  were  impregnated  by  their 
sleeping  father,  or  conceived  by  seminal  pollution  received 
at  distance  from  him,  will  hardly  be  admitted.  And  there- 
fore what  is  related  of  devils,  and  the  contrived  delusions  of 
spirits,  that  they  steal  the  seminal  emissions  of  men,  and 
transmit  them  into  their  votaries  in  coition,  is  much  to  be 
suspected  ;  and  altogether  to  be  denied,  that  there  ensue 
conceptions  thereupon ;  however  husbanded  by  art,  and  the 
wisest  menagery  of  that  most  subtile  impostor.  And  there^ 
fore  also  that  our  magnified  Merlin  was  thus  begotten  by 
the  devil,  is  a  groundless  conception ;  and  as  vain  to  think 
from  thence  to  give  the  reason  of  his  prophetical  spirit.  For 
if  a  generation  could  succeed,  yet  should  not  the  issue  in- 
herit the  faculties  of  the  devil,  who  is  but  an  auxiliary,  and 
no  univocal  actor ;  nor  will  his  nature  substantially  concur 
to  such  productions. 

And  although  it  seems  not  impossible,  that  impregnation 
may  succeed  from  semuial  spirits,  and  vaporous  iri'adiations, 
containing  the  active  principle,  without  material  and  gross 
immissions  ;  as  it  happeneth  sometimes  in  imperforated  per- 
sons, and  rare  conceptions  of  some  much  under  puberty  or 
fourteen.  As  may  be  also  conjectured  in  the  coition  of  some 
insects,  wherem  the  female  makes  intrusion  into  the  male ; 
and  from  the  continued  ovation  in  hens,  from  one  single  tread 
of  a  cock,  and  little  stock  laid  up  near  the  vent,  sufficient  for 
durable  prolification.  And  although  also  in  human  genera- 
tion the  gross  and  corpulent  seminal  body  may  return  again, 
and  the  great  business  be  acted  by  what  it  carrieth  with  it ; 
yet  will  not  the  same  suffice  to  support  the  story  in  question, 
wherein  no  corpulent  immission  is  acknowledged ;  answer- 
able unto  the  fable  of  Talmudists,  in  the  story  of  Benzira, 
begotten  in  the  same  manner  on  the  daughter  of  the  prophet 

2.  The  relation  of  Lucillius,  and  now  become  common 
concerning  Crassus,  the  grandfather  of  Marcus  the  wealthy 

'  And  altJtxmgh,  <£;e.]     This  paragraph  first  added  in  3rd  edition. 


Eoman,  that  lie  never  laughed  but  once  in  all  his  life,  and 
that  was  at  an  ass  eating  thistles,  is  something  strange.  For, 
if  an  indifterent  and  unridiculous  object  could  draw  his 
habitual  austereness  unto  a  smile,  it  wUl  be  hard  to  believe 
he  could  with  perpetuity  resist  the  proper  motives  thereof. 
For  the  act  of  laughter,  which  is  evidenced  by  a  sweet 
contraction  of  the  muscles  of  the  face,  and  a  pleasant  agita- 
tion of  the  vocal  organs,  is  not  merely  voluntary,  or  totally 
within  the  jurisdiction  of  ourselves,  but,  as  it  may  be  con- 
strained by  corporal  contaction  in  any,  and  hath  been 
enforced  in  some  even  in  their  death,  so  the  new,  unusual,  or 
unexpected,  jucundities  which  present  themselves  to  any  man 
in  his  life,  at  some  time  or  other,  will  have  activity  enough 
to  excitate  the  earthiest  soul,  and  raise  a  smile  from  most 
composed  tempers.  Certainly  the  times  were  dull  when 
these  things  happened,  and  the  wits  of  those  ages  short  of 
these  of  ours  ;  when  men  could  maintain  such  immutable 
faces,  as  to  remain  like  statues  under  the  flatteries  of  wit, 
and  persist  unalterable  at  all  efforts  of  jocularity.  The 
spirits  in  hell,  and  Pluto  himself,  whom  Lucian  makes  to 
laugh  at  passages  upon  earth,  will  plainly  condemn  these 
Saturnines,  and  make  ridiculous  the  magnified  Heraclitus, 
who  wept  preposterously,  and  made  a  hell  on  earth ;  for 
rejecting  the  consolations  of  life,  he  passed  his  days  in  tears, 
and  the  uncomfortable  attendments  of  hell.^ 

3.  The  same  conceit^  there  passeth  concerning  our  blessed 
Saviour,  and  is  sometime  urged  as  a  high  example  of  gravity. 
And  this  is  opinioned,  because  in  Holy  Scripture  it  is 
recorded  he  sometimes  wept,  but  never  that  he  laughed. 
Which,  howsoever  granted,  it  will  be  hard  to  conceive  how 
he  passed  his  younger  years  and  childhood  without  a  smile, 
if  as  divinity  affirmeth,  for  the  assurance  of  his  humanity 

^  the  uncomfortable,  <f;c.]  Ross  remarks  with  much  reason  on  this 
observation,  that  "oftentimes  there  is  hell  in  laughing,  and  a  heaven 
in  weeping  :"  and  that  "good  men  find  not  the  uncomfortable  attend- 
ments of  hell  in  weeping,  but  rather  the  comfortable  enjoyments  of 
heaven." — Arcana,  p.  176. 

*  The  same  conceit,  (fee]  Tis  noe  argument  to  say  tis  never  read  in 
Scripture  that  Christ  laughed,  therefore  he  did  never  laughe,  but  on  the 
other  side  to  affirme,  that  hee  did  laughe  is  therefore  dangerous  bycausa 
unwarrantable  and  groundles. —  Wr. 


unto  men,  and  the  concealment  of  his  divinity  from  the 
devil,  he  passed  this  age  like  other  children,  and  so  proceeded 
imtil  he  evidenced  the  same.  And  surely  herein  no  danger 
there  is  to  affirm  the  act  or  performance  of  that,  whereof  we 
acknowledge  the  power  and  essential  property  ;  and  whereby 
indeed  he  most  nearly  convinced  the  doubt  of  his  humanity,^ 
Nor  need  we  be  afraid  to  ascribe  that  unto  the  incarnate 
Son,  which  sometimes  is  attributed  imto  the  uncarnate 
Father ;  of  whom  it  is  said,  "  He  that  dwelleth  in  the 
heavens  shall  laugh  the  wicked  to  scorn."  For  a  laugh 
there  is  of  contempt  or  indignation,  as  well  as  of  mirth  and 
jocosity :  and  that  our  Saviour  was  not  exempted  from  the 
ground  hereof,  that  is,  the  passion  of  anger,  regulated  and 
rightly  ordered  by  reason,  the  schools  do  not  deny ;  and, 
besides  the  experience  of  the  money-changers  and  dove- 
sellers  in  the  temple,  is  testified  by  St.  John,  when  he  saith 
the  speech  of  David  was  fulfilled  in  our  Saviour.* 

Now  the  alogy  of  this  opinion  consisteth  in  the  illation ; 

it  being  not  reasonable  to  conclude  from  Scripture  negatively 

in  points  which  are  not  matters  of  faith,  and  pertaining  unto 

salvation.     And  therefore,  although  in  the  description  of  the 

*  Zeliis  doimls  tiice  comedit  me. 

'  humanity.']  The  doubt  of  his  humanity  was  convinced  soe  many 
other  wayes  (before  his  passion)  as  by  his  birth,  his  circumcision,  his 
hunger  at  the  fig-tree,  his  compassion  and  teai-es  over  his  friend  Lazarus, 
and  those  other  instances  here  alleaged,  that  the  propertye  of  risibihtye 
(which  is  indeed  the  usuall  instance  of  the  schooles)  though  it  bee 
inseparable  from  the  nature  of  man,  and  incommunicable  to  any  other 
nature,  yet  itt  does  not  infer  the  necessitye  of  the  acte  in  every  indi- 
viduall  subject  or  person  of  man ;  noe  more  then  the  power  and 
propertye  of  numeration  (whereof  no  other  creature  in  the  world  is 
capable)  can  make  every  man  an  arithmetician.  Itt  is  likewise  recorded 
of  Julius  Saturninus,  sonne  to  Philippus  (Arabs)  the  emperor,  that  from 
his  birth  mMo  prorsus  cujusqaani  commento  ad  ridenduni  moveH 
2)0tuerit. —  Wr. 

It  is  the  characteristic  description  of  our  Redeemer  that  "  he  was 
a  man  of  sorrows  and  acquainted  with  grief."  Will  it  not  be  felt  by 
every  Christian,  that  lawjhter  is  utterly  out  of  keeping  with  the  dignity, 
the  character,  and  office  of  him,  who  himself  took  our  infirmities,  and 
bare  our  sins  :  who  spent  a  life  in  the  endurance  of  the  contradiction 
of  sinners  against  himself,— and  in  the  full  and  constant  contemplation 
of  that  awful  moment  when  he  was  to  lay  down  that  life  for  their  sakes  f 
The  difficulty  would  have  been  to  credit  the  contrary  tradition,  had  it; 


creation  tliere  be  no  mention  of  fire,^  Christian  philosophy 
did  not  think  it  reasonable  presently  to  annihilate  that  ele- 
ment, or  positively  to  decree  there  was  no  such  thing  at  all.^ 
Thus,  whereas  in  the  brief  narration  of  Moses  there  is  no 
record  of  wine  before  the  flood,  we  cannot  satisfactorily  con- 
clude that  Noah'*  was  the  first  that  ever  tasted  thereof.* 
And  thus,  because  the  word  brain  is  scarce  mentioned  once, 
but  heart  above  a  hundred  times  in  Holy  Scripture,  phy- 
sicians that  dispute  the  principality  of  parts  are  not  from 
hence  induced  to  bereave  the  animal  organ  of  its  priority. 
Wherefore  the  Scriptures  being  serious,  and  commonly 
omitting  such  parergies,  it  wiU  be  unreasonable  from  hence 
to  condemn  all  laughter,  and  from  considerations  incon- 
siderable to  discipline  a  man  out  of  his  nature.  Por  this  is 
by  rustical  severity  to  banish  all  urbanity  :  whose  hartnless 
and  confined  condition,  as  it  stands  commended  by  morality, 
so  is  it  consistent  with  religion,  and  doth  not  offend  divinity. 
4.  The  custom  it  is  of  Popes  to  change  their  name  at  their 
creation  ;  and  the  author  thereof  is  commonly  said  to  be 
Bocca  di  Porco,  or  Swines-face  ;  who  therefore  assumed  the 
style  of  Sergius  the  2nd,  as  being  ashamed  so  foul  a  name 
should  dishonour  the  chair  of  Peter ;  wherein  notwith- 
standing, from  Montacutius  and  others,  I  find  there  may  be 

*  Only  in  the  vulgar  Latin,  Judg.  ix.  53. 

'  fire.']  There  is  no  mention  of  metals  or  fossiles  ;  and  yet  wee  know 
they  were  created  then,  or  else  they  could  not  now  bee. —  Wr. 

3  at  all.l  Many  things  may  perchance  be  past  over  in  silence  in  Holy 
Scripture,  which  notwithstandinge  are  knowne  to  bee  partes  of  the 
creation,  and  many  things  spoken  to  the  vulgar  capacity,  which  must 
be  understood  in  a  modified  sense.  But  never  any  thinge  soe  spoken 
as  might  be  convinced  of  falshood  ;  soe  that  either  God  or  Copernicus, 
speaking  contradictions,  cannot  both  speak  truthe.  And  therefore, 
sit  Deus  verm  et  omnis  homo  mendax,  that  speakes  contradictions  to 
him. —  Wr. 

*  Noah.]  Noah  was  not  the  first  that  tasted  of  the  grape  :  but  itt  is 
expresly  sayd,  Genes,  ix.  21,  that  Noah  was  the  first  husbandman  that 
planted  a  vineyard,  and  that  first  made  wine,  and  therfore  was  the  first 
that  dranke  of  the  wine  ;  which  does  not  only  satisfactorily  but  neces- 
sarily oblige  us  to  a  beleefe  that  wine  made  by  expression  into  a  species 
of  drinke  was  not  kuowne,  and  therfore  not  used  in  that  new  (dryed) 
world  till  Noah  invented  itt.  Itt  was  then,  as  itt  is  now  in  the  new 
westerne  plantations,  where  they  have  the  vine,  and  eate  the  grapes 
but  do  not  drinke  wine,  bycause  they  never  began  to  plant  vineyardea 
till  now  of  late. —  Wr. 


some  mistake.  For  Massonius,  who  writ  the  lives  of  Popes, 
acknowledgeth  he  was  not  the  first  that  changed  his  name 
in  that  see  ;  nor  as  Platina  afJirmeth,  have  all  his  successors 
precisely  continued  that  custom  ;  for  Adrian  the  sixth,  and 
Marcellus  the  second,  did  stiU  retain  their  baptismal  denomi- 
nation. Nor  is  it  proved,  or  probable,  that  Sergius  changed 
the  name  of  Bocca  di  Porco,  for  this  was  his  surname,^  or 
gentilitious  appellation ;  nor  was  it  the  custom  to  alter  that 
with  the  other :  but  he  commuted  his  Christian  name  Peter 
for  Sergius,  because  he  would  seem  to  decline  the  name  of 
Peter  the  second.  A  scruple  I  confess  not  thought  con- 
siderable in  other  sees,  whose  originals  and  first  patriarchs 
have  been  less  disputed ;  nor  yet  perhaps  of  that  reality  as 
to  prevail  in  points  of  the  same  nature.  Por  the  names  of 
the  apostles,  patriarchs,  and  prophets  have  been  assumed 
even  to  aifectatiou.  The  name  of  Jesus  ^  hath  not  been 
appropriated ;  but  some  in  precedent  ages  have  borne  that 
name,  and  many  since  have  not  refused  the  Christian  name 
of  Emmanuel.  Thus  are  there  few  names  more  frequent 
than  Moses  and  Abraham  among  the  Jews.  The  Turks 
without  scruple  affect  the  name  of  Mahomet,  and  with  glad- 
ness receive  so  honourable  cognomitiation. 

And  truly  in  human  occurrences  there  ever  have  been 
many  well  directed  intentions,  whose  rationalities  will  never 
bear  a  rigid  examination,  and  though  in  some  way  they  do 
commend  their  authors,  and  such  as  first  began  them,  yet 
have  they  proved  insufficient  to  perpetuate  imitation  in  such 
as  have  succeeded  them.  Thus  was  it  a  worthy  resolution 
of  Grodfrey,  and  most  Christians  have  applauded  it,  that  he 
refused  to  wear  a  crown  of  gold  where  his  Saviour  had  worn 
one  of  thorns.     Yet  did  not  his  successors  durably  inherit 

^  surname.']  Itt  might  bee  his  sirename  :  but  doubtles  it  was  first  a 
nicname  fastened  on  some  of  his  progenitors. —  Wr. 

^  The  name,  cfcc]  The  name  of  Jesus  was  not  the  same,  po'  omnia, 
in  Joshua  ;  and  Jesu  was  never  given  to  any  before  the  angel  brought 
itt  from  heaven.  The  names  of  patriarches  and  prophets  have  been 
imposed  (not  assumed)  as  memorials  (to  children)  of  imitation  ;  and  that 
of  Emmanuel  in  a  qualified  sense  onlye.  But  that  never  any  Pope 
would  bee  stiled  Peter  the  second,  proceeds  from  a  mysterye  of  policye  ; 
that  they  may  rather  seeme  successors  to  his  power,  then  to  his  name, 
which  they  therefore  decline  of  purpose ;  that  Christ's  vicariate  au- 
thoritye  may  seeme  to  descend  not  from  personal  succession,  but 
immediately  from  [him]  who  first  derived  it  on  Peter. —  Wr, 


that  scruple,  but  some  were  anointed,  and  solemnly  accepted 
the  diadem  of  regality.  Thus  Julius,  Augustus,  and  Tiberius 
with  great  humility  or  popularity  refused  the  name  of 
Imperator,  but  their  successors  have  challenged  that  title, 
and  retained  the  same  even  in  its  titularity.  And  thus,  to 
come  nearer  our  subject,  the  humility  of  Gregory  the  Grreat 
would  by  no  means  admit  the  stile  of  universal  bishop  ;  but 
the  ambition  of  Boniface  made  no  scruple  thereof,  nor  of 
more  queasy  resolutions  have  been  their  successors  ever 

5.  That  Tamerlane'^  was  a  Scythian  shepherd,  from  Mr. 
Knollis  and  others,  from  Alhazen  a  lean:;ed  Arabian  who 
wrote  his  life,  and  was  spectator  of  many  of  his  exploits,  we 
have  reasons  to  deny.  Not  only  from  his  birth, — for  he  was 
of  the  blood  of  the  Tartarian  emperors,  whose  father  Og  had 
for  his  possession  the  coimtry  of  Sagathy,  which  was  no 
slender  territory,  but  comprehended  all  that  tract  wherein 
were  contamed  Bactriana,  Sogdiana,  Margiana,  and  the 
nation  of  the  Massagetes,  whose  capital  city  was  Samarcand, 
a  place,  though  now  decayed,  of  great  esteem  and  trade  in 
former  ages) — but  from  his  regal  inauguration,  for  it  is  said, 
that  being  about  the  age  of  fifteen,  his  old  father  resigned 
the  kingdom  and  men  of  war  unto  him.  And  also  from  his 
education,  for  as  the  story  speaks  it,  he  was  instructed  in 
the  Arabian  learning,  and  afterwards  exercised  himself 
therein.  Now  Arabian  learning  was  in  a  manner  all  the 
liberal  sciences,  especially  the  mathematicks,  and  natural 
pliilosophy ;  wherein,  not  many  ages  before  him  there 
flourished  Avicenna,  Averroes,  Avenzoar,  Geber,  Almanzor, 
and  Alhazen,  cognominal  unto  him  that  wrote  his  history, 
whose  chronology  indeed,  although  it  be  obscure,  yet  in  the 
opinion  of  his  commentator,  he  was  contemporary  unto 
Avicenna,  and  hath  left  sixteen  books  of  opticks,  of  great 
esteem  with  ages  past,  and  textuary  unto  our  days. 

'  Tamerlane.']  His  true  Scythian  name  was  Temur-Can,  which  all 
storyes  corruptly  and  absurdlye  call  Tamberlane. —  W?: 

From  the  best  authorities  it  appears  that  the  parentage  here  assigned 
to  Timur  Beg  (Tamerlane)  is  erroneous.  His  father  was  Targui,  a  chief 
of  the  tribe  of  Berlas,  tributary  to  Jagatai,  one  of  the  sons  of  Jenghis- 
(or  Chingis)  Khan.  He  was  born  at  Sebz,  a  suburb  of  the  city  of 
Kesch.  See  Bioyraphie  Universelle ;  Universal  History;  Lardner'a 
Outlines  of  History. 


Now  tlie  ground  of  this  mistake  was  surely  that  which  the 
Turkish  historian  declareth.  Some,  saith  he,  of  our  historiana 
will  needs  have  Tamerlane  to  be  the  son  of  a  shepherd.  But 
this  they  have  said,  not  knowing  at  all  the  custom  of  their 
country ;  wherein  the  principal  revenues  of  the  king  and 
nobles  consisteth  in  cattle  :  who,  despising  gold  and  silver, 
abound  in  all  sorts  thereof.  And  this  was  the  occasion  that 
some  men  call  them  shepherds,  and  also  affirm  this  prince 
descended  from  them.  Now,  if  it  be  reasonable,  that  great 
men  whose  possessions  are  chiefly  in  cattle  should  bear  the 
name  of  shepherds,  and  fall  upon  so  low  denominations,  then 
may  we  say  that  Abraham  was  a  shepherd,  although  too 
powerful  for  four  kings  ;  that  Job  was  of  that  condition,  who 
beside  camels  and  oxen  had  seven  thousand  sheep,^  and  yet 
is  said  to  be  the  greatest  man  in  the  east.  Thus  was  Mesha, 
king  of  Moab,  a  shepherd,  who  annually  paid  unto  the 
crown  of  Israel,  an  hundred  thousand  lambs,  and  as  many 
rams.  Surely  it  is  no  dishonourable  course  of  life  which 
Moses  and  Jacob  have  made  exemplary :  'tis  a  profession 
supported  upon  the  natural  way  of  acquisition,  and  though 
contemned  by  the  Egyptians,  much  countenanced  by  the 
Hebrews,  whose  sacrifices  required  plenty  of  sheep  and 
lambs.  And  certainly  they  were  very  numerous  ;  for,  at  the 
consecration  of  the  temple,  beside  two-and-twenty  thousand 
oxen,  king  Solomon  sacrificed  an  hundred  and  twenty  thou- 
sand sheep  :  and  the  same  is  observable  from  the  daily 
provision  of  his  house  ;  which  was  ten  fat  oxen,^  twenty  oxen 
out  of  the  pastures,  and  a  hundred  sheep,  beside  roebuck, 
fallow  deer,  and  fatted  fowls.  Wherein  notwithstanding  (if 
a  punctual  relation  thereof  do  rightly  inform  us),  the  Grand 
Seignior  doth  exceed  ;  the  daily  provision  of  whose  seraglio 
in  the  reign  of  Achmet,  beside  beeves,  consumed^  two 
hundred  sheep,  lambs  and  kids  when  they  were  in  season 

s  sheep."]  Sir  Wm.  Jorden,  of  Wiltes,  in  tbe  plaines,  aspired  to  come 
to  the  number  of  20,000  :  but  with  all  his  endeavour  could  never  bring 
them  beyond  18,000.     He  lived  since  1630.— PFr. 

"  oxen,  ffcc]  That  is,  in  theyeare,  of  beeves,  10,950,  of  sheep,  36,500. 
—  Wr. 

'  consumed,  d-c]  Of  sheep,  lambs,  kids,  109,500.  And  yet  this 
cann  raise  noe  greats  wonder  considering  how  manye  mouthes  were 
tiayly  fed  at  Solomon's  tables,  his  concubines,  his  officers,  his  guards, 
and  all  sorts  of  inferior  attendants  on  him  and  them :  of  which  kin  ies 


one  hundred,  calves  ten,   geese  fifty,   hens  two  hundred, 
chickens  one  hundred,  pigeons  a  hundred  pair. 

And  therefore  this  mistake,  concerning  the  noble  Tamer- 
lane, was  like  that  concerning  Demosthenes,  who  is  said  to 
be  the  son  of  a  blacksmith,  according  to  common  conceit, 
and  that  handsome  expression  of  Juvenal ; 

Quern  pater  ardentis  massa  fuligine  lippus, 
A  carbone  et  forcipibus,  gladiosque  parente 
Incude,  et  luteo  Vulcano,  et  Ehetora  misit. 

Thus  Englished  by  Sir  Robert  Stapleton : 

Whom's  Father  with  the  smoky  forge  half  blind, 
From  blows  on  sooty  Vulcan's  anvil  spent 
In  ham'ring  swords,  to  study  Ehet'rick  sent. 

But  Plutarch,  who  writ  his  life,  hath  cleared  this  conceit, 
plainly  affirming  he  was  most  nobly  descended,  and  that 
this  report  was  raised,  because  his  father  had  many  slaves 
that  wrought  smith's  work,  and  brought  the  profit  unto 


Of  some  others,  viz., — of  the  poverty  of  Belisarius  ;  of  Fluctus  Decuviamcs, 
or  the  tenth  ivave  ;  of  Parisatis  that  jioisoned  Statira  hy  one  side  of  a 
Tcnife  ;  of  the  Woman  fed  with  poison  that  should  have  poisoned  A  lex- 
ander ;  of  Ijie  Wandering  Jew  ;  of  Pope  Joan ;  of  Friar  Bacons 
brazen  head  that  sjioke  ;  of  Epiciwus. 

"VVe  are  sad  when  we  read  the  story  of  Belisarius,  that 
worthy  chieftain  of  Justinian ;  who,  after  his  victories  over 
Vandals,  Goths,  Persians,  and  his  trophies  in  three  parts  of 
the  world,  had  at  last  his  eyes  put  out  by  the  emperor,  and 
was  reduced  to  that  distress,  tluit  he  begged  relief  on  tlie 
highway,  in  that  uncomfortable  petition,  date  oholum  Beli- 
sario?    And  this  we  do  not  only  hear  in  discourses,  orations, 

the  Grand  Signeur  raainteyns  greater  multitudes  daylye  in  the 
Seraglio. —  Wr. 

^  And  this  mistalce,  d;c.]  This  paragraph  was  first  added  in  the  2nd 
edition,  except  the  translation,  which  was  added  in  the  6th  edition. 

^  We  are  sad,  tt-c]  Lord  Mahon,  in  his  life  of  Belisarius,  adopts  this 
traditional  account  of  him,  as  the  most  likely  to  be  true  ;  and  gives  at 
the  close  of  the  work  his  reasons  at  large. 


and  themes,  but  find  it  also  in  the  leaves  of  Petrus  (^I'initus, 
Voiaterranus,  and  other  worthy  writers. 

But,  what  may  somewhat  consolate  all  men  that  honour 
virtue,  we  do  not  discover  the  latter  scene  of  his  misery  in 
authors  of  antiquity,  or  such  as  have  expressly  delivered  the 
stories  of  those  times.  For,  Suidas  is  silent  herein,  Cedrenus 
and  Zonaras,  two  grave  and  punctual  authors,  delivering 
only  the  confiscation  of  his  goods,  omit  the  history  of  his 
mendication.  Paulus  Diaconus  goeth  farther,  not  only 
passing  over  this  act,  but  afiirming  his  goods  and  dignities 
were  restored.  Agathius,  who  lived  at  the  same  time,  de- 
clared he  sufiered  much  from  the  envy  of  the  court ;  but 
that  he  descended  thus  deep  into  affliction,  is  not  to  be 
gathered  from  his  pen.  The  same  is  also  omitted  by  Pro- 
copius,*  a  contemporary  and  professed  enemy  unto  Justinian 
and  Belisarius,  who  hath  left  an  opprobrious  book  against 
them  both. 

And  in  this  opinion  and  hopes  we  are  not  single,  but 
Andreas  Aniatus  the  civilian  in  his  Parerga,  and  Franciscus 
de  Corduba  in  his  DidascaUa,  have  both  declaratorily  con- 
fixmed  the  same,  which  is  also  agreeable  unto  the  judgment 
of  Nicolaus  Alemannus,  in  his  notes  upon  that  bitter  history 
of  Procopius.  Certainly  sad  tragical  stories  are  seldom 
drawn  within  the  circle  of  their  verities ;  but  as  their 
relators  do  either  intend  the  hatred  or  pity  of  the  persons, 
so  are  they  set  forth  with  additional  amplifications.  Thus 
have  some  suspected  it  hath  happened  unto  the  story  of 
ffidipus :  and  thus  do  we  conceive  it  hath  fared  with  that 
of  Judas,  wlio,  having  sinned  above  aggravation,  and  com- 
mitted one  villany  which  cannot  be  exasperated  by  all  other, 
is  also  charged  with  the  murder  of  his  reputed  brother, 
parricide  of  his  father,  and  incest  with  his  own  mother,'^  as 

*  'AvEKSora,  or  Arca7ia  Historia. 

*  is  also  charged,  &c.']  Surely  yf  these  had  been  true,  St.  John,  who 
cals  him  a  theefe  in  plaine  termes,  would  never  have  concealed  such 
unparalleled  villanyes.  They  could  not  bee  don  after  his  treason,  the 
halter  followed  that  soe  closelye  ;  and  had  they  been  don  before,  neither 
could  he  have  escaped  the  laws  of  Judfea,  most  severe  against  such 
hideous  crimes  ;  nor  would  the  Sonne  of  God  have  endured  the  scandal 
of  such  a  knowne  miscreant,  much  lesse  have  chosen  him  among  the 
twelve  apostles.     Judas  deserved  as  much  detestation  as  his  unparaleld 

CHAP.  XVIT.]  OF   THE   TffSPTH  "WATE.  269 

Florilegus  or  Matthew  of  "Westminster  hath  at  large  related. 
And  thus  hath  it  perhaps  befallen  the  noble  Belisarius ; 
who,  upon  instigation  of  the  Empress,  having  contrived  the 
exile,  and  very  hardly  treated  Pope  Serverius,  Latin  pens, 
as  a  judgment  of  God  upon  this  fact,  have  set  forth  his 
future  suflerings  ;  and,  omitting  nothing  of  amplification, 
they  have  also  delivered  this ;  which,  notwithstanding 
Johannes  the  Greek  makes  doubtful,  as  may  appear  from 
his  lamhicks  in  Baronius,  and  might  be  a  mistake  or  mis- 
application, translating  the  affliction  of  one  man  upon 
another,  for  the  same  befell  unto  Johannes  Cappadox,*  con- 
temporary unto  Belisarius,  and  in  great  favour  with  Justinian; 
who  being  afterwards  banished  into  Egypt,  was  fain  to  beg 
relief  on  the  highway.^ 

2.  That  fluctiis  decumanu&,^  or  the  tenth  wave  is  greater 
and  more  dangerous  than  any  other,  some  no  doubt  will  be 
*  Procop,  Bell,  Persic,  l.'Aprov  i)  6/3oX6j/  airtlcrSiai. 

and  matchless  crinjes  could  any  way  deserve.  But  noe  cause  of  such 
detestation  could  be  soe  just,  as  to  produce  such  prodigious  fictions  in 
the  writings  of  Christians  :  whome  the  recorded  example  of  the  Arch- 
angel Michael  hath  taught,  not  to  rayle  against,  much  less  to  belye  the 
Divel  himselfe. —  Wr. 

*  and  might  be  a  mistake,  cfcc]  First  added  in  2nd  edition. 
^  Fluctus  decumanus,  cf'c]  Ross  says  that  our  author  "troubles  him- 
self to  no  purpose  in  refuting  the  greatness  of  the  tenth  wave  and  tenth 
egg  :  for  the  tenth  of  anything  was  not  counted  the  greatest,  but  the 
greatest  of  anything  was  called  the  tenth,  because  that  is  the  first 
perfect  number  ;  therefore  anything  that  was  greater  than  anotlier  was 
called  decumanus.  So  porta  decumaiia,  limes  decumanus,  decumana  pyra, 
and  2Wmum  decumanum  as  well  as  ovum  decumanum." — Arc.  p.  178. 

Mr.  Forbes,  in  his  Oriental  Memoirs,  describing  the  effect  of  the 
monsoon  upon  the  ocean,  says,  "every  ninth  wave  is  observed  to  be 
more  tremendous  than  the  rest,  and  threatens  to  overwhelm  the  settle- 
ment of  Anjengo." 

The  following  passage  occurs  in  Dr.  Henderson's  Iceland,  vol.  ii. 
p.  109  :  "Owing  to  a  heavy  swell  from  the  ocean,  we  found  great  diffi- 
culty in  landing,  and  were  obliged  to  await  the  alternation  of  the  waves 
in  the  following  order  : — first,  three  heavy  surges  broke  with  a  tre- 
mendous dash  upon  the  rocks  ;  these  were  followed  by  six  smaller  ones, 
which  just  afforded  us  time  to  land  ;  after  which  the  three  large  ones 
broke  again,  and  so  on  in  regular  succession." 

"The  typhon  is  a  strong  swift  wind,  that  blows  from  all  points,  and 
is  frequent  in  the  Indian  seas  ;  raising  them,  with  its  strong  whirling 
about,  to  a  great  height,  every  tenth  wave  r'-ing  above  the  rest." — Losa 
of  the  ship  Faivny, 

270  or    THE   TENTH   WAVE.  [bOOK  TII. 

offended  if  we  deny ;  and  liereby  we  shall  seem  to  contradict 
antiquity ;  for,  answerable  unto  the  literal  and  common 
acception,  the  same  is  averred  by  many  writers,  and 
plainly  described  by  Ovid. 

Qui  venit  hie  fluctus,  fluctus  supereminet  omnes, 
Posterior  nono  est,  undecimoque  prior. 

Which  notwithstanding  is  evidently  false  ;  nor  can  it  be 
made  out  by  observation  either  upon  the  shore  or  the  ocean, 
as  we  have  with  diligence  explored  both.  And  sm-ely  in 
vain  we  expect  a  regularity  in  the  waves  of  the  sea,  or  in  the 
particular  motions  thereof,  as  we  may  in  its  general  recipro- 
cations, whose  causes  are  constant,  and  effects  therefore 
correspondent.  AYhereas  its  fluctuations  are  but  motions 
subservient ;  which  winds,  storms,  shores,  shelves,  and  every 
interjacency  irregulates.  AVith  semblable  reason  we  might 
expect  a  regularity  in  the  winds  ;  whereof  though  some  be 
statary,  some  anniversary,  and  the  rest  do  tend  to  detei'mine 
points  of  heaven,  yet  do  the  blasts  and  undulary  breaths  thereof 
maintain  no  certainty  in  their  course,  nor  are  they  numerally 
feared  by  navigators. 

Of  affinity  hereto  is  that  conceit  of  ovum  decumanum ; 
so  called,  because  the  tenth  egg  is  bigger  than  any  other, 
according  unto  the  reason  alleged  by  Festus,  decumana  ova 
dicuntur,  quia  ovum  decimum  majus  naseitur.  For  the 
honour  we  bear  unto  the  clergy,  we  cannot  but  wish  this 
true  :  but  herein  will  be  found  no  more  of  verity  than  in 
the  other ;  and  surely  few  will  assent  hereto  without  an 
implicit  credulity,  or  Pythagorical  submission  imto  every 
conception  of  number. 

For  surely  the  conceit  is  numeral,  and,  though  in  the 
sense  apprehended,  relateth  unto  the  number  of  ten,  as 
Franciscus  Sylvius  hath  most  probably  declared.  For, 
whereas  amongst  simple  numbers  or  digits,  the  number  of 
ten  is  the  greatest :  therefore  whatsoever  was  the  greatest 
in  every  kind,  might  in  some  sense  be  named  from  this 
number.  Now,  because  also  that  which  was  the  greatest, 
was  metaphorically  by  some  at  first  called  decuniatius,  there- 
fore whatsoever  passed  under  this  name,  was  literally 
conceived  by  others  to  respect  aud  make  good  this  number. 

The  conceit  is  also  Latin  ;  for  the  Grreeks,  to  express  the 

CHAP.    XTII.]  OF   POISONS.  271 

greatest  wave,  do  use  the  number  of  three,  that  is,  the  word 
TpiKVjiia,  which  is  a  concurrence  of  three  waves  in  one, 
whence  arose  the  proverb,  TpiKv/jla  KaKuti',  or  a  trifluctuation 
of  evils,  which  Erasmus  doth  render,  malorum  fluctiis  decu- 
manus.  And  thus  although  the  terms  be  very  difterent,  yet 
are  they  made  to  signify  the  self-same  thing  :  the  number 
of  ten  to  explain  the  number  of  three,  and  the  single  number 
of  one  wave  the  collective  concurrence  of  more. 

3.  The  poison  of  Parysatis,^  reported  from  Ctesias  by 
Plutarch  in  the  life  of  Artaxerxes  (whereby,  anointing  a 
knife  on  the  one  side,  and  therewith  dividing  a  bird,  with 
the  one  half  she  poisoned  Statira,  and  safely  fed  herself  on 
the  other),  was  certainly  a  very  subtle  one,  and  such  as  our 
ignorance  is  well  content  it  knows  not.  But  surely  we  had 
discovered  a  poison  that  would  not  endure  Pandora's  box, 
could  we  be  satisfied  in  that  which  for  its  coldness  nothing 
could  contain  but  an  ass's  hoof,  and  wherewith  some  report 
that  Alexander  the  Great  was  poisoned.  Had  men  derived 
so  strange  an  eftect  from  some  occult  or  hidden  qualities, 
they  might  have  silenced  contradiction  ;  but  ascribing  it 
unto  the  manifest  and  open  qualities  of  cold,  they  must 
pardon  our  belief;  who  perceive  the  coldest  and  most 
Stygian  waters  may  be  included  in  glasses  ;  and  by  Aris- 
totle, who  saith  that  glass  is  the  perfectest  work  of  art,  we 
understand  they  were  not  then  to  be  invented. 

And  though  it  be  said  that  poison  will  break  a  Venice 
glass,^  yet  have  we  not  met  with  any  of  that  nature. 
Were  there  a  truth  herein,  it  were  the  best  preservative  for 
princes  and  persons  exalted  unto  such  fears  ;  and  surely  far 
better  than  divers  now  in  use.  And  though  the  best  of 
China  dishes,  and  such  as  the  emperor  doth  use,  be  thought 
by  some  of  infallible  virtue  unto  this  effect,  yet  will  they 
not,  I  fear,  be  able  to  elude  the  mischief  of  such  intentions. 
And  though  also  it  be  true,  that  God  made  all  things 
double,  and  that  if  we  look  upon  the  works  of  the  Most 

'  The  poison  of  Parysatis.']  This  is  treated  as  fabulous  by  Paris  and 
Fonblanque,  in  the  '20th  vol.  of  whose  Medical  Jurisprudence,  p.  131, 
&c.  will  be  found  a  lonrr  article  on  poisons. 

*  poison  luill  break  a  Venice  fjla-s.']  Such  is  the  venom  of  some  spiders 
that  they  "will  crack  a  Venice  glass,  as  I  have  seen  ;  and  Scaliger  dotli 
witness  the  same — however  the  doctor  denies  it. — Ross,  Arc.  146 

272  OF  poisoisg,  [book  vii. 

High,  there  are  two  and  two,  one  against  another ;  that  one 
contrary  hath  another,  and  poison  is  not  without  a  poison 
unto  itself;  yet  hath  the  curse  so  far  prevailed,  or  else  our 
industry  defected,  that  poisons  are  better  known  than 
their  antidotes,  and  some  thereof  do  scarce  admit  of  any. 
And  lastly,  although  unto  every  poison  men  have  delivered 
many  antidotes,  and  in  every  one  is  promised  an  equality 
unto  its  adversary,  yet  do  we  often  find  they  fail  in  their 
effects  :  too/?/ will  not  resist  a  weaker  cup  than  that  of  Circe  ; 
a  man  may  be  poisoned  in  a  Lemnian  dish  ;  without  the 
miracle  of  John,  there  is  no  confidence  in  the  earth  of 
Paul  ;*  and  if  it  be  meant  that  no  poison  could  work  upon 
him,  we  doubt  the  story,  and  expect  no  such  success  from 
the  diet  of  Mithridates. 

.A  story  there  passeth  of  an  Indian  king,  that  sent  unto 
Alexander  a  fair  woman,  fed  with  aconites  and  other 
poisons,  with  this  intent,  either  by  converse  or  copulation 
complexionally  to  destroy  him.  For  my  part,  although  the 
design  were  true,  I  should  have  doubted  the  success.^ 
For,  though  it  be  possible  that  poisons  may  meet  with 
tempers  whereto  they  may  become  aliments,  and  we 
observe  from  fowls  that  feed  on  fishes,  and  others  fed  with 
garlick  and  onions,  that  simple  aliments  are  not  always  con- 
cocted beyond  tlieir  vegetable  qualities  ;  and  tlierefore  that 
even  after  carnal  conversion,  poisons  may  yet  retain  some 
portion  of  their  natures ;  yet  are  they  so  refracted,  cicurated,^ 
and  subdued,  as  not  to  make  good  theii*  first  and  destructive 
malignities.  And  therefore  [to]  the  stork  tliat  eateth 
snakes,  and  the  stare  that  feedeth  upon  hemlock,  [these] 
though    no    commendable    aliments,   are   not   destructive 

*  Terra  Melitea. 

'  success.l  Hee  that  remembers  how  the  Portuguez  mixing  with  the 
women  in  the  eastern  islands  founde  such  a  hot  overmatching  com- 
plexion in  them,  that  as  the  son  puts  out  a  candle,  soe  itt  quentcht  their 
hot  luste  with  the  cold  gripes  of  deathe  ;  may  easilye  conceive,  without 
an  mstance,  what  a  quick  effect  such  venemous  spirits  make  by  a  con- 
taeioas  transfusion.  Nor  is  there  the  same  danger  in  eatinge  of  a  duck 
that  feeds  on  a  toade,  as  in  the  loathsome  copulation  with  those  bodves, 
wnose  touch  is  formidable  as  the  fome  of  a  mad  dog,  the  touch  whereo/ 
haa  been  found  as  deadly  to  some,  as  the  wound  cf  his  teeth  to 
others. —  Wr. 

'  dcwated.^    Tamed  : — a  Brownism, 


poisons.*  For,  animals  that  can  innoxiously  digest  these 
poisons,  become  antidotal  unto  the  poison  digested. 
And  therefore,  whether  their  breath  be  attracted,  or  their 
flesh  ingested,  the  poisonous  relicks  go  still  along  with  their 
antidote ;  whose  society  will  not  permit  their  malice  to  be 
destructive.  And  therefore  also,  animals  that  are  not  mis- 
chieved  by  poisons  which  destroy  us,  may  be  drawn  into 
antidote  against  them ;  the  blood  or  flesh  of  storks  against 
tlie  venom  of  serpents,  the  quail  against  hellebore,  and 
the  diet  of  starlings  against  the  draught  of  Socrates.^ 
Upon  like  grounds  are  some  parts  of  animals  alesiphar- 
mical  unto  others ;  and  some  veins  of  the  earth,  and  also 
whole  regions,^  not  only  destroy  the  life  of  venomous  crea- 
tures, but  also  prevent  their  productions.  For  though 
perhaps  they  contain  the  seminals  of  spiders  and  scorpions, 
and  such  as  in  other  earths  by  suscitation'*  of  the  sun  may 
arise  unto  animation ;  yet  lying  under  command  of  their 
antidote,  without  hope  of  emergency  they  are  poisoned  in 
their  matrix  by  powers  easily  hindering  the  advance  of 
tlieir  originals,  whose  confirmed  forms  they  are  able  to 

5.  The  story  of  the  wandering  Jew  is  very  strange,  and 
will  hardly  obtain  belief;  yet  is  there  a  formal  account 
thereof  set  down  by  Matthew  Paris,  from  tlie  report  of  an 
Armenian  bishop,^  who  came  into  this  kingdom  about  four 

*  [to]  [these]  these  words  seem  indispensable  to  complete  the  sense 
evidently  intended. 

^  Socrates.]     That  is,  henbane. —  Wr. 

^  vjJiole  regions.]  As  Ireland  and  Crete  neither  breede  nor  bi-ooke 
any  venemous  creature,  which  was  a  providence  of  God,  considering 
that  noe  creature  can  be  worse  than  the  natives  themselves. —  T-r;-. 

Is  this  remark  perfectly  in  keeping  with  the  character  of  a  Christian 
minister  ? 

■*  suscitation.]     Excitement. 

"  Armenian  bisho]).]  And  that  reporte  of  a  wandering  bishop  is  the 
ground  of  this  absurd  figment:  for  what's  become  of  him  ever  since 
that  time  ?  But  'tis  noe  wonder  to  finde  a  wandring  Jew  in  all  partes 
of  the  world  ;  for  what  are  all  the  nation  but  wanderers  ?  Inmates  to 
the  world,  and  strangers  noe  where  soe  much  as  in  their  owne 
countrye. —  Wr. 

"This  fable  of  the  wandering  Jew,  once  almost  generally  believed, 
probably  suggested  the  fabrication  of  tiie  tale  of  the  w;indering  Gentile 
m  later  times  :  they  are  both  included  in  a  work,   entitled  News  froin. 

VOL.  II.  T 

274  POPE  JO  ATT.  [book  TII. 

liundred  years  ago,  and  had  often  entertained  tliis  wan- 
derer at  his  table.  That  he  was  then  alive,  was  first  called 
Cartaphilus,  was  keeper  of  the  judgment  hall,  whence 
thrusting  out  our  Saviour  with  expostulation  for  his  stay, 
was  condemned  to  stay  until  his  return  ;*  was  after  bap- 
tized by  Ananias,  and  by  the  name  of  Joseph ;  was  thirty 
years  old  in  the  days  of  our  Saviour,  remembered  the  saints 
that  arose  with  him,  the  making  of  the  apostles'  creed,  and 
their  several  peregrinations.  Surely  were  tliis  true,  he 
might  be  an  happy  arbitrator  in  many  Christian  contro- 
versies ;  but  must  unpardonably  condemn  the  obstinacy  of 
the  Jews,  wlio  can  contenni  the  rhetorick  of  such  miracles, 
and  blindly  behold  so  living  and  lasting  conversions. 

G.*^  Clearer  confirmations  must  be  drawn  for  the  history 
of  Pope  Joan,  who  succeeded  Leo  the  Fourth,  and  pre- 
ceded Benedict  the  Third,  than  many  we  yet  discover. 
And  since  it  is  delivered  with  aiunt  and  ferunt  by  many  ; 
since  the  learned  Leo  Allatiushath  discoveredf  that  ancient 
copies  of  Martinus  Polonus,  who  is  chiefly  urged  for  it, 
had  not  this  story  in  it ;  since  not  only  the  stream  of  Latin 
historians  have  omitted  it,  but  Photius  the  Patriarch, 
Metrophanes  Smyrnaeus,  and  the  exasperated  Greeks  have 
made  no  mention  of  it,  but  conceded  Benedict  the  Third  to 
be  successor  unto  Leo  the  Fourth ;  he  wants  not  grounds 
that  doubts  it.'' 

*    Vade,  quid  moraris?  ego  vado,  tu  autcm  morare  donee  venio. 
■f"  Confutatio  fabulce  de  Joanna  Papissa  cum  Nibusio, 

Holland  ;  or  a  short  relation  of  two  witnesses,  now  living,  of  the  suffer- 
ing and  passion  of  our  Saviour  Jesus  Christ :  the  one  being  a  Gentile, 
the  other  a  Jew,"  &c.  in  High  Dutch.  Amsterdam,  1647,  London,  164S, 
4to.  See  Huttman's  Lifeof  Ckrist, -p.  67.  The  Spaniard,  who  wrote  one 
of  the  most  amusing  of  critiques  on  John  Bull,  under  the  title  of  Don 
Manud  Alvarez  Espriella's  Letters  from  England,  has  enlivened  his  narra- 
tive of  the  wandering  Jew  with  the  following  incident  :  "  The  Jew  had 
awarded  his  preference  to  Spain  above  all  the  countries  he  had  seen  ;  as 
perhaps" — ingeniously  remarks  the  soi-disant  >S)xt»(s^  narrator — "a 
man  would  who  had  really  seen  all  the  world."  But  on  being  reminded 
that  it  was  rather  extraordinary  that  a  Jew  should  prefer  the  countiy 
of  the  Inquisition,  the  ready  rogue  answered,  with  a  smile  and  <a  shake 
of  the  head,  "  that  it  was  long  before  Christianity  when  he  last  visited 
Spain,  and  that  he  should  not  return  till  long  after  it  was  all  over." 

*.]     The  remainder  of  the  chapter  was  first  added  in  2nd  edition. 

''  the  history  of  Pope  Joan.'\  Not  only  the  final  catastrophe  of  this 
lady's  career,  as  recorded  in  the  well-known  Latin  line,  "  Papa,  pater 

CHAP.  XTII.]  FRIAE.   BACON.        EPICURUS.  275 

Many  things  liistorical,  which  seem  of  clear  concession, 
want  not  affirmations  and  negations,  according  to  divided 
pens  :  as  is  notoriously  observable  in  the  story  of  Hildebrand 
or  Gregory  the  Seventh,  repugnantly  delivered  by  the  im- 
perial and  papal  party.  In  such  divided  records,  partiality 
hath  much  depraved  history,  wherein  if  the  equity  of  the 
reader  do  not  correct  the  iniquity  of  the  Avriter,  he  will  be 
much  confounded  with  repugnancies,  and  often  find,  in  the 
same  person,  Numa  and  Nero.  In  things  of  this  nature 
moderation  must  intercede ;  and  so  charity  may  hope  that 
Roman  readers  will  construe  many  passages  in  Bolsec, 
Fay  us,  Schlusselberg,  and  Cochlseus. 

7.  Every  ear  is  filled  with  the  story  of  Priar  Bacon, 
that  made  a  brazen  head  to  speak  these  words,  time  is.^ 
Which  though  there  want  not  the  like  relations,  is  surely 
too  literally  received,  and  was  but  a  mystical  fable  concern- 
ing the  philosopher's  great  work,  wherein  he  eminently 
laboured:  implying  no  more  by  the  copper  head,  than 
the  vessel  wherein  it  was  wrought,  and  by  the  words  it 
epake,  than  the  opportunity  to  be  Avatched,  about  the 
tempus  ortus,  or  birth  of  the  mystical  child,  or  philosophical 
king  of  Lallius  ;  the  rising  of  the  terra  foliata  of  Arnoldus, 
when  the  earth,  sufficiently  impregnated  with  the  water, 
ascendeth  white  and  splendent.  Which  not  observed,  the 
work  is  irrecoverably  lost,  according  to  that  of  Petrus 
Bonus:  Ihi  est  operis  perfeetio  aut  anniliilatio ;  qxiomam 
ipsa  die,  imino  hord,  oriimtur  elementa  simplicia  depurata, 
qucB  ec/ent  statim  compositione,  anteqiiam  volent  ah  igne* 

Now  letting  slip  this  critical  opportunity,  he  missed  the 
intended  treasure,  which  had  he  obtained,  he  might  have 
made  out  the  tradition  of  making  a  brazen  wall  about 
England  :  that  is,  the  most  powerful  defence,  and  strongest 
fortification  which  gold  could  have  effected. 

8.  Who  can  but  pity  tlie  virtuous  Epicurus,  who  is  com- 
monly conceived  to  have  placed  his  chief  felicity  in  pleasure 

*  Marganta  pretiosa. 

patrum,  pcperit  Pcqiissa  papillum," — but  even  her  very  existence  itself 
aeuras  now  to  be  universally  rejected  by  the  best  authorities,  Protestant 
as  well  as  Catholic,  asa  fabrication  from  beginning  to  end. 

*  a  brazen  Iteud.]  This  ridiculous  story  was  originally  imputed,  not 
to  Roger  Eacon,  but  to  Itobert  Grosseteste,  bishop  of  Lincoln, 


276  AKilt  OF  XERXES.  [bOOK  .... 

and  sensual  delights,  and  hath  therefore  left  an  infamous 
name  behind  him  ?     How  true,  let  them  determine  who  read 
that  he  lived  seventy  years,  and  wrote  more  books  than  ai 
philosoplier  but  Chrysippus,  and  no  less  than  three  hundrei 
without  borrowing  from  any  author  :  that  he  was  contente 
with  bread  and  water ;  and  when  he  would  dine  with  Jove, 
and  pretend  unto  epulation,  he  desired  no  other  addition 
than  a  piece  of  Cytheridian  cheese :  that  shall  consider  the 
words  of  Seneca,^  Non  dico,  quod  plerique  nostrorum,  sectam 
Epicuri  jimjitiorum  onagistrum  esse  :  sed  illud   dico,    male 
audit,  infamis  est,  et  immerito :  or  shall   read  his  life,  his 
epistles,  his  testament  in  Laertius,  who  plainly  names  them 
calumnies,  which  are  commonly  said  against  them. 

The  ground  hereof  seems  a  misapprehension  of  his  opinion, 
wlio  placed  his  felicity  not  in  the  pleasures  of  the  body,  but 
the  mind,  and  tranquillity  thereof,  obtained  by  wisdom  and 
virtue,  as  is  clearly  determined  in  his  epistle  unto  Menaeceus. 
Now  how  this  opinion  was  first  traduced  by  the  Stoicks,  how 
it  afterwards  became  a  common  belief,  and  so  taken  up  by 
authors  of  all  ages,  by  Cicero,  Plutarch,  Clemens,  Ambrose, 
and  others,  the  learned  pen  of  Gassendus  hath  discovered.*^ 


More  hricfly  of  some  others,  viz. :  that  the  Army  of  Xerxes  arank  whole 
Rivers  dry ;  that  Hannibal  eat  throurjh  the  A  Ijjs  with  Vinegar ;  of 
Archimedes,  his  burning  the  Ships  of  Marcellus  ;  of  the  Fabii  that  were 
all  slain;  of  the  Death  of  ^'Eschylus  ;  of  the  Cities  of  Tarsus  and  An- 
chiale  built  in  one  day  ;  of  the  great  Ship  Syracmia  or  Alexandria  ; 
of  the  Spartan  Boys. 

1.  Other   relations  there  are,  and  those  in  very  good 
authors,  which  though  we  do  not  positively  deny,  yet  have 
*  De  vita  et  moribus  Epicuri, 

^  That  shall  consider  the  wards  of  Seneca."]  That  is,  "  let  them  deter- 
mine the  words  of  Seneca,"  ^c. 

'  Who  can  butjiity,  <tc.]  Ross  is  unmerciful  in  his  reprobation  of  our 
author's  defence  of  Ei)icurus.  Yet  some  of  those  who  were  among  the 
opponents  of  that  philosopher's  doctrines, —  for  example,  Cicero,  Plu- 
tarch, and  Seneca,  have  awarded  him,  in  reference  to  the  particular 
cliarges  here  spoken  of,  the  same  acquittal  which  JJrowne  has  pro* 



thev  not  been  uiiquestioned  by  some,  and  at  least  as  im- 
probable truths  have  been  received  by  others.  Unto  some 
it  hath  seemed  nicredible  what  Herodotus  reporteth  of  the 
great  army  of  Xerxes,  that  drank  whole  rivers  chy.  And 
unto  the  author  himself  it  appeared  wondrous  strange,  that 
they  exhausted  not  the  provision  of  the  country,  rather  than 
the  waters  thereof.  For  as  he  maketh  the  account,  and 
Buddeus  de  Asse  correcting  their  miscompute  of  Valla 
delivereth  it,  if  every  man  of  the  army  had  had  a  clienix  of 
corn  a  day,  that  is,  a  sextary  and  a  half,  or  about  two  pints 
and  a  quarter,  the  army  had  daily  expended  ten  hvuidred 
thousand  and  forty  medimnas,  or  measures  containing  six 
bushels.2  Which  rightly  considered,  the  Abderites  had 
reason  to  bless  the  heavens,  that  Xerxes  eat  but  one  meal  a 
day,  and  Pythius,  his  noble  host,  might  with  less  charge  and 
possible  provision  entertain  both  him  and  his  army  ;  and  yet 
may  all  be  salved,  if  we  take  it  hyperbolically,  as  wise  men 
receive  that  expression  in  Job,  concerning  behemoth  or  the 
elephant,  "  Behold,  he  drinketh  up  a  river  and  hasteth  not ; 
he  trusteth  that  he  can  draw  up  Jordan  into  his  mouth." 

2.  That  Hannibal  ate  or  brake  through  the  Alps  with 
vinegar  may  be  too  grossly  taken,  and  the  author  of  his  life 
annexed  unto  Plutarch,  affirmeth  only  he  used  this  artifice 
upon  the  tops  of  some  of  the  highest  mountains.  Por  as  it 
is  vulgarly  vmderstood,  that  he  cut  a  passage  for  his  army 
through  those  mighty  mountains,  it  may  seem  incredible, 
not  only  in  the  greatness  of  the  effect,  but  the  quantity  of 
the  efficient,  and  such  as  behold  them  may  think  an  ocean  of 
vinegar  too  little  for  that   effect.^     'Twas  a  work  indeed 

'^  hiishcls.'\  But  the  wonder  is  not  soe  much  how  they  could  consume 
soe  much  eorne,  as  where  they  could  have  it  soe  sodenly.  But  it  seemes 
the  learned  author  heere  mistooke  his  accompte.  For  1,000,000  quarts 
(allowing  for  every  one  in  his  army  a  quarte,  and  16  quartos  to  a 
Lushell),  amount  to  noe  more  then  62,499  bushels,  or  10,416  medimnas, 
which  would  not  loade  1000  wagons,  a  small  ba£ra:acre  for  so  great  an 
army  not  to  be  wondered  at. —  Wr. 

•*  an  ocean,  <£;c.]  There  needed  not  more  than  some  few  hogsheatls 
of  vinegar,  for  having  hewed  downe  the  woods  of  firr  growing  there, 
and  with  the  huge  piles  thereof  calcined  the  tops  of  some  cliffes  which 
stood  in  his  waye ;  a  small  quantity  of  vinegar  poured  on  the  fired 
glowing  rocks  would  make  them  cleave  in  sunder,  as  is  manifest  in 
calcined  flints,  which  being  ofteo  burned    and  as  often  quentcht  ia 

278  AKCniMEDES.      THE    FABII.  [bOOK  TII. 

rather  to  be  expected  from  earthquakes  and  inundations, 
than  any  corrosive  Tvaters,  and  much  condemneth  the  judg- 
ment of  Xei'xes,  that  wrought  through  Mount  Athos  with 

3.  That  Archimedes  burnt  the  ships  of  Marcellus,  with 
specukims  of  parabohcal  iigures,  at  three  furlongs,  or  as 
some  will  have  it,  at  the  distance  of  three  miles,  sounds  hard 
unto  reason  and  ax'tificial  experience,  and  therefore  justly 
questioned  by  Kircherus,  who  after  long  enquirj-  could  find 
but  one  made  by  Manfredus  Septalius*  that  fired  at  fifteen 
paces.  And  therefore  more  probable  it  is  that  that  the 
ships  were  nearer  the  shore  or  about  some  thirty  paces,  at 
which  distance  notwithstanding  the  eftect  was  very  great. 
But  whereas  men  conceive  the  ships  were  more  easily  set  on 
flame  by  reason  of  the  pitch  about  them,  it  seemeth  no 
advantage  ;  since  burning  glasses  will  melt  pitch  or  make  it 
boil,  not  easily  set  it  on  fire. 

4.  The  story  of  the  Pabii,  whereof  three  hundred  and  six 
marching  against  the  Veientes  were  all  slain,  and  one  child 
alone  to  support  the  family  remained,  is  siu'ely  not  to  be 

*  De  luce  et  umbra. 

vinegar,  •will  in  fine  turne  into  an  impalpable  powder,  as  is  truly  ex- 
perimented, and  is  dayly  manifest  in  the  lime  kilnes.—  Wr. 

Dr.  Mc  Keever,  in  a  paper  in  the  5th  vol.  of  the  Annals  of  Philosophy, 
N.  S.  discusses  this  question,  and  arrives  at  the  conclusion  that,  in  all 
probability,  the  expansive  operation  of  the  fire  on  the  water  -which  had 
been  percolating  through  the  pores  and  fissures  of  the  rocks,  occasioned 
the  detachment  of  large  portions  of  it  by  explosion,  just  as  masses  of 
rock  are  frequently  detached  from  cliffs,  and  precipitated  into  adjoin- 
ing valleys,  by  a  similar  physical  cause.  Dr.  M..  notices  the  annual 
disruption  of  icebergs  in  the  Polar  seas,  on  the  return  of  summer,  as  a 
phenomenon  bearing  considerable  analogy  to  the  preceding.  Mr. 
Brayley  supposes  that  Hannibal  might  have  used  vinegar  to  dissolve 
partially  a  particular  mass  of  limestone,  which  might  impede  his  passage 
through  some  narrow  pass.  Dr.  M.  suggests  that  he  might  attribute 
to  the  vinegar  and  fire  what  the  latter  actually  effected  by  its  action  on 
the  water,  and  would  have  effected  just  as  well  without  the  ^anegar. 
But  perhaps  after  all  the  only  vinegar  employed  might  be  pyroligneous 
acid,  produced  from  the  wood  by  its  combination,  without  any  inten- 
tion on  the  part  of  Hannibal,  though  its  presence  would  very  naturally 
have  been  attributed  to  design  by  the  ignorant  spectators  of  his  opera- 
tions, which,  on  this  theory,  may  be  supposed  to  have  been  conducted 
on  a  full  knowledge  of  the  effects  thej'  would  produce,  in  the  explosive 
removal  of  the  obstacles  which  obstructed  his  advance. 

CHAP.  5TIII.]  MIEO.      DEATH    OF   JESCHTLTJS.  279 

paralleled,  nor  easy  to  be  conceived,  except  we  can  imagine  that 
of  thi'ee  hundred  and  six,  but  one  had  children  below  the 
service  of  war,  that  the  rest  were  all  unmarried,  or  the  wife 
but  of  one  impregnated.'* 

5.  The  received  story  of  Milo,  who  by  daily  lifting  a  calf, 
attained  an  ability  to  carry  it  being  a  bull,  is  a  witty  conceit, 
and  handsomely  sets  forth  the  efficacy  of  assuefaction.  But 
surely  the  account  had  been  more  reasonably  placed  iipon 
some  person  not  much  exceeding  in  strength,  and  such  a  one 
as  without  the  assistance  of  custom  could  never  have  per- 
formed that  act,  which  some  may  presume  that  Milo,  without 
precedent,  artifice,  or  any  other  preparative,  had  strength 
enough  to  perform.  For  as  relations  declare,  he  was  the 
most  pancratical  man  of  Greece,  and  as  Galen  reporteth,  and 
Mercurialis  in  his  Gymnastics  representeth,  he  was  able  to 
persist  erect  upon  an  oiled  plank,  and  not  to  be  removed  by 
the  force  or  protrusion  of  three  men.  And  if  that  be  true 
which  Athenaeus  reporteth,  he  was  little  beholding  to  custom 
for  his  ability  ;  for  in  the  Olympic  games,  for  the  space  of  a 
furiong,  he  carried  an  ox  of  four  years  ^  upon  his  shoulders, 
and  the  same  day  he  carried  it  in  his  belly  ;  for  as  it  is 
there  delivered,  he  eat  it  up  himself.  Surely  he  had  been  a 
proper  guest  at  Grandgousier's  feast,  and  might  have 
matched  his  throat  that  eat  six  pilgrims  for  a  salad.* 

G.  It  much  disadvantageth  the  panegyrick  of  SynesiuSjt 
and  is  no  small  disparagement  unto  baldness,  if  it  be  true 
what  is  related  by  Julian  concerning  J^^schylus,  whose  bald 
pate  was  mistaken  for  a  rock,  and  so  was  brained  by  a  tortoise 

*  In  Rahclais. 
f  Who  writ  in  the  praise  of  baldness.     An  argument  or  instance 
against  the  motion  of  the  earth. 

■•  3.]  This  and  the  following  paragraph,  as  well  as  §  12,  were  first 
added  in  2nd  edition. 

*  an  ox,  rtc]  An  ox  of  4  years  in  Greece  did  not  fequal  one  with  us 
of  2  ;  whereof  having  taken  out  the  bowels  and  the  heade  and  the  hide, 
and  the  feete  and  all  that  which  they  call  the  offall,  we  may  well  thiiike 
the  four  quarters,  especially  yf  the  greate  bones  were  all  taken  out, 
could  not  weigh  much  above  a  1001b.  weight.  Now  the  greater  wonder 
is  hov/  he  could  eate  soe  much,  then  to  carry  itt.  Itt  is  noe  newes  for 
men  in  our  dayes  to  carry  above  400  weight ;  but  few  men  can  eate 
100  weight,  excepting  they  had  such  a  gyant-like  bulke  as  hoe 
had, —  Wr. 


■nbicli  an  eagle  let  I'all  upon  it.  Certainly  it  was  a  very 
great  mistake  in  the  perspicaey  of  that  animal.  Some  men 
critically  disposed,  would  from  hence  confute  the  opinion  of 
Copernicus,  never  conceiving  how  the  motion  of  the  earth 
below,  should  not  wave  him  from  a  knock  perpendicularly 
directed  from  a  body  in  the  air  above. 

7.  It  crosseth  the  proverb,  and  Rome  might  well  be  built 
in  a  day,  if  that  were  true  which  is  traditionally  related  by 
Strabo ;  that  the  great  cities,  Anchiale  and  Tarsus,^  were 
built  b)'  Sardanapalus,  both  in  one  day,  according  to  tlie 
inscription  of  his  monument,  Sardanajyalus  Anacyndarcixis 
filius,  Ancliialem  et  Tarsum  una  die  csdificavi,  tu  autem 
hospes,  cde,  hide,  lihe,  ^c.  Which  if  strictly  taken,  that  is, 
for  the  finishing  thereof,  and  not  only  for  the  beginning  ;  for 
an  artificial  or  natural  day,  and  not  one  of  Daniel's  weeks, 
that  is,  seven  whole  years ;  surely  their  hands  were  very 
heavy  that  wasted  thirteen  years  in  the  private  house  of 
Solomon.  It  may  be  wondered  how  forty  years  were  spent 
in  the  erection  of  the  temple  of  Jerusalem,  and  no  less  than 
an  hundred  in  that  famous  one  of  Ephesus.  Certainly  it 
was  the  greatest  architecture  of  one  day,  since  that  great  one 
of  six  ;  an  art  quite  lost  witli  our  mechanics,  a  work  not  to  be 
made  out,  but  like  the  walls  of  Thebes,  and  such  an  artificer 
as  Amphion. 

8.  It  had  been  a  sight  only  second  unto  the  ark  to  have 
beheld  the  great  Syracusia,  or  mighty  ship  of  Hiero,  described 
in  Athenfeus  ;  and  some  have  thought  it  a  very  large  one, 
wherein  were  to  be  found  ten  stables  for  horses,  eight  towers, 
besides  fish-ponds,  gardens,  tricliniums,  and  many  fair  rooms 
paved  with  agath  and  precious   stones.     But  nothing  was 

^  Anchiale  and  Tarsus.'\  A  single  fortress,  as  that  of  Babell,  is  called 
a  city.  Genes,  xi.  4.  In  imitation  whereof,  built  by  Nimrod,  the  first 
Assyrian  Monarch,  itt  is  possible  that  Sardanapalus,  the  last  Monarcli, 
but  withall  the  greatest  in  power,  and  purse,  and  people,  might  easily 
raise  such  a  fortresse  in  a  daye,  having  first  brought  all  the  materials  in 
place,  and  if  one,  he  might  as  well  have  built  ten  in  several  places. 
Now  these  cityes  were  about  4  hundred  miles  distant,  Tai-sus  on  the 
banke  of  Sinus,  Issicus  in  Cilicia,  and  Anchiala  on  the  banke  of  the 
Euxine  Sea  in  Pontus,  both  border  townes,  dividing  Natolia  on  the 
lesser  Asia  from  the  greater  Asia,  and  were  the  2  frontire  townes  of  the 
Assyrian  Monarchie,  and  were  built  for  the  ostentation  of  his  vast 
spreading  dominions,  and  both  in  a  day  raised,  for  ostentation  of  his 
power. —  Wr, 

CHAP.  XYlIt.]  THE    SPARTAN   BOYS.  281 

impossible  unto  Archimedes,  the  learned  contriver  thereof; 
nor  shall  we  question  his  removing  the  earth,  when  he  finds 
an  immoveable  base  to  place  his  engine  unto  it. 

97  That  the  PamphiliaiU  sea  gave  way  unto  Alexander,  in 
his  intended  march  toward  Persia,  many  have  been  apt  to 
credit,  and  Josephus  is  willing  to  believe,  to  countenance  the 
passage  of  the  Israelites  through  the  Eed  Sea.  But  Strabo, 
who  writ  before  him,  delivereth  another  account ;  that  the 
mountain  climax,  adjoining  to  the  Pamphilian  sea,  leaves  a 
narrow  passage  between  the  sea  and  it ;  which  passage  at  an 
ebb  and  quiet  sea  all  men  take  ;  but  Alexander  coming  in 
the  winter,  and  eagerly  pursuing  his  aftairs,  would  not  wait 
for  the  reflux  or  return  of  the  sea  ;  and  so  was  fain  to  pass 
with  his  army  in  the  water,  and  march  up  to  the  navel  in  it. 

10.  The  relation  of  Plutarch,  of  a  youth  of  Sparta  that 
suffered  a  fox,  concealed  under  his  robe,  to  tear  out  his 
bowels  before  he  would,  either  by  voice  or  countenance, 
betray  his  theft;  and  the  other,  of  the  Spartan  lad,  that  witli 
the  same  resolution  suffered  a  coal  from  the  altar  to  burn 
his  arm;  although  defended  by  the  author  that  writes  his 
life,  is  I  perceive  mistrusted  by  men  of  judgment,  and  the 
author,  with  an  aiitnt,  is  made  to  salve  himself.  Assuredly 
it  was  a  noble  nation  that  could  afford  an  hint  to  such  inven- 
tions of  patience,  and  upon  whom,  if  not  such  verities,  at 
least  such  verisimilities  of  fortitude  were  placed.  AYerethe 
story  true,  they  would  have  made  the  only  disciples  for 
Zeno  and  the  Stoicks,  and  might  perhaps  have  been  per- 
suaded to  laugh  in  Phalaris  his  bull. 

11.  If  any  man  shall  content  his  belief  with  the  speech  of 
Balaam's  ass,  without  a  belief  of  that  of  Mahomet's  camel, 
or  Livy's  ox  ;  if  any  man  makes  a  doubt  of  Giges'  ring  in 
Justinus,  or  conceives  he  must  be  a  Jew  that  believes  the 
sabbatical  river^  in  Josephus  ;  if  any  man  will  say  he  dotli 

''  9.]     First  added  in  the  6th  edition. 

*  tJie  sabbatical  rive?:]  A  singular  discrepancy  exists  on  this  point 
between  the  statement  of  Josephus  and  that  of  Phny.  Tlie  former 
(Dc  Bell.  Jud.  lib.  vii.  c.  24)  saying  that  the  river  flows  on  sabbath,  but 
rests  on  every  other  day : — while  Pliny  {Hi><t.  Nat.  xxxi.  §  13)  relates 
that  it  flows  most  impetuously  all  the  week,  but  is  dry  on  the  sabbath. 
All  the  Jewish  rabbinical  authorities  adopt  the  latter  as  the  fact,  in 
opposition  to  Josephus,  whose  account  is  so  singular,  that  several  of  his 
commentators  have  not  hesitated  to  suppose  a  transposition  to  have 

282  TEE    SPAETAK   BOYS.  [BOOK  Til. 

not  apprebend  Iiotv  tlie  tail  of  an  African  wetlier  out-'^eigh- 
etli  the  body  of  a  good  calf,  that  is,  an  hundred  pounds, 
according  unto  Leo  Africanus,'-'  or  desii-es,  before  belief,  to 
behold  such  a  creature  as  is  the  ruck^  in  Paulus  Venetus, — 
for  my  part  I  shall  not  be  angry  with  his  incredulity. 

12.  If  any  one  shall  receive,  as  stretched  or  fabulous  ac- 
counts, what  is  delivered  of  Codes,  Scaevola,  and  Curtius, 
the  sphere  of  Archimedes,  the  story  of  the  Amazons,  the 
taking  of  the  city  of  Babylon,  not  known  to  some  therein  in 
three  days  after,  that  the  nation  was  deaf  which  dwelt  at  the 
fall  of  Nilus,  the  laughing  and  weeping  humour  of  Heracli- 
tus  and  Democritus,  with  many  more,  he  shall  not  want 
some  reason  and  the  authority  of  Lancelotti.* 

13.  If  any  man  doubt  of  the  strange  antiquities  delivered 
by  historians,  as  of  the  wonderful  corpse  of  Antasus  untombed 

*  Farfalloni  Ilistorici. 

occuiTed  in  his  text,  producing  the  error  in  quesstion.  Our  poetical 
Walton  alludes  to  this  marvellous  river,  but  he  has  adopted  the  proposed 
correction,  citing  Josephus  as  his  authority,  but  giving  the  Plinian  ver- 
sion of  the  story,  doubtless  thinking  it  most  fit  that  the  river  should 
allov?  the  angler  to  repose  on  Sunday,  and  afford  him,  during  the  six 
other  days,  "  choice  recreation."  Tlie  classical  authorities  declare  that 
the  river  has  long  since  vanished.  But  recently,  a  learned  Jew,  Eabbi 
Edrehi,  has  announced  a  work,  asserting  the  discovery  of  the  lost  river, 
but  affirming  it  to  be  a  i-iver  of  sand  /  This  is  apt  to  recal  to  mind  an 
old  proverb  about  "  twisting  a  »'ope  of  sand  !  " 

As  for  the  "  marvellous  "  of  the  story,  it  strikes  me,  that — only  grant 
the  existence  of  ivater-corn-mills  in  the  time  of  the  Emperor  Titus 
(which  it  is  not  for  me  to  deny),— and  the  whole  is  perfectly  intelligible. 
The  mills  had  been  at  work  during  the  week,  keeping  up  a  head  of 
water  which  had  rushed  along  with  a  velocity  (as  Josephus  describes  it) 
sufficient  to  caiTy  with  it  stones  and  fragments  of  rocks.  On  sabbath- 
day  the  miller  "shut  down,"  and  let  all  the  water  run  throiigh,  by 
which  means  the  river  was  laid  almost  dry.  What  should  hinder,  in 
these  days  of  hypothesis,  our  adopting  so  ready  and  satisfactory  a 
solution  ? 

^  Leo  AfHcaniis.']  What  weights  Leo  Afrieanus  meanes  is  doubtfull. 
Some  have  been  brought  hither,  that  being  fatted,  coulde  scarcely  carye 
their  tayles  :  though  I  know  not,  why  nature,  that  hung  such  a  weight 
oehinde,  shoulde  not  enable  the  creature  to  drag  itt  after  iiim  by  the 
strength  of  his  backe,  as  the  stag  to  carye  as  great  weight  on  his  heade 
only. —  Wr. 

'  ruch.'\  Surely  the  rue  was  but  one,  like  the  phoenix,  but  revives 
not  like  the  phoenix. —  Wr. 

The  roc  of  the  Arabian  Nights,  conjectured  to  have  originated  in  the 
American  condor. 


a  tliousand  years  after  liis  death  by  Sertorius  ;  whether  there 
were  no  deceit  in  those  fragments  of  the  ark,  so  common  to 
be  seen  in  the  days  of  Berosus ;  whether  the  pillar  which 
Josephus  beheld  long  ago,  Tertullian  long  after,  and  Bar- 
tholomeus  de  Saligniaco  and  Bochardus  long  since,  be  the 
same  with  that  of  Lot's  wife  ;  whether  this  were  the  hand  of 
Paul,  or  that  which  is  commonly  shown  the  head  of  Peter ; 
if  any  doubt,  I  shall  not  much  dispute  with  their  suspicions. 
If  any  man  shall  not  believe  the  turpentine-tree  betwixt 
Jerusalem  and  Bethlehem,  under  which  the  Virgin  suckled 
our  Saviour  as  she  passed  between  those  cities ;  or  the  tig- 
tree  of  Bethany,  showed  to  this  day,  whereon  Zaccheus  as- 
cended to  behold  our  Saviour  ;  I  cannot  tell  how  to  enforce 
his  belief,  nor  do  I  think  it  requisite  to  attempt  it.  Por,  as 
it  is  no  reasonable  proceeding  to  compel  a  religion,  or  think 
to  enforce  our  own  belief  upon  another,  who  cannot  without 
the  concurrence  of  God's  Spirit  have  any  undubitable  evidence 
of  things  that  are  obtruded,  so  is  it  also  in  matters  of  com- 
mon belief ;  whereunto  neither  can  we  indubitably  assent, 
without  tlie  co-operation  of  our  sense  or  reason,  wherein 
consist  the  principles  of  persuasion.  Por,  as  the  habit  of 
faith  in  divinity  is  an  argument  of  things  unseen,  and  a  stable 
assent  unto  things  inevident,  upon  authority  of  the  Divine 
Revealer,  —  so  the  belief  of  man,  which  depends  upon 
human  testimony,  is  but  a  staggering  assent  unto  the 
affirmative,  not  without  some  fear  of  the  negative.  And  as 
there  is  required  the  Word  of  God,  or  infused  inclination 
unto  the  one,  so  must  the  actual  sensation  of  our  senses,- 
at  least  the  non-opposition  of  our  reasons,  procure  our 
assent  and  acquiescence  in  the  other.  So  when  Eusebius, 
an  holy  writer,  affirmeth,  there  grew  a  strange  and  iinknown 
plant  near  the  statue  of  Christ,  erected  by  his  hsemor- 
rhoidal  patient  in  the  gospel,  which  attaining  unto  the  hem 
of  his  vesture,  acquired  a  sudden  faculty  to  cure  all  dis- 
eases ;  although,^  he  saith,  he  saw  the  statue  in  his  days, 

^  senses.]  And  that  this  was  not  -wanting  to  make  good  the  storyc  in 
parte,  is  evident  in  the  very  next  section. —  Wr. 

^  although,  cOc]  Why  may  wee  not  beleave  that  there  was  such  a 
plant  at  the  foote  of  that  statue  upon  the  report  of  the  ecclesiastick 
story,  puhlislit  in  the  third  ecumenical  council  at  Ephesus,  as  wel  as  the 
statue  itselfe  upon  the  report  of  Eusebius  at  the  first  ecumenical  coun- 

28i       SOME  RELATIONS  WHOSE  TRUTH  WE  FEAR.      [uOOK  Vll 

yet  hath  it  not  found  in  many  men  so  much  as  hiunau 
belief.  Some  believing,  others  opinioniug,  a  third  suspect- 
ing it  might  be  otlierwise.  For  indeed,  in  matters  of  belief, 
the  understanding  assenting  unto  the  relation,  either  for 
the  authority  of  the  person,  or  the  probability  of  the 
object,  although  there  may  be  a  confidence  of  the  one,  yet 
if  there  be  not  a  satisfaction  in  the  other,  there  will  arise 
suspensions  ;  nor  can  we  properly  believe  mitil  some  argu- 
ment of  reason,  or  of  our  proper  sense,  convince  or  deter- 
mine our  dubitations. 

And  thus  it  is  also  in  matters  of  certain  and  experi- 
mented truth.  For  if  unto  one  that  never  heard  thereof, 
a  man  should  undertake  to  persuade  the  affections  of  the 
loadstone,  or  that  jet  and  amber  attract  straws  and  light 
bodies,  there  would  be  little  rhetorick  in  the  authority  of 
Aristotle,  Pliny,  or  any  other.  Thus  although  it  be  true 
that  the  string  of  a  lute  or  viol  will  stir  upon  the  stroke  of 
an  unison  or  diapason  in  another  of  the  same  kind ;  that 
alcanna  being  green,  will  suddenly  infect  the  nails  and 
other  parts  with  a  durable  red ;  that  a  candle  out  of  a 
musket  will  pierce  through  an  inch  board,  or  an  urinal  force 
a  nail  through  a  plank ;  yet  can  few  or  none  believe  thus 
much  without  a  visible  experiment.  Which  notwithstand- 
ing falls  out  more  happily  for  knowledge  ;  for  these  relations 
leaving  unsatisfaction  in  the  hearers,  do  stir  up  ingenuous 
dubiosities  unto  experiment,  and  by  an  exploration  of  all, 
prevent  delusion  in  any. 


Of  some  Relations  whose  truth  we  fear. 

Lastly,  as  there  are  many  relations  whei'eto  we  cannot 
assent,  and  make  some  doubt  thereof,  so  there  are  divers 

oil  at  Nice  ;  who  sayes  he  saw  the  statue,  but  repeates  the  storye  of 
the  plant  out  of  Afrlcanus,  who  lived  within  the  200th  yeare  of  Christ : 
and  out  of  TertuUian,  who  lived  within  120  yeai-es  after  this  miracle 
was  wrought  upon  the  hsemorroidall  that  erected  the  statue.  For  thoutjb 
the  plant  lived  not  till  his  time,  yet  ift  was  as  fresh  in  memorye  in  th? 
church  as  when  it  first  grewe. —  Wr. 

CHAP.  XIX.]  SOME  helations  whose  truth  we  eeae.    285 

other3  whose  verities  we  fear,  and  heartily  wish  there  were 
no  truth  therein. 

1.  It  is  an  insufferable  affront  unto  filial  piety,  and  a 
deep  discouragement  unto  the  exj^ectation  of  all  aged  pa- 
rents, who  shall  but  read  tlie  story  of  that  barbarous  queen, 
who,  after  she  had  beheld  her  royal  parent's  ruin,  lay  yet 
in  the  arms  of  his  assassin,  and  caroused  with  him  in  the 
skull  of  her  father.  For  my  part,  1  should  have  doubted 
the  operation  of  antimony,  where  such  a  potion  would 
not  work ;  'twas  an  act,  methinks,  beyond  anthropophagy, 
and  a  cup  fit  to  be  served  up  only  at  the  table  of  Atreus.^ 

■•  barbarous  qiieen,  die]  If  this  relates  to  the  story  of  Alboin,  it  is 
not  correctly  noticed.  I  give  it  frouii  Lardner's  Cydopcedia. — Etirope 
during  the  Middle  Ages. 

"  Few  dynasties  have  been  so  unfortuna,te  as  that  of  the  Lombards. 
Alboin,  its  founder,  had  not  wielded  the  sceptre  four  years,  when  he 
became  the  victim  of  domestic  treason  :  the  manner  is  worth  relating, 
as  characteristic  of  the  peojile.  During  his  residence  in  Pannonia,  this 
valiant  chief  had  overcome  and  slain  Cunimond,  king  of  the  Gepidae, 
whose  skuU,  in  conformity  with  a  barbarous  custom  of  his  nation,  he 
had  fashioned  into  a  drinking  cup.  Though  he  had  married  Rosamond, 
daughter  of  Cunimond,  in  his  festive  entertainments  he  was  by  no 
means  disposed  to  forego  the  triumph  of  displaying  the  trophy.  In  one 
held  at  Verona,  he  had  the  inhumanity  to  invite  his  consort  to  drink  to 
her  lather,  while  he  displayed  the  cup,  and,  for  the  first  time,  revealed 
its  history  in  her  presence.  His  vanity  cost  him  dear  :  if  she  concealed 
her  abhorrence,  it  settled  into  a  deadly  feeling.  By  the  counsel  of  Hel- 
mich,  a  confidential  officer  of  the  court,  she  opened  her  heart  to  Pere- 
deo,  one  of  the  bravest  captains  of  the  Lombards  ;  and  when  she  could 
not  persuade  him  to  assassinate  his  prince,  she  had  recourse  to  an  expe- 
dient, which  proves,  that  in  hatred  as  in  love,  woman  krjows  no  measure. 
Personating  a  mistress  of  Peredeo,  she  silently  and  in  darkness  stole  to 
his  l)ed  ;  and  when  her  purpose  was  gained,  she  threatened  him  with 
the  vengeance  of  an  injured  husband,  unless  he  consented  to  become  a 
regicide.  Tlie  option  wg,s  soon  made  :  accompanied  by  Helmich,  Pe- 
redeo was  led  to  the  couch  of  the  sleeping  king,  whose  arms  had  been 
previously  removed  ;  and,  after  a  short  struggle,  the  deed  of  blood  was 
consummated.  The  justice  of  heaven  never  slumbers  :  if  Alboin  was 
thus  severely  punished  for  his  inhumanity,  fate  avenged  him  of  his 
murderers.  To  escape  the  suspicious  enmity  of  the  L(jmbards,  the 
queen  and  Helmicli  fled  to  Ravenna,  which  at  this  period  depended  on 
the  Greek  empire.  There  the  exarch,  coveting  the  treasures  which  she 
had  brought  from  Verona,  offered  her  his  hand,  on  condition  she 
removed  her  companion.  Such  a  woman  was  not  likely  to  hesitate. 
To  gratify  one  passion  she  had  planned  a  deed  of  blood — to  gratify 
another,   her  ambition,  she  presented  a  poisoned   cup   to  her  lover. 


2.  "While  we  laugh  at  the  story  of  Pygmalion,  and 
receive  as  a  fable  that  he  fell  in  love  with  a  statue ;  we  can- 
not but  fear  it  may  be  true,  what  is  delivered  by  Herodotus 
concerning  the  Egyptian  poUinctors,  or  such  as  anointed 
the  dead ;  that  some  thereof  were  fomid  in  the  act  of 
carnality  with  them.  Prom  wits  that  say  'tis  more  than 
incontiuency  for  Hylas  to  sport  with  Hecuba,  and  youth  to 
flame  in  the  frozen  embraces  of  age,  we  require  a  name  for 
this :  wherein  Petronius  or  Martial  cannot  relieve  us. 
The  tyranny  of  Mezentius*  did  never  equal  the  vitiosity  of 
this  incubus,  that  could  embrace  corruption,  and  make  a 
mistress  of  the  grave  ;  that  could  not  resist  the  dead  pro- 
vocations of  beauty,^  whose  quick  invitements  scarce  excuse 
submission.  Surely,  if  such  depravities  there  be  yet  alive, 
deformity  need  not  despair ;  nor  will  the  eldest  hopes  be 
ever  superannuated,  since  death  hath  spurs,  and  carcasses 
have  been  courted. 

3.  I  am  heartily  sorry,  and  wish  it  were  not  true,  what 
to  the  dishonour  of  Christianity  is  afiBrmed  of  the  Italian ; 
who  after  he  had  inveigled  his  enemy  to  disclaim  his  faith 
for  the  redemption  of  his  life,  did  presently  poiuiard  him, 
to  prevent  repentance,  and  assure  his  eternal  death. 
The  villany  of  this  Christian  exceeded  the  persecution  of 
heathens,  whose  malice  was  never  so  longimanousf  as  to 
reach  the  soul  of  their  enemies,  or  to  extend  unto  an  exile 
of  their  elysiums.  And  though  the  blindness  of  some 
ferities  have  savaged  on  the  bodies  of  the  dead,  and  been 
so  injurious  vmto  worms,  as  to  disinter  the  bodies  of  the 
deceased,  yet  had  they  therein  no  design  upon  the  soul ; 
and  have  been  so  far  from  the  destruction  of  that,  or  de- 
sires of  a  perpetual  death,  that  for  the  satisfaction  of  their 
revenge  they  wish  them  many  souls,  and  were  it  in  their 
power  would  have  reduced  them  unto  life  again.  It  is  a 
great  depravity  in  our  natures,  and  surely  an  aftection  that 
somewhat  savoureth  of  hell,  to  desire  the  society,  or  comfort 

*  Who  tied  dead  and  living  bodies  together.  f  Long-handed. 

in  the  bath.  After  drinking  a  portion,  his  suspicions  were  kindled, 
and  he  forced  her,  under  the  raised  sword,  to  drink  the  rest.  The 
same  hour  ended  their  guilt  and  lives.  Peredeo,  the  third  culprit,  fled 
to  Constantinople,  where  a  fate  no  less  tragical  awaited  him." 

^  dead  provocations  ofbeauti/.]     Provocations  of  dead  beauty, —  Wr. 


ourselves  in  the  fellowship  of  others  that  suffer  with  us; 
but  to  procure  the  miseries  of  others  in  those  extremities, 
wherein  we  hold  an  hope  to  have  no  society  ourselves,  is 
methiuks  a  strain  above  Lucifer,  aud  a  project  bejoud  the 
primary  seduction  of  hell. 

4.  1  hope  it  is  not  true,  and  some  indeed  have  probably 
denied,  what  is  recorded  of  the  monk  that  poisoned 
Hemy  the  emperor,  in  a  di'aught  of  the  holy  Eucharist. 
'Twas  a  scandalous  wound  unto  the  Christian  religion,  and 
I  hope  all  Pagans  will  forgive  it,  when  they  shall  read  that 
a  Christian  was  poisoned  in  a  cup  of  Christ,  and  received  his 
bane  in  a  draught  of  his  salvation.^  Had  he  believed 
trausubstantiation,  he  would  have  doubted  the  effect ;  and 
surely  the  sin  itself  received  an  aggravation  in  that  opinion. 
It  much  commendeth  the  innocency  of  our  forefathers,  and 
the  simplicity  of  those  times,  whose  laws  coidd  never 
dream  so  liigh  a  crime  as  parricide  :  whereas  this  at  tlie  least 
may  seem  to  out-reach  that  fact,  and  to  exceed  the  regular 
distinctions  of  murder.  I  will  not  say  what  sin  it  was  to 
act  it ;  yet  may  it  seem  a  kind  of  martyrdom  to  suffer  by  it.- 
For,  although  unknowingly,  he  died  for  Christ  his  sake, 
and  lost  his  life  in  the  ordained  testimony  of  his  death. 
Certainly  had  they  known  it,  some  noble  zeals  would 
scarcely  have  refused  it ;  rather  adventuring  their  own 
death,  than  refusing  the  memorial  of  his.'' 

Many  other  accounts  like  these  we  meet  sometimes  in 
history,  scandalous  unto  Christianity,  and  even  unto  huDia- 
nity ;  whose  verities  not  only,  but  whose  relations,  honest 
minds  do  deprecate.  For  of  sins  heteroclital,  and  such  as 
want  either  name  or  precedent,  there  is  oft-times  a  sin  even 
in   their   histories,     We    desire   no  records   of  such  enor- 

*  'Twas  a  scandalous  wound,  t£-c.]  It  is  said  that  Ganganelli,  Pope 
Clement  XIV.  was  thus  despatched  by  the  Jesuits.  In  the  Universal 
Alayazinc  ior  177(y,  vol.  v.  p.  215,  occurs  an  account  of  that  poisoning 
of  the  saciamental  wine  at  Zurich,  by  a  grave-digger,  by  which  a  num- 
ber of  communicants  lost  their  lives. 

''  Than  refusing,  (t-c]  Itt  had  been  a  very  foolislie  zeale,  and  little 
less  than  selfe  murder  to  have  taken  that  sacramentall,  wherin  they 
had  knowne  poyson  to  have  been  put.  The  rejection  of  that  particular 
cup  had  not  been  any  refusal  of  remembring  his  death.  This  therefore 
needs  an  index  expurg:  .torius,  and  a  deleatur,  and  soe  wee  hava 
according  canceld  itt. —  Tr. 


mities ;  sins  should  be  accounted  new,  that  so  they  may  be 
esteemed  monstrous.  They  amit  of  monstrosity  as  they 
fall  from  their  rarity ;  for  men  count  it  venial  to  err  with 
their  forefathers,  and  foolishly  conceive  they  divide  a  sin  in 
its  society.  The  pens  of  men  may  sufficiently  expatiate 
without  these  singularities  of  villany ;  for,  as  they  increase 
the  hatred  of  vice  in  some,  so  do  they  enlarge  the  theory  of 
wickedness  in  all.  And  this  is  one  thing  that  may  make 
latter  ages  worse  than  were  the  former ;  for,  the  vicious 
examples  of  ages  past  poison  the  curiosity  of  these  present, 
aftbrding  a  hint*^  of  sin  unto  seducible  spirits,  and  solicit- 
ing tliose  unto  the  imitation  of  them,  whose  heads  were 
never  so  perversely  principled  as  to  invent  them.  In  this 
kind  we  commend  the  wisdom  and  goodness  of  GTalen,  who 
would  not  leave  unto  tlie  world  too  subtle  a  theory  of 
poisons  ;  imarming  thereby  the  malice  of  venomous  spirits, 
whose  ignorance  must  be  contented  with  sublimate  and 
arsenic.  For,  sm'ely  there  are  subtler  venerations,  such  as 
will  invisibly  destroy,  and  like  the  basilisks  of  heaven. 
In  things  of  this  nature  silence  commendeth  history :  'tis 
the  veniable  part  of  things  lost ;  wherein  there  must  never 
rise  a  Pancii'ollus,*  nor  remain  any  register,  but  that  of 

And  yet,  if,  as  some  Stoicks  opinion,  and  Seneca  himself 
disputeth,  these  unruly  affections  that  make  us  sin  such 
prodigies,  and  even  sins  themselves  be  animals,  there  is  a 
history  of  Africa  and  story  of  snakes  in  these.  And  if  the 
transanimation  of  Pythagoras,  or  method  thereof  were 
true,  that  the  souls  of  men  transmigrated  into  species 
answering  their  foi'mer  natures ;  some  men  must  surely 
live  over  many  serpents,  and  cannot  escape  that  very  brood, 
whose  sire  Satan  entered.  And  though  the  objection  of 
Plato  should  take  place,  that  bodies  subjected  unto  corrup- 
tion must  fail  at  last  before  the  period  of  all  things,  and 
growing  fewer  in  number  must  leave  some  souls  apart  unto 

*  A^Tio  writ  De  antiquis  deperditis,  or  of  inventions  lost.  ! 

*  Affording,  <f;c.]  Itt  is  noe  doubte  but  that  some  casuists  have  much 
to  answere  for  that  sinn  of  curiosity,  who  by  proposing  some  qusestions 
to  the  confitents  teach  them  to  knowe  some  sinns  wherof  they  woulil 
never  have  thousrht. —  Wr. 


themselves,  the  spirits  of  many  long  before  that  time  will 
find  but  naked  habitations ;  and,  meeting  no  assimilubles 
wherein  to  re-act  their  natures,  must  certainly  anticipate 
such  natural  desolations. 

Primus  sapieniice  gradus  est,  falsa  intelligere. — Lactant. 


vol.  II. 


tr  2 



When  and  where  Eeligio  Medici  was  written — Surreptitiously  printed 
in  16i2 — Two  impressions  of  that  edition  in  the  same  year — Au- 
thorized edition  of  1643 — Observations  by  Sir  K.  Digby — Ross's  Medicus 
Mtdicatus — Annotations  on  the  obscure  Passages — Supposed  author 
of  the  Annotations — Subsequent  Editions  of  Religio  Medici — Ti'ans- 
lations  into  Latin,  Dutch,  French,  German,  &c. — Present  edition — 
Imitations  and  Works  with  a  similar  title. 

So  few  particulars  have  been  transmitted  to  us  of  the  earher 
years  of  Sir  Thomas  Browne's  life,  that  it  is  not  easy  to  deter- 
mine precisely  at  what  period  he  composed  his  Heligio  Medici, 
or  where  he  resided  at  the  time.  Dr.  Johnson  seems  to  have 
supposed  that  it  vras  written  in  London  ; — but  internal  evidence 
exists  CO  disprove  this.  Dr.  Watson,  in  his  History  of  Halifax, 
mentions  that  "he  was  said  to  have  fixed  himself,  as  a  physician, 
in  his  juvenile  years,  in  the  parish  of  Halifax,  and  to  have  written 
his  Religio  Medici,  in  1630,  at  Shipden-Hall,  near  Halifax." 
This  date,  however,  must  be  incorrect : — he  did  not  receive  his 
diploma  till  1633,  and  can  scarcely  be  said  to  have  fixed  himself 
in  any  place  as  a  physician,  three  years  before  that  event.  Besides, 
the  period  named  is  otherwise  disposed  of  in  the  accounts  we  have 
of  his  life  ; — for  some  time  after  he  took  his  degree  of  master  of 
arts  (June,  1629),  lie  is  said  to  have  resided  in  Oxfordshire,  and 
thence  to  have  proceeded  on  his  travels,  first  in  Ireland,  with  his 
father-in-law  Sir  Thomas  Dutton,  and  afterwards  on  the  conti- 
nent, till  1633,  when  he  received  his  degi'ee  of  Doctor  of  physick 
at  Leyden,  just  before  his  return.  His  residence  near  Halifax, 
then,  must  be  supposed  subsequent  to  his  return ;  and,  as  it  is 
clear  from  several  passages  in  Religio  Medici  that  it  was  written, 
also,  after  his  travels,  we  may  perhaps  safely  venture  to  assign 
the  same  period  to  both ; — and  conclude  that  he  composed  this 
celebrated  treatise,*  in  the  seclusion  of  Shipden-Hall,  as  a  relaxa- 
tion in  the  intervals  of  his  professional  occupation  in  that  neigh- 

294  editor's  preface. 

bourhood,  between  tlie  years  1633  and  1635  ; — after  his  wander- 
inj^s  had  terminated,  and  some  time  before  his  residence  at  Nor- 
wich commenced. 

There  seems  no  suflBcient  reason  to  c[uestion  the  sincerity  of 
Browne's  declaration,  that  this  piece  was  composed  for  his  private 
exercise  and  satisfaction,  and  not  intended  for  pubhcation.  Some 
years  had  elapsed  smce  its  completion — and  his  attention  very 
probably  was  aheady  occupied  in  collecting  materials  for  a  larger 
undertaking — when  the  appearance,  in  1642,  of  an  anonymous 
and  surreptitious  edition  of  his  first  work,  together  with  the 
notice  it  attracted  from  the  Earl  of  Dorset  and  Sir  Kenebn 
Digby,  determined  him  to  acknowledge  and  revise  it  for  the 
press.  Johnson,  in  his  notice  of  this  circumstance,  seems  to 
suspect  the  author  (though  he  professes  to  acquit  him)  of  having 
contrived  the  anonymous  publication  of  the  work,  in  order  to 
try  its  success  with  the  publick ;  obsei-ving  (in  allusion  to  the 
author's  complaint  that  the  "  broken  and  imperfect  copy  "  he 
had  lent  had  suffered  "  by  frequent  transcription,")  that  "  a  long 
treatise,  however,  elegant,  is  not  often  copied  by  mere  zeal  or 
curiosity."  No  one,  however,  acquainted  with  Browne's  character 
would  hesitate  to  repel  this  insinuation  : — it  cannot  for  a  moment 
be  admitted  that  he  was  capable  of  using  such  means  to  obtain 
literary  fame ; — and  certainly,  if  he  had,  he  would  not  have 
risked  his  character  on  an  edition  so  incorrect  as  to  deserve 
immediate  suppression.  In  reply  to  the  alleged  improbability 
of  transcription,  may  be  pleaded  the  fact,  that  there  is  ample 
proof  of  the  work  having  been  repeatedly  transcribed  ^oliile  in 
manuscript : — two  complete  copies  are  in  my  own  possession  ; — 
a  third  exists  in  the  Bodleian,  and  part  of  a  fourth  in  the  British 
Museum  : — none  of  them  transcripts  of  an  existing  edition.  One 
of  these  [MS.  W.),  though  so  nearly  approaching  the  edition 
of  1642,  as  to  lead  to  the  belief  that  they  had  a  common  origin, 
is  clearly  not  a  copy  from  it :  MSS.  TV.  2  and  R.  differ  from  it 
still  more  widely,  but  resemble  each  other  sufficiently  to  be  con- 
sidered as  the  descendants  of  a  second  original  manuscript :  the 
other  {MS.  L.)  is  a  fragment,  but  it  is  interesting,  both  as  pos- 
sessing a  date  three  years  earlier  than  the  spurious  edition  (1639), 
and  as  containing  some  curious  variations  from  every  other 
manuscript  and  edition.  I  am,  therefore,  perfectly  satisfied  that 
Sir  Thomas  Browne  had  several  originals  wi'itten  by  his  own 
hand,  differing  from  each  other.  This  opinion  is  confirmed, — by 
the  information  of  those  who  knew  him,  "  that  it  was  his  constant 
practice  to  make  repeated  copies  of  his  compositions," — as  well 
as  by  an  examination  of  his  remaining  manuscripts.  There  are, 
in  his  common-place  books,  many  pages  occaipied  by  passages, 
which,  with  slight  variations,  occur  in  his  printed  works — espe- 

editoe's  preface.  295 

cially  in  Hy  Iriotapliia,  Quincunx,  and  Christian  Morals, — ■ 
besides  several  of  the  Tracts  entire,  and  of  the  Brampton  Urns 
two  copies,  both  differing  from  the  printed  copy.  There  is  suf- 
ficient evidence  too,  that  he  was  very  willing  to  lend  out  his 
works,  in  manuscript ;  and  some  of  his  lesser  pieces  were  even 
composed  at  the  request  of  his  friends'  and  for  their  use.  It  is 
therefore  easily  to  be  supposed  that  one  of  those  copies  of  Eeligio 
Medici,  which  he  had  lent,  found  its  way  "  without  his  assent  or 
privacy,"  to  the  press. 

Wlien  the  work  had  thus  unexpectedly  made  its  appearance, 
it  must  have  struck  the  author  that  his  name  would  in  all  proba- 
bihty  be  speedily  connected  with  it : — at  the  same  time,  its  recep- 
tion (though  under  the  disadvantage  of  gross  inaccuracy)  was  so 
flattering,  that  he  probably  felt  little  hesitation  in  determining 
to  anticipate  discovery  by  avowal,  and  thus  secure  to  himself  the 
credit  and  advantage  of  the  work,  together  with  the  power  of 
giving  it  such  revision  as  he  wished.  In  doing  this,  it  was 
undoubtedly  his  object,  not  only  to  correct  the  clerical  and  typo- 
graphical errors  with  which  the  spurious  edition  abounded,  but 
to  modify  or  expunge  certain  passages  not  suited  to  the  temper 
of  the  times,  or  which  his  more  cautious  feelings,  or  altered 
opijiious,  made  him  wish  to  suppress  :  he  was  desirous,  also,  of 
making  such  additions  as  might  justify  his  having  called  the 
former  copy  "  broken  and  imperfect."  In  short,  he  wished  to 
supersede,  and  altogether  to  disown,  that  edition,  and  in  all 
probability  took  care  to  remove  every  trace  of  its  original ; — for 
scarcely  a  fragment  of  the  work  remains  amongst  the  Manu- 
scripts he  has  left.  But  while  the  edition  of  1643  is  to  be 
regarded  as  that  which  he  intended  for  the  public  eye — I  am 
persuaded,  from  comparing  the  alterations,  additions,  and  omis- 
sions it  exhibits,  with  the  Manuscripts  and  surreptitious  editions, 
that  these  not  only  have  an  equal  claim  to  rank  as  his  compo- 
sition, but  that  they  alone  must  be  considered  to  exhibit  the 
work  as  originally  composed  "  for  his  own  private  exercise  and 
satisfaction."  In  all  the  manviscript  copies  are  to  be  found, 
without  exception,  those  passages  of  the  surreptitious  edition 
which  have  been  omitted  in  that  of  1643,  but  not  one  of  the 
numerous  additions  nor  of  the  most  important  alterations  it  con- 
tains.— Now,  as  it  has  been  shown  that  those  manuscript  copies 
most  probably  represent  three  distinct  originals,  their  remark- 
able agreement  with  the  surreptitious  edition,  where  it  difl'ei-s 
from  the  genuine,  strongly  favours  the  opinion  that  the  latter 
was  not  printed  from  an  existing  and  more  perfect  manuscript, 
but  from  a  copy  then  first  prepared,  for  the  express  purpose  of 
publication. — The  former,  in  short,  contains  his  private  solilo- 
quies, the  latt©;  his  published  opinions. 

29G  EDITOli's   PEEFACE. 

lu  the  mean  time,  tlie  surreptitious  edition  appears  to  have 
been  rapidly  sold,  and  a  second  impression  of  it  was  printed. 
Iseitlier  of  these  lias  a  printed  title-page,  but  both  have  an 
engraved  frontispiece,  by  ]\Iarshall,  representing  a  figure,  which 
a  hand  from  the  clouds  has  caught  by  the  arm,  in  the  act  of 
falling  from  a  rock  into  the  sea  ;  the  motto  a  coelo  salus  is 
engraved  by  the  side  of  the  figure,  and  Selic/io  Meclid  below  it ; 
at  the  foot  of  the  plate.  Printed  for  Andrew  Crooke,  1642. 
Will.  JIarshaU  sou.  Both  impressions  are  in  very  small  octavo; 
the  one  has  190  pp.,  the  other  159  pp. ; — the  latter  has  a  larger 
pa<re  of  type,  but  is  much  more  accurately  and  better  printed, 
and  probably  is  the  later  of  the  two.  These  impressions  are 
extremely  rare,  especially  the  former,  of  which  my  copy  is  the 
onlv  one  I  have  seen.  In  some  of  the  following  notes,  it  is  men- 
tioned as  Ed.  1642,  IF.— the  other,  as  Ed.  1642,  C. 

"WTiethcr  the  engraved  frontispiece  had  any  other  origin  than 
the  fancy  of  Mar.shall  the  engraver,  it  is  difficult  to  say,  but  it 
seems  to  have  pleased  Browne  ;  for  it  appears  at  the  head  of  his 
first,  and  has  accompanied  every  subsequent,  edition.  The 
author's  frontispiece  however  diSers  from  the  former,  in  not 
having  Rcligio  Medici  in  the  middle  of  the  design,  nor  the 
engraver's  name ;  it  has  at  foot  the  following  words :  — 
A  true  and  full  copy  of  that  which  was  most  imperfectly  and 
surreptitiov^^ly  printed  before  under  the  name  of  Religio  Medici. 
Printed  for  Andrew  Crooke,  1643. 

In  the  same  year  appeared,  Observations  upon  Peligio  Medici, 
occasionally  tcritten  by  Sir  Kenelome  Digby,  Knight ;  printed  in 
the  same  size,  and  containing  124  pages.  A  second  edition  came 
out  in  1644 ;  the  third  was  published,  in  1659,  with  the  fifth 
edition  of  Eeligio  Medici,  to  which  work  it  has  ever  since  been 
appended,  though  written  with  reference  to  the  surreptitious 

In  1645,  that  remarkable  personage,  Alexander  Eoss,  made 
an  attack  on  both  parties,  in  his  Medicus  3fedicatus  :  or  the 
Physician's  Seligion  cured,  by  a  lenitive  or  gentle  Potion  :  with 
some  animadversions  upoti  Sir  Kenelme  Highys  Observations  on, 
Religio  Medici,  pp.  112,  very  small  8vo.  Browne's  too  great 
lenity  towards  Papists,  his  too  free  use  of  "  rhetorical  phrase " 
in  religious  subjects,  his  apparent  leaning  to  judicial  astrology 
and  other  heresies,  and  the  far  too  measured  terms  in  which  he 
questioned  certain  opinions  which  Ross  roundly  condemns, — 
foi'ni  the  general  subject  of  his  remarks ;  which,  though  often 
absurd,  and  sometimes  ludicrous,  are  by  no  means  devoid  either 
of  spirit  or  shrewdness, — though  not  remarkable,  it  must  be 
confessed,  for  candour.  In  his  animadversions  on  Sir  Kenelm, 
which  constitute  a  third  of  his  book,  he  chiefly  attacks  the 

editoe's  pbeface.  297 

metaphysieks  of  the  kniglit  and  his  Catholicism.  Some  curious 
proofs  of  Ross's  belief  in  certain  of  the  vulgar  superstitions 
of  his  day  will  he  found  in  the  notes,  at  pp.  132  and  133. 
The  work,  however,  was  not  called  into  a  second  edition ;  nor 
did  it  provoke  any  other  reply  from  Dr.  Browne,  than  a  fresh 
edition  of  his  Eeligio  Medici,  in  that  year,  1645  ;  which  differs 
from  the  first  only  in  having  the  last  figui'e  of  the  date  altered 
in  the  plate,  and  the  correspondence  with  Dighy  placed  before 
instead  of  after  the  work  : — it  has  188  pages.  It  is  the  second 
authorized  edition,  but  should  rather  be  considered  the  Fourth 

Among  the  editions  of  Eeligio  Medici  enumerated  by 
Dr.  Watt,  in  his  invaluable  work,  BlhUotheca  Bntannica,  is  one 
dated  1648 ;  but  I  have  never  been  able  to  meet  with  it,  and 
am  inchned  to  believe  that  the  work  was  not  reprinted  till  1656, 
when  the  "fourth"  edition  came  out.  This  is  the  first  with 
a  printed  title-page  in  addition  to  the  frontispiece,  which  is  re- 
touched, and  has  the  words  "  Fourth  Editio7i"  added.  But  it 
was  only  the  Third  of  the  authorized  editions,  unless  there  was 
one  between  1645  and  1656  ;  if  there  was  not,  the  surreptitious 
editions  must  have  been  included,  but  reckoned  as  one.  In  the 
present  enumeration  it  is  called 

The  Fifth  Edition  ;  is  in  very  small  8vo.,  and  the  title-page  as 
follows  : — Religio  Medici.  The  Fourth  Edition,  corrected  and 
amended,  with  Annotations,  never  hefore  published,  tipon  all  the 
obscure  passages  therein.  London,  1656  :  after  16  pp.  of  Pre- 
faces, &c.,  and  174  pp.  of  the  work,  follows  another  title-page:  — 
Annotations  upon  Religio  Medici,  Sf'c.  then,  175 — 184,  The 
Annotator  to  the  Header  :  and  the  Annotations,  pp.  185 — 208. 

There  seems  good  reason  to  suppose  that  the  Annotations 
were  written  by  a  Mr.  Thomas  Keck  of  the  Temple.  In  the 
Bodleian  there  is  a  copy  of  the  Edition  of  1643,  which  has  his 
name  on  the  cover,  together  with  this  memorandum,  "  MS. 
Notes  by  Mr.  Kech  of  the  Temple."  Brief  marginal  remarks 
are  scattered  through  the  volume,  at  many  of  those  passages  on 
which  there  are  "  Annotations,"  and  the  same  authorities  are 
referred  to.  There  is  also  in  this  volume  a  very  neat  manuscript 
title,  thus  : — Seligio  Medici.  The  Second  Edition,  corrected 
and  amended,  tvith  Annotations  never  before  published  upon  all 
the  obscure  passages  therein,  hy  T.  K.  London  :  Printed  for 
A.  CrooJce,  1654  :  this  agrees  exactly,  except  the  initials,  with 
the  title  actually  printed.  He  probably  wrote  his  Annotations 
in  the  year  1644,  using  this  very  copy ;  for  he  saj^s  in  the 
preface  (which  bears  the  same  date  as  the  manuscript  title), 
"  that  these  notes  were  collected  ten  years  ago."  There  is  also 
Btill  further  coincidence  :    Mr.  Keck   was   a  lawyer ;  and  the 

298  editor's    P.IEFACE. 

annotator,  speaking  of  his  profession,  says,  "  I  declare  myself 
tliat  I  am  causarum  actor  mediocris."  So  that,  on  the  whole, 
there  seems  sufficient  evidence  to  leave  little  reason  for  hesitation 
in  announcing  him  as  the  author  of  the  Annotations. 

The  Sixth  Edition  is  the  first  that  was  published  in  conjunc- 
tion with  the  other  works.  It  accompanied  the  Third  Edition 
of  Pseudodoxia  Epidemica,  fol.  1659,  and  is  printed  in  double 
columns.  It  contains  neither  the  Annotations,  nor  Digby's 
Observations,  nor  the  correspondence  respecting  them.  It  is 
called  in  the  title-page,  The  Last  Edition,  corrected  and  enlarged 
by  the  Aiothor  :  Printed  for  the  good  of  the  Commonwealth  : 
and  contains  34  pp.  with  title  and  preface. 

The  Seventh  Edition.  Beligio  Medici.  The  Fifth  Edition, 
corrected  and  amended.  With  Annotations,  S{c.  Also  Observa- 
tions by  Sir  Kenelml>ighy,  noto  newly  added.  London,  Printed 
by  Thomas  Milbourn  for  Andreto  CrooJc,  at  the  G-reen  Dragon 
in  Pauls  Church-yard,  1659  ; — small  8vo.  This  edition  has  a 
newly  engraved  frontispiece,  date  1660. 

The  Eighth  Edition  is  dated  1669,  and  is  called  the  Sixth. 
But  I  have  never  been  fortunate  enough  to  obtain  a  copy,  nor 
any  other  description  of  it  than  the  following  brief  note  in  the 
handwriting  of  its  proprietor,  since  dead  : — Beligio  Medici — 
Wi  Edit.  lee^.    It  is  in  small  8vo. 

The  Ninth  iildition  is  with  Pseudodoxia  Epidemica,  ^'c.  the 
Sixth  and  last  Edition,  4to.  1672;  and  is  called  The  Seventh 

The  Tenth  Edition.  Beligio  Medici.  The  Seventh  Edition, 
corrected  and  amended.  With  Annotations,  Sfc.  Also  Observa- 
tions, 4'c.  London,  1678,  small  8vo. 

The  Eleventh  Edition  is  precisely  a  reprint  of  the  Tenth — 
except  that  it  is  called  The  Eighth  Edition,  and  dated  1682. 
My  copy  wants  the  frontispiece.  This  was  probably  the  last 
edition  pubhshed  during  the  author's  life.  He  died  towards  the 
close  of  the  same  year. 

The  Twelfth  Edition  forms  part  of  the  collective  edition  of 
the  Works,  edited  by  Archbishop  Tenison,  fol.  1686.  It  is  sin- 
gular that  he  should  have  taken  so  little  pains  to  ascertain  how 
many  editions  had  actuallv  appeared,  as  to  allow  this  to  be  called 
The  Eighth  Edition.     It  is  dated  1685. 

The  Thirteenth  Edition  is  called  A  Neto  Edition,  corrected 
and  amended,  with  Notes  and  Annotations,  never  before  pub- 
lished, upon  all  the  obscure  passages  therein.  To  which  is  added, 
The  Life  of  the  Author.  Also  Sir  Kenclm  Diglys  Observations, 
London,  1736.  12mo.  It  has  a  newly  engraved  and  much  larger 
frontispiece.  This  is  the  first  edition  with  a  Table  of  Contents. 
A  new  title-page  was  in  1738  attached  to  the  unsold  copies  Oi 

SDITOr's   PltEFACE.  299 

this  edition,  in  wliich  it  is  called  the  Eleventh  Edition.  This 
title-pa<;e  has  a  table  of  contents  in  double  column. 

The  Fourteenth  Edition  was  published  in  the  same  year  as 
the  preceding,  1736,  in  8vo.,  but  without  notes.  I  have  never 
seen  it. 

The  foreign  editions  may  next  be  mentioned. — The  edition  of 

1643  was  translated  into  Latin  by  John  Merryweather,  and 
printed  at  Leyden,  in  1644,  by  Hackius,  who  published  a  second 
edition  of  it  in  1650  : — the  former  I  have  never  seen  ;  the  latter 
is  a  very  neatly  printed  volume,  in  very  small  12mo.  240  pp. 
with  engraved  title  only,  representing  the  same  figure  as  the 
English  editions,  and  at  foot,  Lugcl.  Batavorum,  apud  Fran. 
Sackium.  Ao.  1650 : — the  last  two  figures  altered.  The  trans- 
lator visited  Norwich  for  the  purpose  of  seeing  the  author,  and 
presenting  him  a  copy  of  this  second  edition, — as  will  be  seen  by 
a  reference  to  his  life. 

This  translation  was  reprinted,  at  Paris,  with  only  the  usual 
frontispiece-title,  Relifiio  3fedici.  JiLrtaExempl.Liig .  Batavorum, 

1644  : — same  size, — 178  pp. — In  this  reprint,  the  author's  and 
translator's  prefaces  are  omitted,  and  one  substituted,  in  which 
great  anxiety  is  shown,  not  only  to  vindicate  tli  3  author  from 
the  charges  of  impiety,  scepticism,  and  even  atheism,  with  which 
he  had  been  assailed,  but  to  prove,  from  several  passages  of  his 
work,  that  he  did  not  even  deserve  the  character  of  a  heretic : — 
that  he  was  a  member  of  the  Church  of  England  from  dire 
necessity  alone,  but  in  heart  a  Roman  Catholic  : — "  ad  sectam 
Anglicanam  per  vim  malignam  nativitatis  aut  fortuna  prceter 
voluntatem  advectum."  It  is  remarkable  that  the  French  verses, 
in  §  IV.  Part  2,  are  omitted,  and  a  blank  is  left  in  the  middle 
of  the  page. — Our  copy  of  this  rare  little  volume  has  been 
"  Ex  lihris  Monast.  Juliani  Twronens."  But,  notwithstanding 
the  arguments  of  the  preface,  we  find  the  fatal  epithet  "  hcere- 
ticus,"  written  at  the  foot  of  the  engraved  title. 

In  1652  appeared,  at  Strasburg,  an  edition  of  Merryweather's 
translation,  in  small  8vo.,  494  pp.,  in  which  the  text  is  abso- 
lutely buried  beneath  a  mass  of  Latin  notes,  by  a  Gorman 
named  Levinus  Nicolas  Moltkenius  (Levin  Nicol  von  Moltke). 
In  this  edition  the  Parisian  preface  is  inserted,  in  order  to  show 
that,  even  by  Roman  Catholics,  the  author  was  acquitted  of 
those  gross  errors  of  opinion  with  which  some  had  charged  him. 
The  author  rejoices  that  he  was  not  "  Ftoritanismo  addictus, 
aut  turpitudine  independentiuni  errorum  foidatus  :"  and  excuses 
his  various  speculations,  on  account  of  the  modesty  with  which 
he  advances  them.  The  edition  was  reprinted  in  1665  and 

In  1665  a  Dutch  translation  was  printed  at  Leyden,  in  very 

300  editor's  preface. 

small  12mo.,  containing-  365  pages,  and  14  of  title,  prelate,  &c. 
It  has  a  spirited  copy  of  the  usual  cut.  This  translation,  toge- 
ther with  its  notes,  was  translated  into  French,  and  published 
in  1668,  in  same  size,  without  name  of  place.  M.  du  Petit 
Thouars,  in  the  Biographie  UniverseUe,  attributes  the  French 
version  to  Nicholas  Lefebvre,  and  says  it  was  printed  at  La 
Haye.  Who  was  the  Dutch  translator  may  be  questioned. 
Several  continental  bibliographers  call  him  Johan  Griindahl ; 
but  there  occurs  a  note,  evidently  by  the  translator,  signed  J.  E. 
In  his  preface  he  mentions  having  met  Sii*  Thomas  Browne  at 
Vorburg,  at  the  house  of  a  friend,  and  having  then  been  recom- 
mended by  the  author  to  read  his  work.  Of  this  visit  to  the 
continent,  which  must  have  taken  place  during  his  residence  at 
Korwich,  we  have  no  other  intimation  than  is  conveyed  in  this 
slight  notice.  The  preface  also  promises  a  second  and  enlarged 
edition  comprising  Digby's  Observations,  which  accordingly 
made  its  appearance  at  Leyden  in  1683,  with  additional  notes, 
and  in  the  same  size,  but  containing  above  500  pages. 

In  1746  a  German  translation  of  the  Eeligio  Medici,  with  a 
Life  of  the  Author,  was  printed  at  Prenzlau.  This  may  pro- 
bably be  that  attributed,  by  Jocher,  to  George  Veuztky. 

An  Italian  translation  is  said  to  exist,  but  I  have  not  been  able 
to  ascertain  the  fact. 

Besides  these  separate  translations  of  Eeligio  Medici,  it  must 
be  supposed  to  have  been  included  in  a  Dutch  edition  of  his 
Works,  translated  by  John  Grundal  (Griindahl),  at  Amsterdam, 
1668 — and  in  a  German  edition  of  them,  by  Christian  Knorr, 
Baron  of  Eosenroth  (calling  himself  Christian  Peganius),  in  4to. 
Leips.  1680,  which  are  announced  by  some  bibhographers,  but 
neither  of  which  I  have  succeeded  in  obtaining. 

It  now  only  remains  to  sketch  the  plan  on  which  the  present 
has  been  edited.  The  text  is  that  of  1643,  compared,  and  in 
some  instances  corrected,  by  others,  especially  Abp.  Tenison's  : 
occasionally  a  reading  has  been  adopted  from  one  of  the  MSS., 
but  always  inclosed  in  brackets  and  explained  in  a  note.  The 
few  side-notes  which  occur  in  the  original,  are  placed  at  the  foot 
of  the  page,  in  long  hues  :  together  with  here  and  there  one 
from  the  margin  of  the  manuscripts.  The  variations  between 
the  manuscripts  and  the  editions  of  1642  and  1643  are  given. 
The  notes  consist  of  a  selection  from  those  of  former  editors, 
some  of  my  own,  and  a  few  supphed  by  the  kindness  of  friends  : 
to  each  is  added  an  indication  of  its  proper  author. 

As  the  Observations  by  Sir  Kenelm  Digby  have  accompanied 
all  the  former  editions  of  the  work,  since  1659.  they  are  added, 
with  the  correspondence  respecting  them.  The  reply  of  the 
author  to  Dr.  Browne  has  been  collated  with  an  original  in  the 

editoe's  preface.  301 

Bodleian,  and  some  variations  noticed.  A  valuable  corre* 
spondent,  James  Crossley,  Esq.,  of  Manchester,  has  pointed 
out  to  me  tliat  Morhof  translated  Digby's  Observations  into 
Latin,  and  illustrated  them  with  notes  :  but  never  published 

The  continental  celebrity  of  this  work  was  greatly  promoted 
by  Merryweather's  Latin  translation  of  it.  The  foreign  literati 
almost  immediately  began  their  remarks  upon  it.  Guy  Patin  is 
one  of  the  earliest :  in  a  letter  dated  Paris,  April  7th,  1645,  he 
thus  gives  his  opinion  of  it : — "  Parlons  d'autre  chose.  On  fait 
icy  grand  etat  du  livre  intitule  Religio  Medici.  Get  Auteur  a 
de  I'esprit.  II  y  a  de  gentilles  choses  dans  ce  livre.  C'est  un 
melancolique  agreable  en  ses  pensces  ;  mais  qui  a  mon  jugement 
cherche  maitre  en  fait  de  religion,  comme  beaucoup  d'autres, 
et  peut-etre  qu'enfin  il  n'en  trouvera  avicun.  II  faut  dire  de 
liry  ce  que  Philippe  de  Comines  a  dit  du  fondateur  des  Minimes, 
rSermite  de  Calabre,  FranQois  de  Paule,  II  est  encore  en  vie,  il 
peut  aussi  bien  enipirer  qu'amander.  La  plupart  des  livres  que 
vous  m'indiques  de  la  foire  de  Prancfort  ne  sont  pas  nouveaux. 
J'en  ay  plusieurs  chez  moi."' 

Several  of  the  German  critics  most  unceremoniously  (and  with 
about  as  much  sagacity  as  candour)  pronounced  the  author  an 
athe  ist.  Yet  are  there  not  wanting  German  authorities  of  an 
opposite  opinion :  "  Herman  Conringius  was  wont  to  say,  that 
he  always  read  Beligio  3Iedici  with  fresk  delight ;  and  in  respect 
to  that  imputation  of  atheism,  or  indifFerency  in  religion,  which 
had  been  circulated  with  such  industry  by  certain  superciliou.s 
critics,  he  exclaims:  'TJtinam  nemo  Medicorum,  imo  Theologo- 
rum,  illo  homine  sit  minus  religiosus!'  " — Conringiana,  p.  10. 
Frederick  Heister,  son  of  the  celebrated  Laurentius  Heister, 
thought  himself  obliged,  on  Buddeus's  publishing  his  Theses,  to 
vindicate  the  physicians  in  general,  and  our  author  in  particular, 
from  the  injurious  aspersions  cast  upon  them  in  that  work.* 

It  is  not  wonderful  to  find,  that  at  Rome  Religio  Medici  was 
placed  in  the  Index  Exjyurgatoriits,  as  a  prohibited  book  ; — for 
certainly  it  is  the  work  of  a  protestant,  though  of  one  remark- 
able for  his  charity  towards  others,  whether  papist  or  puritan  : — ■ 

•  Lettres  de  Guy  Patin,  12mo.  Frankf.  1683,  p.  12.  See  also  Bayle, 
(Euvres  Diverses,  3  vols,  fol.,  vol.  i.  p.  25  : — Father  Niceron,  Memoires, 
cfcc,  torn,  xxxiii.  p.  353  : — A  eta  Eriulitorum,  Sup.  vol.  i.  Lcips.  1 692. 

-  See,  for  example,  Reimmanni  Hift.  Atheismi,  p.  446,  448. — Tobias 
Wagner,  Exam.  Elenchtic.  Atheismi  Speeulativi,  c.  v.  p.  11. — Muller, 
Examen  Atheismi,  c.  vi.  §  34.  Reiser,  in  Dissertatione  de  Atheism/), 
p.  35.  Johan.  Franc.  Buddeus,  Theses  de  Atheismo  et  Swperstitionej 
{».  136,  or,  Traitede  I'Atheisme,  &c.  8vo.     Amst.  1740,  p.  88. 

'  Hee  hia  Apologia  pro  M edicts :  §  19.  Amstel.  1736,  bvo. 

302  editor's    PKEfACE. 

but  it  does  indeed  excite  contempt  as  well  as  indignation,  to 
know  that  a  work  whose  "  every  page  displays  the  fervour  of 
his  piety,  and  the  docility  of  his  belief,"  should  have  induced 
any  man  to  rank  its  author  among  infidels  and  atheists.  Let  it 
pass  however;  the  present  object  is  to  edit  the  work,  not  to 
offer  either  eulogy  or  criticism ;  those,  who  do  not  perceive  that 
it  contains  its  own  vindication,  are  referred  to  the  eloquent  and 
conclusive  observations  of  his  great  admirer  and  biographer, 
Dr.  Johnson. 

To  some  readers  it  may  not  be  unacceptable  to  notice  such 
works,  as  have  appeared  similar  in  title  to  Religio  Medici,  and 
in  some  instances  avowedly  imitations  of  it.  This  preface  shall 
therefore  conclude  with  the  following  list  of  them. 

The  first  to  be  noticed  is  Lord  Herbert's  treatise, 

De  Heligione  Laid,  first  published  in  1645,  at  London,  with 
the  third  edition  of  his  De  Veritate. — It  was  intended  to  show, 
that  the  people  can  never  attain  to  any  satisfaction,  as  to  the 
truth  and  certainty  of  any  particular  religion,  and  had  better 
therefore  be  content  with  that  which  his  lordship  had  marked 
out  for  them,  in  his  last-mentioned  work.     His 

De  Religione  Gejitilium  was  published  after  his  death,  in 
1663,  4to.  It  was  written  to  prove  that  his  five  leading  prin- 
ciples of  Natural  Religion  were  inscribed  by  the  Almighty,  as 
common  notices  on  the  minds  of  all  men,  and  had  been  acknow- 
ledged universally  in  all  nations,  ages,  and  religions.  It  was 
reprinted  several  times,  and  published  in  English,  in  1705. 

Religio  Jurisconsidti :  London,  1649.  —  Tliis  curious  little 
book  is  No.  453  of  the  12mo.  Tracts,  in  the  Koyal  Collection  of 
Pamphlets  in  the  Museum,  in  volume  252.  The  day  of  its  pub- 
lication is  marked  as  usual  by  the  collector's  hand,  "Nou.°  9" 
on  the  title-page.  A  2  contains  his  address  "  To  the  Eeaders." 
A  3  a  curious  dedication,  and  summary  of  subjects,  together 
with  some  Latin  mottoes.  The  work  then  follows  m  69  pages, 
with  "  Sic  cogitavit  J.  Botrie"  subscribed,  and  half  a  page  of 
"  Errata."     W.  H.  B. 

Medici  CathoUcon,  London,  1657,  12mo.  —  A  curious  little 
Book,  ■RTitten  evidently  in  imitation  of  Browne.     J.  C. 

Religio  Philosophi  Peripatetici  disciitienda,  authore  P.  F. 
Francisco  Davenporto,  vulgo,  a  Sancta  Clara.  Duaci,  Anno  1662, 
8vo.  162  pp.  beside  Indexes. — This  tract  was  written  on  occasion 
of  a  miracle  performed  by  the  Virgin  Mary  in  the  year  1640. 
A  man's  leg  had  been  amputated,  and  his  friends,  as  well  as 
himself,  were  one  morning  exceedingly  surprised  to  find  it  had 

editor's  pbeface.  303 

been  restored  to  liim,  and  that  lie  Lad  two  legs  instead  of  one. 
The  book  is  written  to  show,  that  this  could  not  have  happened 
by  natural  means,  and  that  neither  astrology,  nor  chemistry, 
nor  melancholy,  nor  witchcraft,  nor  imagination,  nor  the  Devil 
himself,  could  do  such  a  thing  as  thi&  : — ergo,  concluditui-  esse 
miraculum.  It  is  a  curious  book,  full  of  digressions,  and  odd 
stories.  J.  C. — The  author,  Christopher  Davenport,  alias  Francis 
a  S.  Clara,  alias  Francis  Hunt,  alias  Francis  of  Coventry  (for  by 
all  these  names  he  was  known),  was  descended  from  an  ancient 
Cheshire  family,  and  born  at  Coventry,  at  the  close  of  the  16th 
century.  After  spending  some  time  at  Merton  College,  Oxford,  he 
passed  into  the  communion  of  the  Church  of  Rome,  and  entered 
the  order  of  the  Franciscans  at  Ypres.  Afterwards  he  returned 
to  England,  as  a  Missionary,  and  was  made  one  of  the  Chaplains 
of  Henrietta  the  Queen  of  Charles  the  First,  During  the  protec- 
torate, M.  de  S.  Clara  absconded  ;  but  returned  after  the  resto- 
ration, and  became  theologist  to  Cathcrina  of  Portugal,  consort 
of  Charles  the  Second.  The  greater  part  of  his  works  were 
printed  at  his  own  expense,  in  2  vols.  fol.  at  Doway,  an.  1665. 

The  Reliriion  of  a  Fliysician  :  or.  Divine  Meditations  on  the 
Grand  and  Lesser  Festivals,  by  Edmund  G-ayton,  or  De  Speciosa 
Villa.     Lond.  1663.  4to.      Watt. 

Jteligio  Stoici,  with  a  friendly  addresse  to  the  Phanaticks  of 
all  Sects  and  Sorts.  Edenburgh,  1665,  very  small  8vo.  pp.  144, 
and  24  of  prefaces,  &c. — This  quaint,  but  spirited  little  work, 
•was  written  by  Sir  George  Mackenzie.  It  was  afterwards 
reprinted  amongst  his  Essays  on  several  Moral  Subjects. 
Its  object  may  best  be  described  in  the  author's  own  words. 
See  p.  141.  "  My  design,  all  alongst  this  Discourse,  butts  at  this 
one  principle,  that  Speculations  in  Religion  are  not  so  necessary, 
and  are  more  dangerous  than  sincere  practice.  It  is  in 
Keligion  as  in  Heraldry,  the  simpler  the  bearing  be,  it  is  so 
much  the  purer  and  the  ancienter."  It  was  also  published  in 
London  under  the  following  title  : 

"  The  Religious  Stoic  ;  or,  a  Short  Discourse  on  Atheism, 
Superstition,  the  World's  Creation,  Eternity,  Providence,  &c.&c. 
by  Sir  G.M.     Lond.  1685." 

Religio  Clerici,  1681,  12mo.  pp.  231,  with  a  frontispiece,  by 
Van  Hove,  of  Christ  saving  Peter  from  drowning. — The  intent 
of  this  work,  which  is  written  by  a  Clergyman,  is  to  defend  the 
estabhshed  religion  against  the  Eomanists  and  Schismatics — to 
show  "that  we  never  shall  have  peaceable  days,  as  long  as 
bulkers  and  coblcrs  are  preacliera,  and  couranters."     J.  M. 

Religio  Laici ;  or,  A  Layman's  Faith.  An  Epistle,  by  John 
Drydeu,  8vo.  Lond.  1682. — A  second  edition  was  published,  in 
1683,  which  is  very  rare.     In  the  same  year  appeared 

301  editoe's  preface. 

Beligio  Laid,  by  Charles  Blount,  Esq.,  son  of  Sir  Henry 
Blount  of  Stafibrdshire. — He  has  inscribed  it  to  his  "  much- 
honoured  friend,  John  Dryden,  Esquire,"  to  whom  he  says,  in 
the  Epistle-dedicatory,  "  I  have  endeavoured  that  my  discourse 
should  be  only  a  continuance  of  yours ;  and  that,  as  you  taught 
men  how  to  beheve,  so  I  might  instruct  them  how  to  live." 
Leland,  however,  says  that  this  work  is  "  little  more  than  a 
translation  of  Lord  Herbert's  treatise  of  the  same  name. 
The  additions  and  improvements  he  has  made  are  so  few,  and 
of  such  small  moment,  as  not  to  deserve  a  distinct  considera- 
tion." Dryden's  change  of  f^iith,  after  his  publication  o? Beligio 
Laid,  called  forth  an  attack  in  the  following  pamphlet,  in  which 
his  title  is  turned  against  him. 

Religio  Laid,  or  a  Layman's  Faith  touching  the  supreme 
and  infallible  guide  of  the  cliurcli,  by  J.  !R.,  a  convert  of 
Mr.  Bayes.  In  two  letters  to  a  friend  in  the  country.  Licensed 
June  1,  1688. — It  is  said  to  be  replete  with  the  grossest  inso- 
lence, brutality,  and  ignorance. 

Reliijio  Jurisprudentis  :  Or  the  Lawyer's  Advice  to  his  Son. 
In  Counsels,  Essays,  and  other  Miscellanies.  Calculated  chiefly 
to  prevent  the  miscarriages  of  youth,  and  for  the  ortliodox  esta- 
blishment of  their  morals  in  years  of  maturity.  Per  Philan- 
thropum.  Lond.  1685.  W.  H.  B.  —  This  is  an  anonymous 
treatise,  but  has  a  portrait  of  the  author,  with  his  coat  of  arms, 
which  are  those  of  the  Hildesley  family.  The  author  was,  as 
I  have  been  told,  Mark  Hildesley,  mentioned  in  an  epitaph 
which  is  to  be  foimd  in  Butler's  Life  of  Bishop  Hildesley. 
T.  R. 

Religio  Militis :  or  The  Moral  Duty  of  a  Soldier,  showing 
how  he  ought  to  behave  himself  towards  God,  his  King,  and 
country.  London,  1690.  W.  H.  B. — This  seems  to  have  been 
republished  in  1695,  4to.,  and  is  said  by  my  friend  Mr.  Crossley 
to  have  been  written  by  Morgan. 

The  Layman s  Religion:  humbly  offered  as  a  Help  to  a 
Modest  Enquiry  for  every  Man  into  his  own  Heart ;  both  as 
being  the  only  means  to  judge  and  save  himself,  and  the  best 
way  to  unite  us  aU  against  our  Common  Enemies.  The  Second 
Edition,  London,  1690.— 38  pp.  iu  small  4to.     W.  H.  B. 

The  Second  Part  of  the  Layman's  Religion :  as  an  Appendix 
to  the  First.  The  Second  Edition,  Loudon,  1690.—"  To  the 
Reader,"  2  pp.  and  15  pp.  besides,  small  4to.     W.  IE.  B. 

Religio  BihUopolcB,  by  Benjamin  Bridgewater,  Gent.,  1694, 
12mo. — Of  Mr. Benjamin  Bridgewater,  who  was  one  of  Dunton's 
hacks,  Dunton  thus  speaketh  in  that  strange  rhapsody,  his  Life 
and  Errors,  p.  177.  •'  He  was  of  Trinity  College,  Cambridge, 
and  M.A.   His  genius  was  very  rich,  and  ran  much  upon  poetry 

editoe's  peeface.  305 

in  which  he  excelled.  He  was  in  part  author  of  Eeligio  Eiblio- 
pol£e.  But  alas  !  wine  and  love  were  the  ruin  of  this  ingenious 
gentleman."  Dunton,  in  1704,  enlarged  and  published  the  work 
under  the  following  title  : 

Seligio  Bihliopolce :  The  New  Practice  of  Piety,  writ  in 
imitation  of  Dr.  Browne's  Religio  Medici ;  or  the  Christian 
Virtuoso,  discovering  the  right  way  to  Heaven  between  all 
Extreams.  To  which  is  added,  a  Satyr  on  the  House  of  Lords,  for 
their  throwing  out  the  Bill  against  occasional  Conformity,  1704, 
12mo.  70  pp.,  besides  Dedication  and  Preface.  —  There  are 
several  additions ; — a  long  rambling  Dedication,  and  a  preface 
and  mtroduction  and  conclusion,  all  evidently  by  Dunton,  and 
which  are  none  of  them  in  the  former,  nor  in  the  reprints  of  it, 
in  1728  and  1750,  8vo.  The  Dedication  is  to  Mr.  Locke,  author 
of  the  Essay  upon  Human  Understanding.  The  oddest  part  of 
the  story,  about  this  book,  is,  that  it  is  nothing  else  but  an 
entire  piece  of  patchwork  from  the  beginning  to  the  end.  In  a 
copy  of  mine,  I  once  took  the  pains  of  restoring  by  references 
one  half  of  the  book  to  its  proper  owners.  Whether  it  was  the 
ingenious  Mr.  Benjamin  Bridgewater,  or  the  ingenious  Mr.  John 
Dunton,  who  was  guilty  of  these  literary  larcenies,  I  know  not, 
but  certainly  a  more  extraordinary  and  flagrant  case  I  never  in 
the  course  of  my  reading  met  with.  Glanville  is  the  plaintiff  in 
several  instances,  so  is  Howell,  and  Norris,  and  Boyle.  J.  C. — 
Another  edition  appeared  in  1705,  12mo.  with  a  portrait  of 
Dunton  prefixed.  And  in  1728,  a  reprint  in  8vo.  of  the  former 
work,  first  published  in  1694,  12mo. — its  title  runs  thus  : — 
"  Religio  Tjihliopolce :  or  the  Religion  of  a  Bookseller  :  which 
is  likewise  not  improper  to  be  perused  by  those  of  any  other 
calling  or  profession.  Lond.  1728,"  8vo.  ill  pp.  besides  8  pp. 
of  title,  preface,  &c.     This  was  again  reprinted  in  1750. 

lEvangelium  Medici,  a  Bernardo  Conner,  Lond.  1697,  8vo. — 
A  work  of  very  curious  speculation ;  though  not  properly  an 
imitation  of  Religio  Medici.  The  most  extraordinary  part  is 
that  in  which  he  considers  the  resurrection,  and  how  it  is  to  be 
accomplislied  ;  he  goes  through  the  different  parts  of  the  body, 
and  decides  which  will  and  which  will  not  find  a  place  in  our 
bodies  when  gloi'ified.  He  has  gone  more  minutely  into  this 
than  Henry  More,  or  Burnet  of  the  Charter-House.     J.  C. 

The  Bdigion  of  a  Prince  ;  showing  that  the  precepts  of  the 
Holy  Scriptures  are  the  best  Maxims  of  Government,  by 
William  Nichols,  D.D.  London,  1704,  8vo. — Against  Machiavel, 
Hobbes,  &c.   Watt. 

A  Gentleman  s  Eeligion  :  in  Three  Parts. — The  first  contains 
the  Principles  of  Natural  Religion.  The  second  and  tliird  tha 
Doctrines    of    Christianity,    both    as    to   Faith   and  Practice. 

VOL.  II,  X 

306  editor's  peeface. 

With  an  Appendix,  wlierein  it  is  proved,  that  nothing  contrary 
to  oiu'  reason  can  possibly  be  the  object  of  our  belief:  but  that 
it  is  no  just  exception  against  some  of  the  doctrines  of  Chris- 
tianity, that  they  are  above  our  reason.  The  Fourth  Edition. 
London,  1710,  pp.  301. — Communicated  by  an  ingenious  and 
reverend  friend,  who  adds,  "  This  is  a  volume  of  small  pieces, 
constituting  the  5th  volume  of  A»i-chbishop  Synge's  Works, 
small  8vo."  TF.  S.  J3. — The  first  edition  was  published,  anony- 
mously, at  London,  1698,  and  the  last  edition  at  the  Clarendon 
press,  Oxford,  in  1800,  with  the  name  of  the  author,  "  The  most 
reverend  Edward  Synge,  D.D.,  Archbishop  of  Tuam." 

Seliffio  Libertini,  8vo.  1715. — By  Berridge.     J.  C. 

The  Religion  of  the  Wits  at  Button's  refuted,  &c.  In  a  dia- 
logue between  a  Politician  and  a  Divine.  Lond.  1716,  small  Svo. 
72  pp.     An  attack  on  some  of  the  infidel  Wits  of  the  day. 

Lady's  Religion  :  in  two  parts,  London,  1748,  Svo.  Watt. — 
The  same,  in  12mo.  without  date.     T.  R. 

Religio  Philosophi  :  or,  the  Principles  of  Morality  and 
Christianity  illustrated  from  a  View  of  the  Universe,  and  of 
Man's  Situation  in  it.  By  William  Hay,  Esq.  The  Fourth 
Edition,  London :  1771. — 232  pp.  besides  the  first  hiilf  sheet. 
Of  this  excellent  work,  the  author  says,  in  a  short  preface,  that 
"  his  great  end  is,  by  rectifying  men's  ideas,  and  by  removing 
vulgar  prejudices,  to  fix  religion  on  a  firm  basis."  In  the  ele- 
gant edition  of  his  Works  (2  vol.  4to.  1794),  this  Essay  occu- 
pies pp.  171 — 300  of  the  1st  vol.  I  fijid  that  the  first  edition 
was  in  1753  ;  the  second  in  1754  ;  and  the  third  may  have  been 
that  mentioned  by  Watt,  in  1760.  I  know  not  whether  the 
reprint  in  his  Works  was  the  last  or  not.     W.  H.  B. 

Religio  Laid  :  Second  Edition,  Lond.  1768,  Svo.  98  pp. — 
No  author's  name,  but  written  by  Stephen  Tempest,  Esq.,  of 
Bracewell  in  Craven,  Yorkshire.  The  very  sensible  tract  of  a 
very  sensible  country  gentleman.  Vid.  Whittaker's  History  of 
Craven,  p.  88,  who  praises  it,  but  not  more  than  it  deserves. 
J.  C. — It  obtained  a  new  title-page  in  1772,  calling  it,  "  Third 

Fragmentum  Isaaci  Hawkins  Browne,  Arm.  Sive  anti-Boling- 
brokius  ;  Liber  primus,  translated  for  a  Second  Religio  Medici, 
by  Sir  Wm.  Browne,  late  President,  now  father  of  the  College 
of  Physicians,  and  F.  E.  S.,  1768,  4to.  Fragmentum  Isaaci 
Browne  completum,  1769,4to. — Hutchinson  sLiiographiaMedica, 
1799,  vol.  i.  p.  163.     E.  H.  B. 

The  Religion  of  a  Lawyer,  a  Crazy  Tale  (in  Four  Cantos) ; 
analytical  of  the  Kentish  Story  of  Brookland  Steeple.  London, 
1786,  Svo.  80  pp. — This  poem  is  indeed — "  a  crazy  tale." 

Religio  Clerici,  a  Chui'chman's  Epistle. — The  Second  Edition, 

editor's  pheface.  307 

corrected.  London,  JoLn  Murray,  Albemarle  Street,  1818. — 
On  the  title-pao;e  of  the  Museum  copy  is  written  with  pencil, 
"  by  the  Revd.  E.  Smedley."  The  \fDrk  is  a  poem  in  reply  to 
the  question,  "  Why  are  you  a  Church  of  England  Christian  ?  " 
35  pp. 

A  Churchman  s  Second  Epistle.  By  the  Author  of  Eeligio 
Clerici.  With  Notes  and  Illustrations.  London,  1819,  85  pp. — 
A  curious  work,  in  which  there  seems  to  be  some  good  strokes 
of  satire  amongst  the  bigotry.  W.  H.  B. — "  In  the  latter  part," 
the  author  says,  "he  has  thought  it  his  duty  to  express  firmly 
though  he  hopes  not  uncharitably,  his  opinion  of  the  perils  to 
which  the  Established  Church  is  exposed  by  the  rapid  progress 
of  modern  Puritanism."  A  characteristick  specimen  of  this 
gentleman's  religion,  as  well  as  of  his  charity,  is  afibrded  by  the 
concluding  lines  of  his  poem,  where  he  desires  to  have  it  recorded 
in  his  epitaph,  that 

"  He  loved  established  modes  of  serving  God, 
Preached  from  a  pulpit  rather  than  a  tub, 
And  gave  no  guinea  to  a  Bible  Club  ! " 

Beligio  Christiani ;  a  Churchman's  Answer  to  Heligio  Clerici, 
1818,  8vo. 

Beligio  Mi  litis ;  or  Christianity  for  the  Camp. — Loud.  1827, 
18mo.  pp.  151. 

The  Beligion  of  a  Church  of  England-Man,  12mo.  T.  B. — ■ 
This  brief  notice  was  furnished,  I  believe  from  memory,  bj 
Mr.  Hodd,  of  Newport-Street,  and  was  without  date. 


Norwich,  Oct.  30,  1829. 



A.  GrELLius  {Noct.  Attic.  1.  XX.  cap.  ult.)  notes  some 
books  that  had  strange  titles ;  Pliny  {Prcefat.  Nat.  Hist.) 
speaking  of  some  such,  could  not  pass  them  over  without  a 
jeer  ;  so  strange  (saith  he)  are  the  titles  of  some  books,  JJt 
multos  ad  vadimonium  deferendum  compellant.  And  Seneca 
saith,  some  such  there  are,  Qui  patri  ohstetricem  parhirienti 
JilicB  accersenti  moram  injicere  possmt.  Of  the  same  fate 
this  present  tract  Religio  Medici  hath  partaken  :  exception 
by  some  hath  been  taken  to  it  in  respect  of  its  iuscription, 
which,  say  they,  seems  to  imply,  that  physicians  have  a 
religion  by  themselves,  which  is  more  than  theology  doth 
warrant :  but  it  is  their  inference,  and  not  the  title  that  is 
to  blame ;  for  no  more  is  meant  by  that,  or  endeavoured  to 
be  proved  in  the  book,  than  that  (contrary  to  the  opinion 
of  the  unlearned)  physicians  have  religion  as  well  as  other 

For  the  work  itself,  the  present  age  hath  produced  none 
that  hath  had  better  reception  amongst  the  learned  ;  it  hath 
been  received  and  fostered  by  almost  all,  there  having  been 
but  one  that  I  know  of  (to  verify  that  books  have  their  fate 
from  the  capacity  of  the  reader)  that  hath  had  the  face  to 
appear  against  it ;  that  is  Mr.  Alexander  Eosse  ;-  but  he  is 
dead,  and  it  is  uncomely  to  skirmish  with  his  shadow.  It 
shall  be  sufficient  to  remember  to  the  reader,  that  the  noble 
and  most  learned  knight.  Sir  Kenelm  Digby,  has  delivered 
his  opinion  of  it  in  another  sort,  wlio  though  in  some  things 
he  differ  from  the  author's  sense,  yet  hath  he  most  candidly 
and  ingenuously    allowed    it   to  be  a  "  very   learned  and 

'  Though  a  selection  only  of  Mr.  Keek's  notes  has  heen  given  in  the 
present  edition,  yet  it  has  been  thought  right  to  preserve  his  preface, 
which  has  been  referred  to  in  the  course  of  the  foregoing  introductory  ' 
observations. — Ud. 

'  In  liis  Medicus  Medicatus. 

THE    ANNOTATOE    TO    THE    EEADEE.  309 

excellent  piece  ;"  aud  I  think  no  scliolar  will  say  there  can 
be  an  approbation  more  authentick.  Since  tlie  time  he 
published  his  observations  upon  it,  one  Mr.  Jo.  Merry- 
weather,  a  Master  of  Arts  of  the  University  of  Cambridge, 
hath  deemed  it  worthy  to  be  put  into  the  universal  language, 
which  about  the  year  1644  he  performed  ;  and  that  hath 
carried  the  author's  name  not  only  into  the  Low  Countries 
and  France  (in  both  which  places  the  book  in  Latin  hath 
since  been  printed),  but  into  Italy  and  Grermany,  and  in 
Germany  it  hath  since  fallen  into  the  hands  of  a  gentleman 
of  that  nation^  (of  his  name  he  hath  given  us  no  more  than 
L.  N.  M.  E.  N.)  who  hath  written  learned  Annotations 
upon  it  in  Latin,  which  were  printed  together  with  the  book, 
at  Strasbourg,  1652.  ,  And,  for  the  general  good  opinion 
the  world  had  entertained  both  of  the  work  and  author,  this 
stranger  tells  you  :"*  "  Inter  alios  auctores  incidi  in  libruni 
cui  titulus  Religio  Medici,  jam  ante  mihi  innotuerat  lec- 
tionem  istius  libri  midtos  prseclaros  viros  delectasse,  imo 
occupasse.  Non  ignorabam  librum  in  Anglia,  Gallia,  Italia, 
Bolgio,  Germauia,  cupidissime  legi ;  constabat  mihi  eum  non 
solum  in  Anglia,  Batavia,  sed  et  Parisiis  cum  prEefatii)ne,  in 
qua  auctor  magnis  laudibus  fertur,  esse  typis  mandatum. 
Compertum  mihi  erat  multos  magnos  atque  eruditos  viros 
censere  auctorem  (quantum  ex  hoc  scripto  perspici  potest) 
sanctitate  vit«B  ac  pietate  elucere,  &c."  But  for  the  worth 
of  the  book  it  is  so  well  known  to  every  Englishman  that  is 
fit  to  read  it,  that  this  attestation  of  a  foreigner  may  seem 

The  German,  to  do  him  right,  hath  in  his  annotations 
given  a  fail'  specimen  of  his  learning,  showing  his  skill  in  the 
languages,  as  well  ancient  as  modern ;  as  also  his  acquaint- 
ance with  all  manner  of  authors,  both  sacred  and  profane, 
out  of  which  he  hath  amassed  a  world  of  quotations  :  but 
yet,  not  to  mention  that  he  hath  not  observed  some  errors  of 
the  press,  and  one  or  two  main  ones  of  the  Latin  translation, 
whereby  the  author  is  much  injured ;  it  cannot  be  denied 
but  he  hath  passed  over  many  hard  places  untouched,  that 
might  deserve  a  note;  that  he  hath  made  annotations  on 

^  That  he   was  a  German  appears  by  his  notes,  page  35,  where  ho 
tiseth  these  words,  Dulcissima  nostra  Germania,  dx, 
*  In  Prcefat.  Annotat. 

310  THE   A^*NOTATOE   TO    THE    EEADEB, 

some,  where  no  need  was  ;  in  tlie  explication  of  others  hath 
gone  besides  the  true  sense. 

And  were  he  free  from  aU  these,  yet  one  great  fault  there 
is  he  may  be  justly  charged  with,  that  is,  that  he  cannot 
manum  de  tabula  even  in  matters  the  most  obvious :  vvhich 
is  an  affectation  ill-becoming  a  scholar ;  witness  the  most 
learned  annotator,  "  Claud.  Minos.  Di\don.  in  prsefat.  com- 
mentar.  Alciat.  Emblemat.  prsefix.  prsestat  (saith  he) 
brevius  omnia  persequi,  et  leviter  attingere  quae  nemiui  esse 
ignota  suspicari  possiut,  quam  quasi  pa^^woeli',  perque  locos 
communes  identidem  expatiari." 

I  go  not  about,  by  finding  fault  with  his,  obliquely  to  com- 
mend my  own  ;  I  am  as  far  from  that,  as  'tis  possible  others 
will  be :  all  I  seek  by  this  preface,  next  to  acquainting  the 
reader  with  the  various  entertainment  of  the  book,  is,  that 
he  would  be  advertised,  that  these  notes  were  collected  ten 
years  since,'''  long  before  the  German's  were  written  ;  so  that 
I  am  no  plagiary  (as  who  peruseth  his  notes  and  mine  will 
easily  perceive),  and  in  the  second  place,  that  I  made  this 
recueil  merely  for  mine  own  entertainment,  and  not  with 
any  intention  to  evulge  it ;  truth  is  my  witness,  the  publica- 
tion proceeds  merely  from  the  importunity  of  the  bookseller 
(my  special  friend),  who,  being  acquainted  with  what  I  had 
done,  and  about  to  set  out  anotlier  edition  of  the  book,  would 
not  be  denied  these  notes  to  attex  to  it ;  'tis  he  (not  I)  that 
divulgeth  it,  and  whatever  the  success  be,  he  alone  is  con- 
cerned in  it:  I  only  say  for  myself  what  my  annotations 
bear  in  the  frontispiece. 

Nee  satis  est  vulgasse  fidem 

that  is,  that  it  was  not  enough  to  all  persons  (though  pre- 
tenders to  learniug)  that  our  physician  had  published  his 
creed,  because  he  wanted  an  exposition.     I  say  fiu'ther,  that 

the  German's  is  not  full ;  and  that  ( qicicquid  sum  ecfo 

qiiamvis  infra  Lucilli  censuni  inrfeniumq  ; )  my  expHca- 

tions  do  in  many  things  illustrate  the  text  of  my  author. 

24  Martii,  1654. 

*  Excepting  two  or  three  particulars,  in  which  reference  is  mafle  to 
some  books  that  came  over  since  that  time. 



A  Letter  sent  upon  the  information  of  animadversions  to  come  forth,  upon 
the  imperfect  and  surreptitious  copy  of  Beligio  Medici,  whilst  this  true 
one  was  going  topjress. 

HoNOUEABLE  SiB, — Grive  jour  servant,  who  hatli  ever 
honoured  you,  leave  to  take  notice  of  a  book  at  present  in 
the  press,  intituled  (as  I  am  informed)  Animadversions  upon 
a  Treatise  lately  printed  under  the  name  of  "  Eeligio  Me- 
dici;" hereof,  I  am  advertised,  you  have  descended  to  be 
the  author.  Worthy  Sir,  permit  your  servant  to  affirm  there 
is  contained  therein  nothing  that  can  deserve  the  reason  of 
your  contradictions,  much  less  the  candour  of  your  animad- 
versions ;  and  to  certify  the  truth  thereof,  that  book  (whereof 
I  do  acknowledge  myself  the  author)  was  penned  many  years 
past,  and  (what  cannot  escape  your  apprehension)  with  no 
intention  for  the  press,  or  the  least  desire  to  oblige  the  faith 
of  any  man  to  its  assertions.  But  what  hath  more  especially 
emboldened  my  pen  unto  you  at  present  is,  that  the  same 
piece,  contrived  in  my  private  study,  and  as  an  exercise  unto 
myself,  rather  than  exercitation  for  any  other,  having  past 
from  my  hand  under  a  broken  and  imperfect  copy,  by  fre- 
quent transcription  it  still  run  forward  into  corruption,  and 
after  the  addition  of  some  things,  omission  of  others,  and 
transposition  of  many,  without  my  assent  or  privacy  the 
liberty  of  these  times  committed  it  unto  the  press  ;  whence 
.t  issued  so  disguised,  the  author  without  distinction  could 


not  acknowledge  it.  Having  thus  miscarried,  within  a  few 
weeks  I  shall,  God  willing,  deliver  unto  the  press  the  true 
and  intended  original  (whereof  in  the  mean  time  your  worthy 
self  may  command  a  view),  otherwise  whenever  that  copy 
shall  be  extant,  it  will  most  clearly  appear  how  far  the  text 
hath  been  mistaken,  and  all  observations,  glosses,  or  exerci- 
tations  thereon,  will  in  a  great  part  impugn  the  printer  or 
transcriber,  rather  than  the  author.  If,  after  that,  you  shall 
esteem  it  worth  yom*  vacant  hours  to  discourse  thereon,  you 
shall  but  take  that  liberty  which  I  assume  myself,  that  is, 
freely  to  abound  in  yom'  sense,  as  I  have  done  in  my  own. 
HoM'ever  ye  shall  determine,  you  shall  sufficiently  honour  me 
in  the  vouchsafe  of  yotu*  refute,  and  I  oblige  the  whole  world 
in  the  occasion  of  your  pen. 

Tour  Servant, 
Norwich,  March  3,  1G42.  T.  B. 

"WoETHT  SlE, — Speedily  upon  the  receipt  of  your  letter 
of  the  third  ciu'rent,  I  sent  to  find  out  the  printer  that  Mr. 
Crook  (who  delivered  me  yom's)  told  me  was  printing  some- 
thing under  my  name,  concerning  your  treatise  of  Eeligio 
Medici,  and  to  forbid  him  any  further  proceeding  therein ; 
but  my  servant  could  not  meet  with  him  ;  whereupon  I  have 
left  with  Mr.  Crook  a  note  to  that  purpose,  entreating  him 
to  deliver  it  to  the  printer.  I  verily  believe  there  is  some 
mistake  in  the  information  given  you,  and  that  what  is 
printing  must  be  from  some  other  pen  than  mine  ;  for  such 
reflexions  as  I  made  upon  your  learned  and  ingenious  dis- 
course, are  so  far  from  meriting  the  press,  as  they  can  tempt 
no  body  to  a  serious  reading  of  them;  they  were  notes 
hastily  set  down,  as  I  suddenly  ran  over  your  excellent 
piece,  which  is  of  so  weighty  subjects,  and  so  strongly 
penned,  as  requireth  much  time,  and  sharp  attention,  but  to 
comprehend  it ;  whereas  what  I  writ  was  the  employment 
but  of  one  sitting;  and  there  was  not  twenty-foiu"  hours 
between  my  receiving  my  Lord  of  Dorset's  letter  that  occa- 
sioned what  I  said,  and  the  finishing  my  answer  to  him ; 
and  yet  part  of  that  time  was  taken  up  in  procuring  your 
book,  which  he  desired  me  to  read,  and  give  him  au  account 

WITH    DIGBT.  313 

of;  for  till  then  I  was  so  unhappy  as  never  to  have  heard  of 
that  worthy  discourse.  If  that  letter  ever  come  to  your 
view,  you  will  see  the  high  value  I  set  upon  your  great 
parts :  aud  if  it  should  be  thought  I  have  been  something 
too  bold  in  differing  from  your  sense,  I  hope  I  shall  easily 
obtain  pardon,  when  it  shall  be  considered,  that  his  lordship 
assigned  it  me  as  an  exercitation  to  oppose  in  it,  for  enter- 
tainment, such  passages  as  I  might  judge  capable  thereof; 
W"herein  what  liberty  I  took  is  to  be  attributed  to  the  secu- 
rity of  a  private  letter,  and  to  my  not  knowing  (nor  my 
lord's)  the  person  whom  it  concerned. 

But,  sir,  now  that  I  am  so  happy  as  to  have  that  know- 
ledge, I  dare  assiu-e  you,  that  nothing  shall  ever  issue  from 
me,  but  savouring  of  all  honour,  esteem,  and  reverence, 
both  to  yourself,  and  that  worthy  production  of  yours.  If 
I  had  the  vanity  to  give  myself  reputation  by  entering  the 
lists,  in  publick,  with  so  eminent  and  learned  a  man  as  you 
are,  yet  I  know  right  well  I  am  no  ways  able  to  do  it ;  it 
would  be  a  very  unequal  congress :  I  pretend  not  to  learn- 
ing :  those  slender  notions  I  have  are  but  disjointed  pieces 
I  have  by  chance  glerjied  up  here  and  tbere :  to  encounter 
such  a  sinewy  opposite,  or  make  animadversions  upon  so 
smart  a  piece  as  yours  is,  requireth  a  solid  stock  and  exer- 
cise in  school  learning.  My  superficial  besprinkling  will 
serve  only  for  a  private  letter,  or  a  familiar  discoiu-se  with 
lady-auditors.  With  longing  I  expect  the  coming  abroad 
of  the  true  copy  of  that  book,  wdiose  false  and  stolen  one 
hath  already  given  me  so  much  delight.  And  so,  assuring 
you  I  shall  deem  it  a  great  good  fortune  to  deserve  your 
favour  and  friendship,  I  kiss  your  hand,  and  rest, 

Tour  most  humble  Servant, 

Kenelm  Digbx. 
Winchester- House, 

March  20,  1642. 

314  ADMONITIOlf. 

"  Religio  Medici  was  more  accurately  published,  with  an  admonition 
prefixed  '  to  those  who  have  or  shall  2')eruse  the  observations  upon  a  former 
corrupt  copy  ;  '  in  which  there  is  a  severe  censure,  not  upon  Digby,  who 
was  to  be  used  with  ceremony,  but  upon  the  Observator  who  had 
usurped  his  name  ;  nor  was  this  invective  written  by  Dr.  Bkowne, 
who  was  supposed  to  be  satisfied  with  his  opponent's  apology  ;  but  by 
some  officious  friend  zealous  for  his  honour,  without  his  consent." — Dr. 
Johnso7i's  Life  of  Sir  T.  Bromie. 

To  such  as  have,  or  shall  peruse  the  Observations  upon  a  former  corrupt 
copy  of  this  book. 

Theee  are  some  men  that  Politian  speaks  of,  Cui  qitam 
recta  matins,  iamfuit  etfacilis  :  and  it  seems  the  author  to 
the  Observations  upon  this  book  would  arrogate  as  much  to 
himself,  for  they  were,  by  his  own  confession,  but  the  con- 
ceptions of  one  night ;  a  liasty  birth  ;  and  so  it  proves  :  for 
what  is  really  controllable  he  generally  omitteth,  and  what 
is  false  upon  the  eri'our  of  the  copy,  he  doth  not  always  take 
notice  of;  and  wherein  he  would  contradict,  he  mistaketh, 
or  tradueeth  the  intention,  and  (besides  a  parenthesis  some- 
times upon  the  author)  only  meddleth  with  those  points 
from  whence  he  takes  an  hint  to  deliver  his  prepared  con- 
ceptions. But  the  gi'oss  of  his  book  is  made  out  by  dis- 
courses collateral,  and  digressions  of  his  o^\ti,  not  at  all 
emergent  from  this  discourse ;  which  is  easily  perceptible 
unto  the  intelligent  reader.  Thus  much  I  thought  good  to 
let  thee  understand  without  the  author's  knowledge,  who, 
slighting  the  refute,  hath  inforcedly  published  (as  a  sufficient 
confutation)  his  own  book ;  and  in  this  I  shall  not  make  so 
bold  with  him,  at  the  observator  hath  done  with  that  noble 
knight,  whose  name  he  hath  wrongfully  prefixed,  as  I  am 
informed,  to  slight  animadversions  :  but  I  leave  him  to 
repentance,  and  thee  to  thy  satisfaction.     Farewell. 

Tours,  A.  B. 


Certainly  that  man  were  greedy  of  life,  wlio  should 
desire  to  live  when  all  the  world  were  at  an  end  ;  and  he 
must  needs  be  very  impatient,  who  would  repine  at  death  in 
the  society  of  all  things  that  suffer  under  it.  Had  not 
almost  every  man  suffered  by  the  press,  or  were  not  the 
tyranny  thereof  become  universal,  I  had  not  wanted  reason 
for  complaint :  but  in  times  wherein  I  have  Kved  to  behold 
the  highest  perversion  of  that  excellent  invention,  the  name 
of  his  Majesty  defamed,  the  honour  of  Parliament  depraved, 
the  writings  of  both  depravedly,  anticipatively,  counterfeitly, 
imprinted :  complaints  may  seem  ridiculous  in  private  per- 
sons ;  and  men  of  my  condition  may  be  as  incapable  of 
affronts,  as  hopeless  of  their  reparations.  And  truly  had 
not  the  duty  I  owe  unto  the  importunity  of  friends,  and  the 
allegiance  I  must  ever  acknowledge  unto  truth,  prevailed 
with  me ;  the  inactivity  of  my  disposition  might  have  made 
these  sufferings  continual,  and  time,  that  brings  other  things 
to  light,  should  have  satisfied  me  in  the  remedy  of  its 
oblivion.  But,  because  things  evidently  false  are  not  only 
printed,  but  many  things  of  truth  most  falsely  set  forth  ;  in 
this  latter  I  could  not  but  think  myself  engaged :  for,  though 
we  have  no  power  to  redress  the  former,  yet  in  the  other  the 
reparation  being  within  ourselves,  I  have  at  present  repre- 
sented unto  the  world  a  full  and  intended  copy  of  that  piece, 
which  was  most  imperfectly  and  surreptitiously  published 

This  I  confess,  about  seven  years  past,  with  some  others 
of  affinity  thereto,  for  my  private  exercise  and  satisfaction,  I 
liad  at  leisurable  hours  composed ;  which  being  communi- 
cated unto  one,  it  became  common  unto  many,  and  was  by 

316  TO    TUE     EEADEE. 

transcription  successively  corrupted,  until  it  arrived  in  a 
most  depraved  copy  at  the  press.  He  that  shall  peruse  that 
work,  and  shall  take  notice  of  sundry  particulars  and  per- 
sonal expressions  therein,  will  easily  discern  the  intention 
was  not  publick :  and,  being  a  private  exercise  directed  to 
myself,  what  is  delivered  therein  was  rather  a  memorial  unto 
me,  than  an  example  or  rule  unto  any  other  :  and  tlicrefore, 
if  there  be  any  singularity  therein  correspondent  unto  the 
private  conceptions  of  anj^  man,  it  doth  not  advantage  them  ; 
or  if  dissentaneous  thereunto,  it  no  way  overthrows  them. 
It  was  penned  in  such  a  place,  and  with  such  disadvantage, 
that  (I  protest),  from  the  first  setting  of  pen  unto  paper,  I 
had  not  the  assistance  of  any  good  book,  whereby  to  pro- 
mote my  invention,  or  relieve  my  memory ;  and  therefore 
there  might  be  many  real  lapses  therein,  which  others  might 
take  notice  of,  and  more  than  I  suspected  myself.  It  was 
set  down  many  years  past,  and  was  the  sense  of  my  concep- 
tions at  that  time,  not  an  immutable  law  unto  my  advancing 
judgment  at  all  times ;  and  therefore  there  might  be  many 
things  therein  plausible  unto  my  passed  apprehension,  which 
are  not  agreeable  unto  my  present  self.  There  are  many 
things  delivered  rhetorically,  many  expressions  therein 
merely  tropical,  and  as  they  best  illustrate  m}-  intention ; 
and  therefore  also  there  are  many  things  to  be  taken  in  a 
soft  and  flexible  sense,  and  not  to  be  called  unto  the  rigid 
test  of  reason.  Lastly,  all  that  is  contaiued  therein  is  in 
submission  imto  maturer  discernments ;  and,  as  I  have 
declared  [I],  shall ^  no  further  father  them  than  the  best 
and  [most]  learned^  judgements  shall  authorize  tliem  :  under 
favour  of  which  considerations,  I  have  made  its  secrecy 
pubhck,  and  committed  the  truth  thereof  to  eveiy  ingenuous 

Thomas  Browite. 

'  [/]  shall,  &c.  .  .  .  \mosi\  learned,  <£-c.]  Conjecturally  inserted,  and 
therefore  inclosed  within  brackets  ; — a  distinction  wliich  will  be  care- 
fully observed  throughout  the  present  edition,  in  the  (veiy  few) 
instances  which  may  occur  of  the  slightest  deviation  from  preceding 
editions. — Ed. 


Foe  my  religion,  though  there  be  several  circumstances 
that  might  persuade  the  world  I  have  none  at  all, — as  the 
general  scandal  of  my  profession,^ — the  natural  course  of  my 
studies,^ — the  indifferency  of  my  behaviour  and  discourse  in 
matters  of  religion  (neither  violently  defending  one,  nor 
with  that  common  ardour  and  contention  opposing  another), 
— yet,  in  despite  hereof,  I  dare  without  usurpation  assume 
the  honourable  style  of  a  Christian.  Not  that  I  merely  owe 
this  title  to  the  font,  my  education,  or  the  clime  wherein  1 
was  born,  as  being  bred  up  either  to  confirm  those  principles 
my  parents  instilled  into  my  unwary  understanding,  or  by  a 
general  consent  proceed  in  the  religion  of  my  country  ;  but 
that  having,  in  my  riper  years  and  confirmed  judgment,  seen 
and  examined  all,  I  find  myself  obliged,  by  the  principles  of 

'  scandal  of  my  ^jro/cssioH.]  Physicians  do  commonly  bear  ill  in  this 
behalf.  It  is  a  common  speech,  Ubi  tre$  medici  duo  athei.  The  reasons 
why  those  of  that  profession  (I  declare  myself  that  I  am  none, 
but  causarum  actor  mediocris,  to  use  Horace  his  phrase)  may  be  thought 
to  deserve  that  censure,  the  author  rendereth,  §  19. — K. 

*  the  natural  course  of  my  studies.~\  The  vulgar  lay  not  tne  impu- 
tation of  atheism  only  upon  physicians,  but  upon  philosophers  in 
genei'al  ;  who,  for  that  they  give  themselves  to  understand  the  opera- 
tions of  nature,  calumniate  tbeni,  as  though  they  rested  in  the  second 
causes,  without  any  respect  to  the  first.  Hereupon  it  was,  that  in  the 
tenth  age  Pope  Silvester  the  Second  passed  for  a  magician,  because  he 
understood  geometry  and  natural  ijhilosophy.  Baron.  Annal.  990.  And 
Apuleius,  long  before  him,  laboured  of  the  same  suspicion,  upon  no  better 
ground.  He  was  accused,  and  made  a  learned  apology  for  himself;  and 
in  that  hath  laid  down  what  the  ground  is  of  such  accusations.  Apul.  in 
Apoloff.  And  it  is  possible  that  those  that  look  upon  the  second  causes 
scattered,  may  rest  in  them,  and  go  no  farther,  as  my  Lord  Bacon,  in 
one  of  hirs  Essays,  observeth  :  but  our  author  tells  us  there  is  a  true 
philosophy,  from  which  no  man  becomes  an  atheist,  §  48.  -K. 


grace,  and  the  law  of  mine  own  reason,  to  embrace  no  other 
name  but  this :  neither  doth  herein  my  zeal  so  far  make  me 
forget  the  general  charity  I  owe  unto  humanity,  as  rather  to 
hate  than  pity  Turks,  Infidels,  and  (what  is  worse)  Jews  ; 
rather  contenting  myself  to  enjoy  that  happy  style,  than 
maligning  those  who  refuse  so  glorious  a  title. 

Quousque  patiere,  bone  Jesu  ! 

Judtei  te  semel,  ego  ssepius  crucifixi ; 
lUi  in  Asia,  ego  in  Britania, 

Gallia,  Germania  ; 
Bone  Jesu,  miserere  mei,  et  Judaeorum.' 

Sect.  ii. — But,  because  the  name  of  a  Christian  is  become 
too  general  to  express  our  faith, — there  being  a  geography 
of  religion'*  as  well  as  lands,  and  every  clime  not  only  dis- 
tinguished by  its  laws  and  limits,  but  circumscribed  by  its 
doctrines  and  rules  of  faith, — to  be  particular,  I  am  of  that 
reformed  new-cast  religion,  wherein  I  dislike  nothing  but 
the  name  ;  of  the  same  belief  our  Saviom*  taught,  the  apostles 
disseminated,  the  fathers  authorized,  and  the  martyrs  con- 
firmed ;  but,  by  the  sinister  ends  of  princes,  the  ambition 
and  avarice  of  prelates,^  and  the  fatal  corruption  of  times 
so  decayed,  impaired,  and  fallen  from  its  native  beauty,  that 
it  required  the  careful  and  charitable  hands  of  these  times 
to  restore  it  to  its  primitive  integrity.  jS^ow,  the  accidental 
occasion  whereupon,  the  slender  means  whereby,  the  low 
and  abject  condition  of  the  person  by  whom,  so  good  a  work 
was  set  on  foot,^  which  in  our  adversaries  beget  contempt 

3  This  verse  is  inserted  from  the  MSS.  L.  &    W.  2.— Ed. 

*  a  geography  of  religion.]  That  is,  of  Christian  religion,  which 
you  may  see  described  in  Mr.  Brerewood's  inquiries. — K. 

Pr^esertim  in  Europa  inter  Christianos  ;  vide  nuper  Amstelodami 
editum  libellum,  cujus  auctor  Bernhardus  Varenius,  De  Dirersitaf.  Gent. 
Religion.  In  Asia  tamenet  Africa  magna  etiam  religionum  diversitas  est : 
et  id  non  solum  inter  Ethnicos,— ut  sunt  Chinenses  ac  Japonenses, — 
(vide  Trigaut.  De  Exped.  Christ,  apud  Chin.  eiBernh.  Varen.  inDescrip- 
tione  Regni  Japonice,) — sed  etiam  inter  Mahumetanos,  ut  addiscimus  ex 
Leone  Africano,  lib.  viii.  cep.  25. — Af. 

^  jyrelates.]  Both  the  surreptitious  editions  (of  1642),  with  the  MSS. 
W.  <£•  R.,  read,  preshytors. — Ed. 

^  so  good  a  work  icas  set  on  foot.]  This  is  graphically  described  by 
Thuanus,  in  his  history  :  but,  because  his  words  are  too  large  for 
this  purpose,  I  shall  give  it  you  «oraewhat  more  briefly,  according  to 


and  scorn,  fill  me  with  wonder,  and  are  the  very  same 
objections  the  insolent  pagans  first  cast  at  Christ  and  his 

Sect.  hi. — Tet  I  have  not  so  shaken  hands  with^  those 

the  relation  of  the  author  of  the  history  of  the  council  of  Trent.  The 
occasion  was  the  necessity  of  Pope  Leo  the  Tenth,  who  by  his  profusion 
had  so  exhausted  the  treasure  of  the  church,  that  he  was  constrained  to 
have  recourse  to  the  publishing  of  indulgences  to  raise  monies  ;  some 
of  which  he  had  destined  to  his  own  treasury,  and  other  part  to  his 
allies,  and  particularly  to  his  sister  he  gave  all  the  money  tliat  should 
be  raised  in  Saxony  ;  and  she,  that  she  might  make  the  best  profit  of 
the  donation,  commits  it  to  one  Aremboldus,  a  bishop,  to  appoint 
treasurers  for  these  indulgencies.  Now  the  custom  was,  that,  when- 
soever these  mdulgences  were  sent  into  Saxony,  they  were  to  be 
divulged  by  the  friars  Eremites,  of  which  order  Luther  then  was  :  but 
Aremboldus  his  agents  thought  with  themselves  that  the  fi-iars  Eremites 
were  not  so  well  acquainted  with  the  trade  that,  if  the  business  should 
be  left  to  them,  they  themselves  should  either  be  able  to  give  so  good 
an  account  of  their  negotiation,  or  get  so  much  by  it,  as  they  might  do  in 
case  the  business  were  committed  to  another  order.  They  thereupon 
recommended  it  to  (and  the  business  was  undertaken  by)  the  Dominican 
friars,  who  performed  it  so  ill,  that  the  scandal  arising  both  from  thence, 
and  from  the  ill  lives  of  those  that  set  them  at  work,  stirred  up  Luther 
to  write  against  the  abuses  of  these  indulgencies  :  which  was  all  he  did 
at  first  ;  but  then,  not  long  after,  being  provoked  by  some  sermons  and 
small  discourses  that  had  been  published  against  what  he  had  written, 
he  rips  up  the  business  from  the  beginning,  and  publishes  xcv  theses 
against  it  at  Wittenburg.  Against  these,  Tekel,  a  Dominican,  writes  ; 
then  Luther  adds  an  explication  to  his.  Eckius  and  Prierius,  Domini- 
cans, thereupon  take  up  the  controversy  against  him  :  and  now  Luther 
begins  to  be  hot ;  and  because  his  adversaries  could  not  found  the  matter 
of  indulgences  upon  other  foundations  than  the  Pope's  power  and  in- 
fallibility, that  begets  a  disputation  betwixt  them  concerning  the  Pope's 
power,  which  Luther  insists  upon  as  inferior  to  that  of  a  general  council  ; 
and  so  by  degrees  became  on  to  oppose  the  popish  doctrines  of  i-emission 
of  sins,  penances,  and  purgatoi-y  ;  and  by  reason  of  Cardinal  Cajetan's 
imprudent  management  of  the  conference  he  had  with  him,  it  came  to 
pass  that  he  rejected  the  whole  body  of  popisli  doctrine.  So  that  by 
this  we  may  see  what  was  the  accidental  occasion  wherein,  the  slender 
means  whereby,  and  the  abject  condition  of  the  person  by  whom,  the 
work  of  reformation  of  religion  was  set  on  foot. — K. 

'  shaken  hands  with  .  ...  as  to  stand  in  diameter  and  .'word's  point 
with  them.]     These  words  are  i-endered  by  Mr.  Merryweather,  mernet 

adjungo ita  ut    iisdem  ex   diametro  repugnent:     wherein   he 

hath  too  much  played  the  scholar,  and  showed  himself  to  be  more 
skilful  in  foreign  and  ancient  customs  than  in  the  vernacular  practice 
and  usage  of  the  language  of  his  own  country  :  for  although  amongst 
the  Latins,  protension  of  tlia  hand  was  a  symbol  and  sign  of  peace  and 


desperate  resolutions  who  had  rather  venture  at  large  theif 
decayed  bottom,  than  bring  her  in  to  be  new-trimmed  in 
the  dock, — -who  had  rather  promiscuously  retain  all,  than 
abridge  any,  and  obstinately  be  what  they  are,  than  what 
they  have  been, — as  to  stand  in  diameter  and  sword's  point 
with  them/  We  have  reformed  from  the